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페니토인

페니토인
페니토인 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
57-41-0
한글명:
페니토인
동의어(한글):
페니토인
상품명:
5,5-Diphenylhydantoin
동의어(영문):
Ekko;LATH;base;Eptal;Hidan;Denyl;Convul;Danten;Epamin;Epised
CBNumber:
CB3139264
분자식:
C15H12N2O2
포뮬러 무게:
252.27
MOL 파일:
57-41-0.mol

페니토인 속성

녹는점
293-295 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
395.45°C (rough estimate)
밀도
1.1562 (rough estimate)
굴절률
1.5906 (estimate)
인화점
11 °C
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
DMSO: soluble
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 8.43(H2O,t =25,I=0.025) (Uncertain)
Density
1.26 g/cm3
Melting Point
286 °C
물리적 상태
Powder
색상
White to almost white
수용성
<0.01 g/100 mL at 19 ºC
Merck
14,7322
BRN
384532
안정성
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.
InChIKey
CXOFVDLJLONNDW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
57-41-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
5,5-Diphenylhydantoin(57-41-0)
EPA
2,4-Imidazolidinedione, 5,5-diphenyl-(57-41-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,Xn,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 45-61-22-63-40-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-20/21/22
안전지침서 53-45-36/37-16-7
유엔번호(UN No.) 2811
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 MU1050000
자연 발화 온도 550 °C
위험 등급 6.1(b)
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29332100
유해 물질 데이터 57-41-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 92 i.v.; 110 s.c. (Stille, Brunckow)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H340 유전적인 결함을 일으킬 수 있음 (노출되어도 생식세포 유전독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 생식세포 변이원성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H350 암을 일으킬 수 있음 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H360 태아 또는 생식능력에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 생식독성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P202 모든 안전 조치 문구를 읽고 이해하기 전에는 취급하지 마시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P270 이 제품을 사용할 때에는 먹거나, 마시거나 흡연하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P307+P311 노출된 경우,독성 물질 센터 또는 의사에게 전화하기
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

페니토인 MSDS


5,5-Diphenyl-2,4-imidazolidinedione

페니토인 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

white crystals or powder

화학적 성질

Phenytoin is a crystalline compound

용도

Reduces incidence of grand mal seizures; appears to stabilize excitable membranes perhaps through effects on Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels.

용도

A sodium channel protein inhibitor

정의

ChEBI: A imidazolidine-2,4-dione that consists of hydantoin bearing two phenyl substituents at position 5.

상표명

Anticonvulsant. Dilantin (Pfizer) [Name previously used: Diphenylhydantoin.].

Biological Functions

Phenytoin is a valuable agent for the treatment of generalized tonic–clonic seizures and for the treatment of partial seizures with complex symptoms. The establishment of phenytoin (at that time known as diphenylhydantoin) in 1938 as an effective treatment for epilepsy was more than simply the introduction of another drug for treatment of seizure disorders. Until that time the only drugs that had any beneficial effects in epilepsy were the bromides and barbiturates, both classes of compounds having marked CNS depressant properties. The prevailing view among neurologists of that era was that epilepsy was the result of excessive electrical activity in the brain and it therefore seemed perfectly reasonable that CNS depressants would be effective in antagonizing the seizures. Consequently,many patients received high doses of barbiturates and spent much of their time sedated. Also, since CNS depression was considered to be the mechanism of action of AEDs, the pharmaceutical firms were evaluating only compounds with profound CNS depressant properties as potential antiepileptic agents. It was, therefore, revolutionary when phenytoin was shown to be as effective as phenobarbital in the treatment of epilepsy without any significant CNS depressant activity. This revolutionized the search for new anticonvulsant drugs as well as immediately improving the day-to-day functioning of epileptic patients.
An understanding of absorption, binding, metabolism, and excretion is more important for phenytoin than it is for most drugs. Following oral administration, phenytoin absorption is slow but usually complete, and it occurs primarily in the duodenum. Phenytoin is highly bound (about 90%) to plasma proteins, primarily plasma albumin. Since several other substances can also bind to albumin, phenytoin administration can displace (and be displaced by) such agents as thyroxine, triiodothyronine, valproic acid, sulfafurazole, and salicylic acid.

일반 설명

Fine white or almost white crystalline powder. Odorless or almost odorless. Tasteless.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

5,5-Diphenylhydantoin is an amide. Amides/imides react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed by the reaction of organic amides/imides with strong reducing agents. Amides are very weak bases (weaker than water). Imides are less basic yet and in fact react with strong bases to form salts. That is, they can react as acids. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates the corresponding nitrile. The combustion of these compounds generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx). 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin is incompatible with strong oxidizers and strong bases.

화재위험

Flash point data for 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin are not available; however, 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin is probably combustible.

Clinical Use

Phenytoin (Dilantin) was originally introduced for the control of convulsive disorders but has now also been shown to be effective in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Phenytoin appears to be particularly effective in treating ventricular arrhythmias in children.
Phenytoin, like lidocaine, is more effective in the treatment of ventricular than supraventricular arrhythmias. It is particularly effective in treating ventricular arrhythmias associated with digitalis toxicity, acute myocardial infarction, open-heart surgery, anesthesia, cardiac catheterization, cardioversion, and angiographic studies.
Phenytoin finds its most effective use in the treatment of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias associated with digitalis intoxication. The ability of phenytoin to improve digitalis-induced depression of A-V conduction is a special feature that contrasts with the actions of other antiarrhythmic agents.

Clinical Use

Phenytoin is one of very few drugs that displays zero-order (or saturation) kinetics in its metabolism.At low blood levels the rate of phenytoin metabolism is proportional to the drug’s blood 1evels (i.e., first-order kinetics). However, at the higher blood levels usually required to control seizures, the maximum capacity of drug-metabolizing enzymes is often exceeded (i.e., the enzyme is saturated), and further increases in the dose of phenytoin may lead to a disproportionate increase in the drug’s blood concentration. Since the plasma levels continue to increase in such a situation, steady-state levels are not attained, and toxicity may ensue. Calculation of half-life (t1/2) values for phenytoin often is meaningless, since the apparent half-life varies with the drug blood level.
Acute adverse effects seen after phenytoin administration usually result from overdosage. They are generally characterized by nystagmus, ataxia, vertigo, and diplopia (cerebellovestibular dysfunction). Higher doses lead to altered levels of consciousness and cognitive changes.
A variety of idiosyncratic reactions may be seen shortly after therapy has begun. Skin rashes, usually morbilliform in character, are most common. Exfoliative dermatitis or toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyellís syndrome) has been observed but is infrequent. Other rashes occasionally have been reported, as have a variety of blood dyscrasias and hepatic necrosis.

부작용

The most common side effect in children receiving long-term therapy is gingival hyperplasia, or overgrowth of the gums (occurs in up to 50% of patients). Although the condition is not serious, it is a cosmetic problem and can be very embarrassing to the patient. Hirsutism also is an annoying side effect of phenytoin, particularly in young females. Thickening of subcutaneous tissue, coarsening of facial features, and enlargement of lips and nose (hydantoin facies) are often seen in patients receiving long-term phenytoin therapy. Peripheral neuropathy and chronic cerebellar degeneration have been reported, but they are rare.
There is evidence that phenytoin is teratogenic in humans, but the mechanism is not clear. However, it is known that phenytoin can produce a folate deficiency, and folate deficiency is associated with teratogenesis. Only a few well-documented drug combinations with phenytoin may necessitate dosage adjustment. Coadministration of the following drugs can result in elevations of plasma phenytoin levels in most patients: cimetidine, chloramphenicol, disulfiram, sulthiame, and isoniazid (in slow acetylators). Phenytoin often causes a decline in plasma carbamazepine levels if these two drugs are given concomitantly.
Ethotoin and mephenytoin are congeners of phenytoin that are marketed as AEDs in the United States. They are not widely used.

부작용

The rapid IV administration of phenytoin can present a hazard. Respiratory arrest, arrhythmias, and hypotension have been reported.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen producing lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, tumors of the skin and appendages. Experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. A human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by an unspecified route. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by ingestion: dermatitis, change in motor activity (specific assay), ataxia (loss of muscle coordmation), degenerative brain changes, encephalitis, hallucinations, dtstorted perceptions, irritabihty, and jaundice. Human teratogenic effects by ingestion: developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system, carlovascular (circulatory) system, musculoskeletal system, craniofacial area, skin and skin appendages, eye, ear, other developmental abnormalities. Effects on newborn include abnormal growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain), physical abnormakties, other postnatal measures or effects, and delayed effects. Human mutation data reported. A drug for the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor seizures. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx

잠재적 노출

Phenytoin is an amide pharmaceutical used in the treatment of grand mal epilepsy, Parkinson’s syndrome; and in veterinary medicine. Human exposure to phenytoin occurs principally during its use as a drug. Figures on the number of patients using phenytoin are not available, but phenytoin is given to a major segment of those individuals with epilepsy. The oral dose rate is initially 100 mg given 3 times per day and can gradually increase by 100 mg every 24 weeks until the desired therapeutic response is obtained. The intravenous dose is 200350 mg/day.

Drug interactions

Plasma phenytoin concentrations are increased in the presence of chloramphenicol, disulfiram, and isoniazid, since the latter drugs inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin. A reduction in phenytoin dose can alleviate the consequences of these drug–drug interactions.

Carcinogenicity

Phenytoin and its sodium salt are reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals.

운송 방법

UN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required. UN3249 Medicine, solid, toxic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

Purification Methods

Crystallise the hydantoin from EtOH. [Beilstein 24 III/IV 1748.]

비 호환성

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Similar organic amides react with azo and diazo compounds, releasing toxic gases. Contact with reducing agents can release flammable gases. Amides are very weak bases but they can react as acids, forming salts. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as phosphorus pentoxide or thionyl chloride generates the corresponding nitrile.

주의 사항

Phenytoin either should not be used or should be used cautiously in patients with hypotension, severe bradycardia, high-grade A-V block, severe heart failure, or hypersensitivity to the drug.
Because of the increase in A-V transmission observed with phenytoin administration, it should not be given to patients with atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation. Phenytoin will probably not restore normal sinus rhythm and may dangerously accelerate the ventricular rate.

법규

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
Any orally administered prescription drug for human use requires child-resistant packaging.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act
Toxics Release Inventory: Listed substance subject to reporting requirements.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Phenytoin is a prescription drug subject to labeling and other requirements.

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