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수산화칼륨

수산화칼륨
수산화칼륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
1310-58-3
한글명:
수산화칼륨
동의어(한글):
가성알칼리;칼륨수산화물,건조고체,플레이크,용구OR과립상;1N(1M)수산화칼륨;N/10(0.1M)수산화칼륨(에탄올);N/10(0.1N)수산화칼륨;N/2(0.5M)수산화칼륨;가성칼리;수산화칼륨;수산화칼륨30%;수산화칼륨45%;칼륨수화물;포타싸;수산화칼륨;포타슘하이드록사이드
상품명:
Potassium hydroxide
동의어(영문):
KOH;LYE;KHO;POTASH;Potassa;Potassio;POTASH LYE;KOH/CH63857;Causicpotash;potassium lye
CBNumber:
CB3107908
분자식:
KOH
포뮬러 무게:
56.11
MOL 파일:
1310-58-3.mol

수산화칼륨 속성

녹는점
361 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
1320°C
밀도
1.450 g/mL at 20 °C
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 719 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.421
인화점
52 °F
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
powder
색상
white
Specific Gravity
1.09
냄새
Odorless
수소이온지수(pH)
14 (56g/l, H2O, 20℃)
폭발한계
3.5-15.0%(V) (ethanol)
수용성
soluble
감도
Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Merck
14,7640
노출 한도
Ceiling in air 2 mg/m3 (ACGIH).
안정성
Stable, but very hygroscopic. Dissolves exothermically in water. Incompatible with most metals, strong acids, acid chlorides, organic materials, zinc, aluminium, nitroalkanes, nitrobenzene, chlorine dioxide. Reacts vigorously with a wide variety of other materials. Readily absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air.
InChIKey
KWYUFKZDYYNOTN-UHFFFAOYSA-M
CAS 데이터베이스
1310-58-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Potassium hydroxide(1310-58-3)
EPA
Potassium hydroxide (K(OH))(1310-58-3)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,F,T,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 34-35-22-11-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-36/38-36/37-67-52/53
안전지침서 7-16-36/37-45-36/37/39-26-61
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2924 3/PG 2
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 TT2100000
F 고인화성물질 3
자연 발화 온도 425 °C (ethanol)
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 28259090
유해 물질 데이터 1310-58-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 1.23 g/kg (Smyth)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H311 피부와 접촉하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 3 위험 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P321 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P301+P330+P331 삼켰다면 입을 씻어내시오. 토하게 하려 하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P332+P313 피부 자극이 생기면 의학적인 조치· 조언을 구하시오.
P337+P313 눈에 대한 자극이 지속되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

수산화칼륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

• 백색 편상의 고체; • 강알칼리성으로 부식성이 있슴; • 피부 노출 시 서서히 침투하여 심각한 장애 유발.

개요

수산화 이온(OH-)을 지녀 물에 녹이면 염기성을 띤다. 흰색 고체로 조해성이 강해서 그냥 공기중에 두면 스스로 녹아 꾸덕꾸덕 해진다. 염화칼륨을 전기 분해해서 얻을 수 있다. 플러스 극에 흑연을 마이너스 극에 철을 이용하는 격막법과, 플러스 극에 흑연을 마이너스 극에 수은을 사용하는 수은법이 있다. 식물을 태운 재에 많이 들어 있어 여기서 칼륨의 이름이 유래되었다.

용도

이산화탄소를 흡수하면 탄산칼륨이 된다. 조해성과 더불어 수산화칼륨의 성상을 바꿔버리는 요소기 때문에 수산화칼륨은 보관에 주의를 기울인다. 발열반응을 보이며 물에 녹는다. 물론 이 특성을 이용해 이산화탄소 흡수제로 사용할 수 있다.

용도

각종칼륨화합물, 칼륨유리의 원료, 비누, 염료, 의약품, 분석시약, 알칼리전지, 텔레프탈산(폴리에스테르 섬유의 원료), 표백제, 제설제, 환자용식품, LCD/Wafer 세정제 및 에칭용, ABS/SBR 등 합성수지 중합 반응제, 농약, 콘크리트 혼화제 등

화학적 성질

White, deliquescent pieces, lumps, sticks, pellets, or flakes having a crystalline fracture. Keep well stoppered, absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air. Soluble in water, alcohol, glycerol; slightly soluble in ether.

화학적 성질

Potassium hydroxide is a white deliquescent solid.

화학적 성질

Potassium hydroxide occurs as a white or nearly white fused mass. It is available in small pellets, flakes, sticks and other shapes or forms. It is hard and brittle and shows a crystalline fracture. Potassium hydroxide is hygroscopic and deliquescent; on exposure to air, it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide and water with the formation of potassium carbonate.

용도

Potassium Hydroxide is a water-soluble food additive and bleaching agent. upon exposure to air it readily absorbs carbon dioxide and moisture and deliquesces. it is used to destroy the bitter chemical constituents in olives that will be used as black olives.

용도

Potassium hydroxide is used in making liquidsoap and potassium salts, in electroplatingand lithography, in printing inks, as a mordantfor wood, and finds wide applicationsin organic syntheses and chemical analyses.

용도

potassium hydroxide is used as an emulsifier in lotions and as an alkali in liquid soaps, protective creams, and shaving preparations. Depending on the concentration used, it can be highly irritating to the skin and/or cause a burning sensation.

용도

Pharmaceutic aid (alkalizing agent).

생산 방법

Potassium hydroxide is made by the electrolysis of potassium chloride. Commercial grades may contain chlorides as well as other impurities.

일반 설명

A white solid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in soap manufacture, bleach, as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries, and as a food additive.

공기와 물의 반응

Hydrolysis generates enough heat to ignite adjacent combustible material [Haz. Chem. Data 1966]. Dissolves in water (with liberation of heat, may steam and spatter. Solution is basic (alkaline). Deliquescent

반응 프로필

POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE absorbs moisture readily forming caustic solution that attacks aluminum and zinc. A piece of potassium hydroxide causes liquid chlorine dioxide to explode [Mellor 2:289. 1946-47]. 1,2-dichloroethylene and potassium hydroxide forms chloroacetylene, which is explosive and spontaneously flammable in air. Potassium hydroxide is highly toxic [Rutledge 1968. p. 134]. A reaction between n-nitrosomethylurea and potassium hydroxide in n-butyl ether resulted in an explosion due to the formation of diazomethane [Schwab 1972]. Potassium persulfate and a little potassium hydroxide and water ignited a polythene (polyethylene) liner of a container by release of heat and oxygen [MCA Case History 1155. 1955]. Using potassium hydroxide to dry impure tetrahydrofuran, which contains peroxides, may be hazardous. Explosions have occurred in the past. Sodium hydroxide behaves in a similar way as potassium hydroxide [NSC Newsletter Chem. Soc. 1967]. A strong base. Forms caustic solution in water. [Merck 11th ed. 1989].

위험도

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong caustic, handle with gloves or tongs, corrosive to tissue. Eye, skin and upper respiratory tract irritant.

건강위험

Causes severe burns of eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
Potassium hydroxide is a strongly alkaline, hydrophilic substance and therefore solid potassium hydroxide is highly corrosive. It reacts with fat and can cause irreversible damage to any site of contact with the body (for example skin or eyes). Solutions of potassium hydroxide in water at concentrations above 0.5% (w/w) are irritating at points of contact and, at higher concentrations, the solutions can be corrosive. Potassium hydroxide does not cause skin allergies. Because of the corrosive properties of potassium hydroxide, its ingestion can be fatal. Under normal conditions of handling and use, potassium hydroxide in solution will dissociate into its constituent ions and, if ingested, will not be systemically available in the body as such.

건강위험

Potassium hydroxide is extremely corrosiveto tissues. Its corrosive action is greater thanthat of sodium hydroxide. It gelatinizes tissuesto form soluble compounds that maycause deep and painful lesions (ACGIH1986). Contact with the eyes can damagevision. Ingestion can cause severe pain in thethroat, vomiting, and collapse.
LD50 value, oral (rats): 365 mg/kg
Exposure to its dusts can cause irritationof the nose and throat.

화재위험

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

인화성 및 폭발성

Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are not flammable as solids or aqueous solutions.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Potassium hydroxide is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations to adjust the pH of solutions. It can also be used to react with weak acids to form salts.
Therapeutically, potassium hydroxide is used in various dermatological applications.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion. An eye irritant and severe human skin irritant. Very corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Mutation data reported. Ingestion may cause violent pain in throat and epigastrium, hematemesis, collapse. Stricture of esophagus may result if substance is not immedately fatal. Above 84' it reacts with reducing sugars to form poisonous carbon monoxide gas. Violent, exothermic reaction with water. Potentially explosive reaction with bromoform + crown ethers, chlorine dioxide, nitrobenzene, nitromethane, nitrogen trichloride, peroxidized tetrahydrofuran, 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene. Reaction with ammonium hexachloroplatinate(2-) + heat forms a heat- sensitive explosive product. Violent reaction or ignition under the appropriate condtions with acids, alcohols, p-bis(l,3- dbromoethyl)benzene, cyclopentadene, germanium, hyponitrous acid, maleic anhydride, nitroalkanes, 2-nitrophenol, potassium peroxodisulfate, sugars, 2,2,3,3- tetrafluoropropanol, thorium dicarbide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of K2O. See also SODIUM HYDROXIDE.

Safety

Potassium hydroxide is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries and is generally regarded as a nontoxic material at low concentrations. At high concentrations it is a corrosive irritant to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.
(rat, oral): 0.273 g/kg

잠재적 노출

KOH is generally used as an alkali and in the manufacture of other potassium compounds.

응급 처치

Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respira- tion with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one- way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24?48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.

저장

splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times when handling these substances to prevent eye and skin contact. Operations with metal hydroxide solutions that have the potential to create aerosols should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation. NaOH and KOH generate considerable heat when dissolved in water; when mixing with water, always add caustics slowly to the water and stir continuously. Never add water in limited quantities to solid hydroxides. Containers of hydroxides should be stored in a cool, dry location, separated from acids and incompatible substances.

저장

Potassium hydroxide should be stored in an airtight, nonmetallic container in a cool, dry place.

운송 방법

UN1814 (solution) & UN1813 (solid); Potassium hydroxide, solid or solution, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Its carbonate content can be reduced by rinsing KOH sticks rapidly with water prior to dissolving them in boiled out distilled water. Alternatively, a slight excess of saturated BaCl2 or Ba(OH)2 can be added to the solution which, after shaking well, is set aside so that the BaCO3 is allowed to separate out. Davies and Nancollas [Nature 165 237 1950] rendered KOH solutions carbonate free by ion exchange using a column of Amberlite IR-100 in the OH-form.

비 호환성

A strong base. Violent reaction with acids, alcohols, water, metals (when wet), halogenated hydrocarbons; maleic anhydride. Heat is generated if KOH comes in contact with water and carbon dioxide from the air. Corrosive to zinc, aluminum, tin and lead in the presence of moisture releasing combustible/explosive hydrogen gas. Can absorb water from air and give off sufficient heat to ignite surrounding combustible materials.

비 호환성

Potassium hydroxide is a strong base and is incompatible with any compound that readily undergoes hydrolysis or oxidation. It should not be stored in glass or aluminum containers, and will react with acids, esters, and ethers, especially in aqueous solution.

폐기물 처리

Dilute with large volume of water, neutralize and flush to sewer

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use in Europe in certain food applications. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (injections, infusions, and oral capsules and solutions). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

수산화칼륨 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


수산화칼륨 공급 업체

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