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레바미졸

레바미졸
레바미졸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
14769-73-4
한글명:
레바미졸
동의어(한글):
레바미졸
상품명:
Levamisole
동의어(영문):
Ketrax;lepuron;levomysol;LEVAMISOLE;l-tetramisole;LEVAMISOLE BASE;Levamisole powder;(S)-(-)-Levamisole;IMMUNOPURE(R) PHOSPHATASE SUPPRESSOR;Tetramisole cas 14769-73-4 (skype:lisa_21819)
CBNumber:
CB3335709
분자식:
C11H12N2S
포뮬러 무게:
204.29
MOL 파일:
14769-73-4.mol

레바미졸 속성

녹는점
60-61.5°
알파
D25 -85.1° (c = 10 in chloroform)
저장 조건
0-6°C
CAS 데이터베이스
14769-73-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole, 2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl-, (6S)-(14769-73-4)

안전

레바미졸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

용도

Biological response modifier.

정의

ChEBI: A 6-phenyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole that has S configuration. It is used (generally as the monohydrochloride salt) to treat parasitic worm infections in pigs, sheep and cattle and was formerly used in huma s as an adjuvant to chemotherapy for the treatment of various cancers. It is also widely used as an adulterant to coccaine.

Indications

Levamisole (Ergamisol) is an antiparasitic drug that has been found to enhance T-cell function and cellular immunity. The drug improves survival of patients with resected colorectal cancers when combined with 5-fluorouracil; the mechanism of this interaction is not known. Levamisole does not have antitumor activity against established or metastatic cancer and has not been found useful in the adjuvant therapy of cancers other than colorectal cancer.
The major adverse effects of levamisole are nausea and anorexia. Skin rashes, itching, flulike symptoms, and fevers also have been observed.

Indications

Levamisole (Ergamisol) was originally developed as an antihelminthic drug. It potentiates the stimulatory effects of antigens, mitogens, lymphokines, and chemotactic factors on lymphocytes, granulocytes, and macrophages. It has been shown to increase T cell–mediated immunity.
Levamisole has been used successfully in treating chronic infections. It also has been approved for use in combination with fluorouracil in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

상표명

Ergamisol (Janssen).

Antimicrobial activity

Its principal activity is against Asc. lumbricoides and hookworms. Worms are paralyzed and passed out in the feces within a few hours.

Pharmaceutical Applications

The l-isomer of tetramisole, available as the monohydrochloride. The d-isomer has no anthelmintic activity. It is very soluble in water and is stable in the dry state.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption: c. 90%
Cmax 150 mg oral: 0.5 mg/L after c. 2 h
Plasma half-life: c. 4 h
Volume of distribution: 100–120 L
Levamisole is rapidly absorbed from the gut and extensively metabolized in the liver. It is excreted chiefly in the urine.

Clinical Use

Ascariasis
Hookworm infection
Levamisole has been used in rheumatoid arthritis and some other conditions that are said to respond to its immunomodulatory activity.

부작용

Nausea, gastrointestinal upsets and very mild neurological problems have been reported.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Depending on the product licensed, levamisole is indicated for the treatment of many nematodes in cattle, sheep and goats, swine, poultry. In sheep and cattle, levamisole has relatively good activity against abomasal nematodes, small intestinal nematodes (not particularly good against Strongyloides spp.), large intestinal nematodes (not Trichuris spp.), and lungworms. Adult forms of species that are usually covered by levamisole, include: Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Osteragia spp., Cooperia spp., Nematodirus spp., Bunostomum spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Chabertia spp., and Dictyocaulus vivapurus. Levamisole is less effective against the immature forms of these parasites, and is generally ineffective in cattle (but not sheep) against arrested larval forms. Resistance of parasites to levamisole is a growing concern.
In swine, levamisole is indicated for the treatment of Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides, Stephanurus, and Metastrongylus.
Levamisole has been used in dogs as a microfilaricide to treat Dirofilaria immitis infection in the past, but is rarely used today. It has also garnered some interest as an immunostimulant in the adjunctive therapy of various neoplasms.
Because of its narrow margin for safety and limited efficacy against many equine parasites, levamisole is not generally used in horses as an antiparasitic agent. It has been tried as an immune stimulant, however.

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