ChemicalBook
Chinese English Japanese Germany Korea

주석

주석
주석 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-31-5
한글명:
주석
동의어(한글):
금속주석;주석;주석분말;주석원소;주석플레이크;주석분
상품명:
TIN
동의어(영문):
TIN;wang;Zinn;50Sn;W-Sn;G-Sn;AT-SN;FSn 2;Stanum;Estano
CBNumber:
CB3190047
분자식:
Sn
포뮬러 무게:
118.71
MOL 파일:
7440-31-5.mol

주석 속성

녹는점
231.9 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
2270 °C(lit.)
밀도
7.3
인화점
2270°C
용해도
H2O: soluble
물리적 상태
wire
색상
Silvery-gray
Specific Gravity
7.31
비저항
11 μΩ-cm, 20°C
수용성
reacts slowly with cold dilute HCl, dilute HNO3, hot dilute H2SO4; readily with conc HCl, aqua regia [MER06]
Merck
13,9523
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Highly flammable as a powder. Can, in powder form, lead to dust explosions. Moisture sensitive.
InChIKey
OLGIDLDDXHSYFE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-31-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,F,C
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38-36/37-11-36/38-34-20/21/22
안전지침서 26-24/25-22-36/37/39-33-16-36/37-45
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3264 8/PG 2
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 XP7320000
F 고인화성물질 10
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 4.1
포장분류 III
HS 번호 80070080
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H228 인화성 고체 인화성 고체 구분 1
구분 2
위험
경고
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.

주석 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

탄소족에 속하는 전이후 금속의 하나로 은백색의 고체 금속이다. 연성과 전성이 크고 쉽게 산화되지 않으며 부식에 대한 저항성이 있어 녹슬지 않는다.

화학적 성질

silver-white to grey powder or lump

화학적 성질

Tin is a gray to almost silver-white, ductile, malleable, lustrous metal.

물리적 성질

Tin is a soft, silvery-white metal located in the carbon group, similar in appearance to freshcutaluminum. When polished, it takes on a bluish tint caused by a thin protective coatingof oxidized tin. This property makes it useful as a coating for other metals. It is malleable andductile, meaning it can be pounded, rolled, and formed into many shapes, as well as “pulled”into wires through a die.
There are two allotropes of tin. One is known as gray or alpha (α) tin, which is not verystable. The other is known as white tin or beta (β), which is the most common allotrope. Thetwo forms (allotropes) of tin are dependent on temperature and crystalline structure. Whitetin is stable at about 13.2°C. Below this temperature, it turns into the unstable gray alphaform. There is also a lesser-known third allotrope of tin called “brittle tin,” which exists above161°C. Its name is derived from its main property.
Tin’s melting point is 231.93°C, its boiling point is 2,602°C, and the density is 5.75 g/cm3for the gray allotrope (alpha) and 7.287 g/cm3 for the white allotrope (beta).

Isotopes

There are 49 isotopes of tin, 10 of which are stable and range from Sn-112to Sn-124. Taken together, all 10 stable isotopes make up the natural abundance of tinfound on Earth. The remaining 39 isotopes are radioactive and are produced artificially innuclear reactors. Their half-lives range from 190 milliseconds to 1×10+5 years.

Origin of Name

The name “tin” is thought to be related to the pre-Roman Etruscan god Tinia, and the chemical symbol (Sn) comes from stannum, the Latin word for tin.

출처

Tin is the 49th most abundant element found in the Earth’s crust. Although tin is nota rare element, it accounts for about 0.001% of the Earth’s crust. It is found in deposits inMalaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Bolivia, Congo, Nigeria, and China. Today, most tin is minedas the mineral ore cassiterite (SnO2), also known as tinstone, in Malaysia. Cassiterite is tin’smain ore. There are no significant deposits found in the United States, but small deposits arefound on the southeast coast of England. To extract tin from cassiterite, the ore is “roasted” ina furnace in the presence of carbon, thereby reducing the metal from the slag.

Characteristics

Although tin is located in group 14 as a metalloid, it retains one of the main characteristicsof metals: in reacting with other elements, it gives up electrons, forming positive ions just asdo all metals.
Tin has a relatively low melting point (about 231°C or 4,715°F), and it reacts with someacids and strong alkalis, but not with hot water. Its resistance to corrosion is the main characteristicthat makes it a useful metal.
There is an interesting historical event related to the two main allotropes of tin. At temperaturesbelow 13 degrees centigrade, “white” tin is slowly transformed into “gray” tin, whichis unstable at low temperatures, and during the brutally cold winter of 1850 in Russia, thetin buttons sewn on soldiers’ uniforms crumbled as the tin changed forms. In the 1800s, tinwas also widely used for pots, pans, drinking cups, and dinner flatware. However, at very lowtemperatures, these implements also disintegrated as their chemical structure was altered.

역사

Known to the ancients. Tin is found chiefly in cassiterite (SnO2). Most of the world’s supply comes from China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia. The U.S. produces almost none, although occurrences have been found in Alaska and Colorado. Tin is obtained by reducing the ore with coal in a reverberatory furnace. Ordinary tin is composed of ten stable isotopes; thirty-six unstable isotopes and isomers are also known. Ordinary tin is a silver-white metal, is malleable, somewhat ductile, and has a highly crystalline structure. Due to the breaking of these crystals, a “tin cry” is heard when a bar is bent. The element has two allotropic forms at normal pressure. On warming, gray, or α tin, with a cubic structure, changes at 13.2°C into white, or β tin, the ordinary form of the metal. White tin has a tetragonal structure. When tin is cooled below 13.2°C, it changes slowly from white to gray. This change is affected by impurities such as aluminum and zinc, and can be prevented by small additions of antimony or bismuth. This change from the α to β form is called the tin pest. Tin–lead alloys are used to make organ pipes. There are few if any uses for gray tin. Tin takes a high polish and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion or other chemical action. Such tin plate over steel is used in the so-called tin can for preserving food. Alloys of tin are very important. Soft solder, type metal, fusible metal, pewter, bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, white metal, die casting alloy, and phosphor bronze are some of the important alloys using tin. Tin resists distilled sea and soft tap water, but is attacked by strong acids, alkalis, and acid salts. Oxygen in solution accelerates the attack. When heated in air, tin forms SnO2, which is feebly acid, forming stannate salts with basic oxides. The most important salt is the chloride (SnCl2 · H2O), which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. Tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface (Pilkington process). Of recent interest is a crystalline tin–niobium alloy that is superconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous field strengths but use practically no power. Such magnets, made of tin–niobium wire, weigh but a few pounds and produce magnetic fields that, when started with a small battery, are comparable to that of a 100 ton electromagnet operated continuously with a large power supply. The small amount of tin found in canned foods is quite harmless. The agreed limit of tin content in U.S. foods is 300 mg/kg. The trialkyl and triaryl tin compounds are used as biocides and must be handled carefully. Over the past 25 years the price of commercial tin has varied from 50¢/lb ($1.10/kg) to about $6/kg. Tin (99.99% pure) costs about $260/kg.

용도

Chiefly for tin-plating and manufacture of food, beverage and aerosol containers, soldering alloys, babbitt and type metals, manufacture of tin salts, collapsible tubes, coating for copper wire. Principle component in pewter. Alloys as dental materials (silver-tin-mercury), nuclear reactor components (tin-zirconium), aircraft components (tin-titanium), bronze (copper-tin), brass.

용도

One of the most important uses of tin is in the coating of thin steel sheets to make “tinplate,” which in turn is used to make what is known as the “tin can.” The tin coating is thin,inexpensive to apply, and resistant to most foods for extended periods of time. Other inertcoatings are sometimes used on the inside of the can to further protect the foods for longerperiods of time.
Tin is alloyed with many metals. It is added to lead to make low-melting alloys for firepreventionsprinkler systems and easy-melting solder.
It is used for bearings, to plate electrodes, and to make pewter, Babbitt metal, and dentalamalgams.
Tin also has been mixed with other metals for making castings for letter type used in printingpresses.
Some compounds of tin are used as fungicides and insecticides. Tin is also used for “weighting”silk, to give the fabric more body and heft.
Molten glass is poured over a pool of molten tin to produce smooth, solid, flat plate andwindow glass.

정의

Metallic element of atomic number 50, group IVA of the periodic system, aw 118.69, valences of 2, 4; 10 isotopes.

정의

A white lustrous metal of low melting point; the fourth member of group 14 of the periodic table. Tin itself is the first distinctly metallic element of the group even though it retains some amphoteric properties. Its electronic structure has outer s2p2 electrons ([Kr]4d105s25p2). The element is of low abundance in the Earth’s crust (0.004%) but is widely distributed, largely as cassiterite (SnOsub>2). The metal has been known since early bronze age civilizations when the ores used were relatively rich but currently worked ores are as low as 1–2% and considerable concentration must be carried out before roasting. The metal itself is obtained by reduction using carbon,
SnOsub>2 + C → Sn + COsub>2
Tin is an expensive metal and several processes are used for recovering tin from scrap tin-plate. These may involve chlorination (dry) to the volatile SnCl4, or electrolytic methods using an alkaline electrolyte:
Sn+ 4OH-→ Sn(OH)42-+ 2e-(anode)
Sn(OH)42- → Sn2+ + 4OH- (cathode)
Sn2+ + 2e → Sn (cathode)
Tin does not react directly with hydrogen but an unstable hydride, SnH4, can be prepared by reduction of SnCl4. The low stability is due to the rather poor overlap of the diffuse orbitals of the tin atom with the small H-orbitals. Tin forms both tin(II) oxide and tin(IV) oxide. Both are amphoteric, dissolving in acids to give tin(II) and tin(IV) salts, and in bases to form stannites and stannates,
SnO + 4OH- → [SnO3]4-+2H2O
stannite (relatively unstable)
SnO2 + 4OH- → [SnO4]4–+ 2H2O
stannate
The halides, SnX2, may be prepared by dissolving tin metal in the hydrogen halide or by the action of heat on SnO plus the hydrogen halide. Tin(IV) halides may be prepared by direct reaction of halogen with the metal. Although tin(II) halides are ionized in solution their melting points are all low suggesting considerable covalence in all but the fluoride. The tin(IV) halides are volatile and essentially covalent with slight polarization of the bonds. Tin(II) compounds are readily oxidized to tin(IV) compounds and are therefore good reducing agents for general laboratory use.
Tin has three crystalline modifications or allotropes, α-tin or ‘gray tin’ (diamond structure), β-tin or ‘white tin’, and γ-tin; the latter two are metallic with close packed structures. Tin also has several isotopes. It is used in a large number of alloys including Babbit metal, bell metal, Britannia metal, bronze, gun metal, and pewter as well as several special solders.
Symbol: Sn; m.p. 232°C; b.p. 2270°C; r.d. 7.31 (20°C); p.n. 50; r.a.m. 118.710.

일반 설명

White TIN is an almost silver-white, ductile, malleable, lustrous solid. Mp 232°C; bp: 2507°C. Density: 7.3 g cm-3. Pure white TIN becomes non-metallic powdery gray TIN if held for a sustained period at temperatures less than 13°C.

반응 프로필

TIN is a reducing agent. Stable in massive form in air, but oxidizes (corrodes) in air as a powder, especially in the presence of water. Dissolve slowly in dilute strong acids in the cold. Dissolves in hot aqueous KOH and other strongly basic solutions. Incompatible with acids and base. Incompatible with chlorine and turpenTINe.

위험도

All organic tin compounds are toxic. Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant, headache, nausea, central nervous system and immune effects. Questionable carcinogen.

위험도

Tin, as the elemental metal, is nontoxic. Most, but not all of tin’s inorganic salts and compoundsare also nontoxic.
In contrast, almost all organic tin compounds (tin compounds composed of carbon andhydrocarbons) are very toxic and should be avoided. If they are used, special equipment andcare must be taken in handling.
(Note: When chemical formulas use the letter “R” preceding an element’s symbol, it designatessome form of organic compound—for example, R4Sn. If the letter “X” follows theelement’s symbol in a formula, it designates some form of inorganic compound—for example,SnX2. Thus, a whole series of tin compounds could be designated as R4Sn2, R2Sn, or SnX4,SnX2, and so forth.)

공업 용도

Hot-dip coatings can be applied to fabricatedparts made of mild and alloy steels, cast iron,and copper and copper alloys to improveappearance and corrosion resistance. Like zinc,the coatings consist of two layers — a relativelypure outer layer and an intermediate alloy layer.
An invisible surface film of stannic oxideis formed during exposure, which helps toretard, but does not completely prevent, corrosion.The coatings have good resistance to tarnishingand staining indoors, and in most rural,marine, and industrial atmospheres. They alsoresist foods. Corrosion resistance in all casescan be markedly improved by increasing thicknessand controlling porosity. Typical applicationswhere they can be used are milk cans,condenser and transformer cans, food and beveragecontainers, and various items of sanitaryequipment such as cast iron mincing machinesand grinders.

Safety Profile

An inhalation hazard. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by implant route. Combustible in the form of dust when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction with Br2, BrF3, Cl2, ClF3, Cu(NO3), K2O2, S. See also POWDERED METALS and TIN COMPOUNDS.

잠재적 노출

The most important use of tin is as a protective coating for other metals, such as in the food and beverage canning industry; in roofing tiles; silverware, coated wire; household utensils; electronic components; and pistons. Common tin alloys are phosphor bronze; light brass; gun metal; high tensile brass; manganese bronze; die-casting alloys; bearing metals; type metal; and pewter. These are used as soft solders, fillers in automobile bodies; and as coatings for hydraulic brake parts; aircraft landing gear and engine parts. Metallic tin is used in the manufacture of collapsible tubes and foil for packaging. Exposures to tin may occur in mining, smelting, and refining; and in the production and use of tin alloys and solders. Inorganic tin compounds are important industrially in the production of ceramics; porcelain, enamel, glass; and inks; in the production of fungicides; anthelmintics, insecticides; as a stabilizer it is used in polyvinyl plastics and chlorinated rubber paints; and it is used in plating baths.

운송 방법

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.

Purification Methods

Tin powder is purified by adding it to about twice its weight of 10% aqueousNaOH and shaking vigorously for 10minutes. (This removes oxide film and stearic acid or similar material that is sometimes added for pulverisation.) It is then filtered, washed with water until the washings are no longer alkaline to litmus, rinsed with MeOH and dried in air. [Sisido et al. J Am Chem Soc 83 538 1961.]

비 호환성

TIN is a reducing agent. Stable in bulk form in air, but as powder it corrodes (oxidizes) in air, especially in the presence of moisture. Keep away from strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Incompatible with acids, alkalies, bases, chlorine, turpentine; reacts violently with acetic aldehyde, ammonium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, hexachloroethane. Strong reducing agents may react violently with halogens, bromine fluoride, chlorine trifluoride, copper nitrate, disulfur dichloride, nitrosyl fluoride, potassium dioxide, sodium peroxide, sulfur, and other chemicals. May form explosive compounds with hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane, picric acid, potassium iodate, potassium peroxide, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-1,3,5-triol.

주석 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


주석 공급 업체

글로벌( 198)공급 업체
공급자 전화 팩스 이메일 국가 제품 수 이점
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-55531817
info@dakenchem.com CHINA 21676 58
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693
0371-55170693 info@tianfuchem.com CHINA 20672 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733
+86-0592-6210733 sales@mainchem.com CHINA 32447 55
career henan chemical co
+86-371-86658258
sales@coreychem.com CHINA 30001 58
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51086038
86-21-51861608 chemwill_asia@126.com;sales@chemwill.com;chemwill@hotmail.com;chemwill@gmail.com CHINA 23980 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-18871470254
027-59599243 sales@jushengtech.com CHINA 28236 58
Cangzhou Wanyou New Material Technology Co.,Ltd
18631714998
sales@czwytech.com CHINA 913 58
Hubei xin bonus chemical co. LTD
86-13657291602
027-59338440 sales@guangaobio.com CHINA 23049 58
Chongqing Chemdad Co., Ltd
+86-13650506873
sales@chemdad.com CHINA 35440 58
Hefei China Airlines Nanotechnology Development Co. Ltd. 15256249472
zhao@hfzhnano.com CHINA 20 58

주석 관련 검색:

Copyright 2019 © ChemicalBook. All rights reserved