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플루오렌

플루오렌
플루오렌 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
86-73-7
한글명:
플루오렌
동의어(한글):
플루오렌;플루렌
상품명:
Fluorene
동의어(영문):
FLUORENE;NSC 6787;9H-FLUORENE;FLUOCINONIDE;Fluorene 98%;Fluorene,98%;2,3-BENZINDENE;2,3-Benzoindene;9H-Fluorene 98%;FLUORENE,REAGENT
CBNumber:
CB3717011
분자식:
C13H10
포뮬러 무게:
166.2185
MOL 파일:
86-73-7.mol

플루오렌 속성

녹는점
111-114 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
298 °C(lit.)
밀도
1.2
증기압
13 hPa (146 °C)
굴절률
1.6470
인화점
151 °C
저장 조건
APPROX 4°C
용해도
0.002g/l insoluble
물리적 상태
Crystalline Powder
산도 계수 (pKa)
>15 (Christensen et al., 1975)
색상
Almost white to light brown
수용성
insoluble
Merck
14,4155
BRN
1363491
Henry's Law Constant
1.89(x 10-5 atm?m3/mol) at 4 °C, 12.5 at 25 °C (dynamic equilibrium method, Bamford et al., 1999)
안정성
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
InChIKey
NIHNNTQXNPWCJQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
86-73-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Fluorene(86-73-7)
EPA
9H-Fluorene(86-73-7)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 N,T,F,Xn,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 50/53-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-65-38-36/38-36/37/38-52/53-20
안전지침서 60-61-24/25-45-36/37-16-7-62-33-24-22-36/37/39-27-26-25-9
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 LL5670000
위험 참고 사항 Harmful
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 9
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29029080
유해 물질 데이터 86-73-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 1 mg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P391 누출물을 모으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

플루오렌 MSDS


o-Biphenylenemethane

플루오렌 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

자색의 형광을 발하는 판상의 무색결정.

합성

콜타르 속에 존재하며, 디페닐메탄을 적열관에 통해 합성한다.

화학적 성질

white crystals

화학적 성질

Fluorene, when pure, is found as dazzling white flakes or small, crystalline plates. It is fluorescent when impure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds containing multiple benzene rings and are also called polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

물리적 성질

Small white leaflets or crystalline flakes from ethanol. Fluorescent when impure.

용도

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as micropollutants.

정의

ChEBI: An ortho-fused tricyclic hydrocarbon that is a major component of fossil fuels and their derivatives

일반 설명

White leaflets. Sublimes easily under a vacuum. Fluorescent when impure.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Vigorous reactions, sometimes amounting to explosions, can result from the contact between aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fluorene, and strong oxidizing agents. They can react exothermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel-Crafts reaction.

위험도

Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: Fire hazards: Slight, when exposed to heat or flame.

건강위험

Acute toxicity in animals is very low. AnLD50 (intraperitoneal) in mice is 2000 mg/kg.Carcinogenicity of this compound in animalsis not well established. It tested negative in ahistidine reversion–Ames test.

잠재적 노출

Fluorene is used in resins, dyes, and is a chemical intermediate.

Source

Fluorene was detected in groundwater beneath a former coal gasification plant in Seattle, WA at a concentration of 140 μg/L (ASTR, 1995). Present in diesel fuel and corresponding aqueous phase (distilled water) at concentrations of 350 to 900 mg/L and 12 to 26 g/L, respectively (Lee et al., 1992). Schauer et al. (1999) reported fluorene in diesel fuel at a concentration of 52 g/g and in a diesel-powered medium-duty truck exhaust at an emission rate of 34.6 g/km. Diesel fuel obtained from a service station in Schlieren, Switzerland contained fluorene at an estimated concentration of 170 mg/L (Schluep et al., 2001).
Based on laboratory analysis of 7 coal tar samples, fluorene concentrations ranged from 1,100 to 12,000 ppm (EPRI, 1990). Lao et al. (1975) reported a fluorene concentration of 27.39 g/kg in a coal tar sample. Detected in 1-yr aged coal tar film and bulk coal tar at an identical concentration of 4,400 mg/kg (Nelson et al., 1996). A high-temperature coal tar contained fluorene at an average concentration of 0.64 wt % (McNeil, 1983). Identified in high-temperature coal tar pitches at concentrations ranging from 800 to 4,000 mg/kg (Arrendale and Rogers, 1981). Lee et al. (1992a) equilibrated 8 coal tars with distilled water at 25 °C. The maximum concentration of fluorene observed in the aqueous phase was 0.3 mg/L.
Fluorene was detected in asphalt fumes at an average concentration of 34.95 ng/m3 (Wang et al., 2001).
Nine commercially available creosote samples contained fluorene at concentrations ranging from 19,000 to 73,000 mg/kg (Kohler et al., 2000).
Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 625. Average fluorene concentrations reported in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were 1, 3, and 10 μg/L, respectively.
Fluorene was detected in soot generated from underventilated combustion of natural gas doped with toluene (3 mole %) (Tolocka and Miller, 1995).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of fluorene were 4.44 mg/kg of pine burned, 3.83 mg/kg of oak burned, and 2.613 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned.
California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained fluorene at a concentration of 4.35 mg/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 9.72 and 358 μg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
Under atmospheric conditions, a low rank coal (0.5–1 mm particle size) from Spain was burned in a fluidized bed reactor at seven different temperatures (50 °C increments), beginning at 650 °C. The combustion experiment was also conducted at different amounts of excess oxygen (5 to 40%) and different flow rates (700 to 1,100 L/h). At 20% excess oxygen and a flow rate of 860 L/h, the amount of fluorine emitted ranged from 850.7 ng/kg at 950 °C to 3,632.8 ng/kg at 750 °C. The greatest amount of PAHs emitted were observed at 750 °C (Mastral et al., 1999).
In one study, fluorene comprised about 7.6% of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote (Grifoll et al., 1995).
Identified as an impurity in commcerially available acenaphthene (Marciniak, 2002).
Typical concentration of fluorene in a heavy pyrolysis oil is 1.6 wt % (Chevron Phillips, May 2003).

환경귀착

Biological. Fluorene was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum. Significant biodegradation with gradual adaptation was observed. At concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L, biodegradation yields at the end of 4 wk of incubation were 77 and 45%, respectively (Tabak et al., 1981).
Photolytic. Fluorene reacts with photochemically produced OH radicals in the atmosphere. The atmospheric half-life was estimated to range from 6.81 to 68.1 h (Atkinson, 1987). Behymer and Hites (1985) determined the effect of different substrates on the rate of photooxidation of fluorene (25 μg/g substrate) using a rotary photoreactor. The photolytic half-lives of fluorene using silica gel, alumina, and fly ash were 110, 62, and 37 h, respectively. Gas-phase reaction rate constants for OH radicals, NO3 radicals, and ozone at 24 °C were 1.6 x 10-11, 3.5 x 10-15, and <2 x 10-19 in cm3/molecule?sec, respectively (Kwok et al., 1997).
Chemical/Physical. Oxidation by ozone to fluorenone has been reported (Nikolaou, 1984). Chlorination of fluorene in polluted humus poor lake water gave a chlorinated derivative tentatively identified as 2-chlorofluorene (Johnsen et al., 1989). This compound was also identified as a chlorination product of fluorene at low pH (<4) (Oyler et al., 1983). It was suggested that the chlorination of fluorene in tap water accounted for the presence of chlorofluorene (Shiraishi et al., 1985).

운송 방법

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous haz ardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Purify fluorene by chromatography of CCl4 or pet ether (b 40-60o) solution on alumina, with *benzene as eluent. Crystallise it from 95% EtOH, 90% acetic acid and again from EtOH. Crystallisation using glacial acetic acid retains an impurity which is removed by partial mercuration and precipitation with LiBr [Brown et al. J Am Chem Soc 84 1229 1962]. It has also been crystallised from hexane, or *benzene/EtOH, distilled under vacuum and purified by zone refining. [Gorman et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 4404 1985, Beilstein 5 IV 2142.]

비 호환성

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explo sions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Compound can react exo thermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel Crafts reaction.

폐기물 처리

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its RQ listed above. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metro politan area call (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (Section IV. D.3.b).

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