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차아염소산나트륨

차아염소산나트륨
차아염소산나트륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7681-52-9
한글명:
차아염소산나트륨
동의어(한글):
하이포아염소산염;나트륨하이포클로르ITE용액,5.5%;차아염소산나트륨;차아염소산나트륨용액;차아염소산나트륨;소듐하이포클로라이트
상품명:
Sodium hypochlorite
동의어(영문):
javex;naocl;milton;purinb;clorox;deosan;chloros;chlorox;klorocin;parozone
CBNumber:
CB1705333
분자식:
ClNaO
포뮬러 무게:
74.44
MOL 파일:
7681-52-9.mol

차아염소산나트륨 속성

녹는점
-16 °C
끓는 점
111 °C
밀도
1.25 g/mL at 20 °C
증기압
17.5 mmHg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
1.3870
저장 조건
2-8°C
물리적 상태
Solution
색상
Light yellow
Specific Gravity
1.209
수용성
decomposes.
Merck
14,8628
안정성
Stable. Contact with acids releases poisonous gas ( chlorine ). Light sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, amines, ammonia, ammonium salts, reducing agents, metals, aziridine, methanol, formic acid, phenylacetonitrile.
CAS 데이터베이스
7681-52-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Hypochlorous acid, sodium salt(7681-52-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,Xi,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 31-34-36/38-36/37/38-50
안전지침서 26-36/37/39-45-50A-28A-36-61-50-28
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1791 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 NH3486300
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
HS 번호 28289000
유해 물질 데이터 7681-52-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 Skin contact with the solid hypochlorite pentahydrate or its concentrated solution can cause irritation. Ingestion may cause corrosion of mucous membranes and gastric perforation.
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H401 수생생물에 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 2 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P310 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오. 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 도움을 받으시오.
P301+P330+P331 삼켰다면 입을 씻어내시오. 토하게 하려 하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

차아염소산나트륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

성 상 이 품목은 무엷은 녹황색 액체 또는 분말로서 염소의 냄새를 가지고 있다.  

화학 반응

산소계 표백제나 산성 물질과 반응하여 맹독성인 염소 기체가 발생한다.
 

화학 반응

예를 들어 염산과 섞으면
2HCl + NaOCl → NaCl + H2O + Cl2↑
 

용도

화학적으로 굉장히 산화력이 강하기 때문에 표백작용과 살균작용이 있으며 보통 흰 의류를 표백하거나 화장실 청소할 때 주로 쓰이고 그 외에도.
 

독성

염소 가스를 흡입하게되면 호흡기 내의 수분과 염소가 반응하여 염산이 생성되며, 이는 폐와 기관지를 포함한 호흡기 전반에 큰 피해를 입힌다. 즉 염산이 폐포와 기관지, 인후두 등을 녹여버린다!! 게다가 눈의 망막까지 손상시킨다! 그래서 염소 가스는 제1차 세계 대전 중 제2차 이프르 전투에서 독일군이 독가스로 사용했다. 이에 장기간 노출되면 사망할 수 있다.
 

화학적 성질

Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is an air-unstable,pale green crystalline solid that is soluble in cold water, decomposes in hot water, and has a sweet aroma. It generally is available in one of two strengths. The household liquid bleach contains about 5.25 wt% NaCIO. The commercial product(sometimes called 15% bleach) contains 150g/L available chlorine. This is equivalent to about 13 wt% sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching agent for paper pulp and textiles, as an oxidizing reagent, as a disinfectant, as a chemical intermediate,and in medicines.
The hypochlorite ion (OCI-) is similar to wet chlorine gas in its effects on materials. Not many metals exhibit good resistance even at low temperatures and concentrations. Because hypochlorite solutions are unstable at neutral and lower pHs,they normally contain excess alkali,which modifies the aggressiveness somewhat.

화학적 성질

Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite explodes; the pentahydrate is a pale-green 870 SODIUM HYPOCHLORITEcrystalline solid; orthorhombic structure; density 1.6 g/cm3; melts at 18°C; decomposed by CO2 in the air; soluble in water, 29.3 g/100 mL at 0°C; the aqueous solution is highly stable.

역사

Sodium hypochlorite exists as an aqueous solution from 5 15% NaOCl and is commonly called bleach. Household bleach is typically a 5.25% solution, and industrial bleach is sold as a 12% solution. When sodium hypochlorite is used in this entry, it is assumed to be the aqueous solution, which is clear, slightly yellow, corrosive, and has a distinctive chlorine smell. Chorine gas was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 1786) in 1774 and known initially as depholgisticated salt spirit. In 1787, the French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet (1749 1822) experimented with aqueous solution of chlorine gas as bleaching agents. Based on Berthollet's work, the Javel Company located on the outskirts of Paris began to produce bleaches in 1788. Chlorine gas was dissolved in a solution of soda potash (potassium carbonate) to obtain a product called liqueur de Javel, which was potassium hypochlorite. Potash treated with chlorine gas was also used to produce bleaching powders. In 1820, Antoine Germaine Labarraque (1777 1850), an apothecary, substituted cheaper soda ash (sodium carbonate) for potash to produce Eau de Labarraque or Labarraque solution, which was sodium hypochlorite. Eau de Labarraque was used as a disinfectant and to bleach paper. Bleaching powders, borax, lye, and blueing were used as bleaches throughout the 19th century.
Sodium hypochlorite is the primary hypochlorite used as a bleach and disinfectant, accounting for 83% of world hypochlorite use, with calcium hypochlorite accounting for the remaining 17%. Approximately 1 million tons of sodium hypochlorite was used globally in 2005, with about half this amount used in households for laundry bleaching and disinfection. The other half was used primarily for wastewater and drinking water treatment; other uses include pool sanitation, bleaching of pulp, paper, and textiles, and as an industrial chemical.

용도

NaOCl is a strong oxidizer used in swimming pools, and when diluted to 5.25%, it is known as the laundry bleach Clorox.

용도

Aq solution as bleach, disinfectant; chlorination of swimming pools; sanitation of drinking water.

용도

Sodium hypochlorite is marketed only as an aqueous solution because the anhydrous solid is highly unstable and can explode. The solid pentahydrate also is unstable in air, decomposed by reaction with carbon dioxide from air. Aqueous solutions are very stable. They are used for bleaching textiles and paper pulp; in cleaning solutions; in water purification; as a disinfectant for swimming pools; and as a germicide and topical antiinfective. The hypochlorite also is used as an oxidizing agent in many preparative reactions. It is an ingredient of commercial bleaching products such as Clorox and Dazzle.

제조 방법

Sodium hypochlorite solution is obtained by passing chlorine into sodium hydroxide solution. The pentahydrate is obtained by crystallization.

정의

ChEBI: An inorganic sodium salt in which hypochlorite is the counterion.

일반 설명

Green to yellow watery liquid with an odor of bleaching liquid odor. Sinks and mixes with water.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble. Decomposes into chlorine and oxygen gases in hot water.

반응 프로필

Salts of hypochlorous acid, HClO. Generally toxic, irritants and powerful oxidizers, particularly in the presence of water at higher temperature as they decompose to release oxygen and chlorine gases. On contact with urea they form the highly explosive NCl3 . When heated or on contact with acids, they produce highly toxic fumes of chlorine gas [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 1905]. Can react with sulfuric acid to produce heat and chlorine gas.

위험도

Fire risk in contact with organic materials. Toxic by ingestion, strong irritant to tissue.

건강위험

Liquid can be irritating to skin and eyes if contact is maintained.

화재위험

Behavior in Fire: May decompose, generating irritating chlorine gas.

부작용

Sodium hypochlorite, commonly known as bleach, may be used as a disinfectant solution. It is a strong irritant; however, isolated reports of CoU to sodium hypochlorite exist. The mechanism for the Cou is uncertain.
Hostynek et al. describe a 36-year-old woman who developed an intensely pruritic maculopapular rash to a hypochlorite-containing cleaning product that she spilled on her leg. The rash progressed to involve her trunk and extremities and was associated with teary eyes, dyspnea, and facial edema. There was a history of a previous sensitizing event, and open testing to 1% sodium hypochlorite produced an immediate urticarial reaction. The authors suggest that this could be due to an immunological mechanism given the generalized symptoms; however, no confirmatory testing was performed and the potential of sodium hypochlorite to cause nonimmunologic Cou was evident with four of 10 controls experiencing a wheal-and-flare reaction to open application of 6% sodium hypochlorite.
Caliskan et al. described a 32-year-old female who developed severe lip edema and breathing difficulty after using a sodium hypochlorite irrigation during endodontic treatment. A scratch test to sodium hypochlorite resulted in immediate erythema and edema that began to extend up the patient’s arm. She also had a history of breathing difficulties and had developed dermatitis from her hands to elbows with the use of household cleaning agents.
Neering reported on a patient who had experienced intermittent Cou to chlorinated pools and contact with a cleansing agent containing sodium hypochlorite. A scratch test to chlorinated water was strongly positive in this patient, but negative in five controls, and closed patch testing to sodium hypochlorite was strongly positive at three hours.

Safety Profile

Mddly toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects by ingestion: somnolence, blood pressure lowering, corrosive to skin, nausea or vomiting. Human mutation data reported. An eye irritant. Corrosive and irritating by ingestion and inhalation. The anhydrous salt is highly explosive and sensitive to heat or friction. Explosive reaction with formic acid (at So), phenylacetonitrile. Reacts to form explosive products with amines, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, (NH4)2CO3, ammonium nitrate, ammonium oxalate, (NH4)3P04), aziridme, methanol. Violent reaction with phenyl acetonitrile, cellulose, ethyleneimine. Solutions in water are storage hazards due to oxygen evolution. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NaaO and Cl-. Used as a bleach.

차아염소산나트륨 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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