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프로피온산

프로피온산
프로피온산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
79-09-4
한글명:
프로피온산
동의어(한글):
프로피온산;루프리솔;메트아세톤산;메틸아세트산;모조아세트산;센트리그레인보존제;에틸포름산;테녹스P그레인보존제;프로조인;프로파노산;프로피온산그레인보존제;에탄카르복실산;카르복시에탄;??????;?????;???????;????
상품명:
Propionic acid
동의어(영문):
C3;Prozoin;Adofeed;Luprisol;Luprosil;MonoProp;Propcorn;Propkorn;acid c-3;C2H5COOH
CBNumber:
CB4138567
분자식:
C3H6O2
포뮬러 무게:
74.08
MOL 파일:
79-09-4.mol

프로피온산 속성

녹는점
−24-−23 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
141 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.993 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
2.55 (vs air)
증기압
2.4 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.386(lit.)
FEMA
2924 | PROPIONIC ACID
인화점
125 °F
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
organic solvents: soluble(lit.)
물리적 상태
Liquid
산도 계수 (pKa)
4.86(at 25℃)
색상
≤10, APHA:
Specific Gravity
0.996 (20/4℃)
수소이온지수(pH)
2.5 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
폭발한계
2.1-12%(V)
수용성
37 g/100 mL
JECFA Number
84
Merck
14,7825
BRN
506071
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 10 ppm (~30 mg/m3) (ACGIH).
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Flammable.
InChIKey
XBDQKXXYIPTUBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
79-09-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Propanoic acid(79-09-4)
EPA
Propanoic acid(79-09-4)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38-34-10
안전지침서 26-36-45-23
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3463 8/PG 2
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 UE5950000
자연 발화 온도 955 °F
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29155010
유해 물질 데이터 79-09-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 4.29 g/kg (Smyth)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P235 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하고 저온으로 유지하시오.

프로피온산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Propionic acid, CH3CH2COOH, also known as propanoic acid and methylacetic acid, is a clear, colorless liquid that boils at 140°C (284 OF). It has a pungent odor and is soluble in water and alcohol. Propionic acid is used in nickel electroplating solutions,perfumes, artificial flavors, pharmaceuticals, and manufacturing propionates.

화학적 성질

Propionic acid is a colorless liquid. Sharp, rancid odor. The Odor Threshold is 0.16 ppm.

화학적 성질

Propionic acid occurs as a corrosive, oily liquid having a slightly pungent, disagreeable, rancid odor. It is flammable.

화학적 성질

Propionic acid has a pungent, rancid odor. Propionic acid is an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid. For a detailed description of this compound, refer to Burdock (1997).

출처

Reported found in apple, apple juice, banana, currants, pineapple, raspberry, papaya, onion, sauerkraut, tomato, vinegar, beef, beef broth, beer, blackberry juice, bread, cheese, cherry juice, butter, yogurt, milk, cream, lean and fatty fish, cured pork, cooked beef and mutton, chicken fat, cognac, rum, whiskies, cider, sherry, roasted cocoa bean, cocoa powder, coffee, black currant juice, white currant juice, grape juice, grape musts and port wine, grapefruit juice, grape syrup, orange juice, Valencia orange oil, orange essence, roasted peanuts, pecans, potato chips, honey, soybean, Arctic bramble, coconut meat, cloudberry, mushroom, sesame seed, cardamom, rice, jackfruit, sake, buckwheat, laurel, peated malt, cassava, Bourbon vanilla, oyster, mussels, scallop, Chinese quince and maté.

용도

Propionic acid is used in the productionof propionates used as mold inhibitors andpreservatives for grains and wood chips, inthe manufacture of fruit flavors and perfumebases, and as an esterifying agent.

용도

Propionic Acid is the acid source of the propionates. propionic acid in the liquid form has a strong odor and is corrosive, so it is used as the sodium, calcium, and potassium salts as a preservative. these yield the free acid in the ph range of the food in which they are used. it functions principally against mold. see calcium propionate; sodium propionate.

용도

Used as esterifying agent.

정의

ChEBI: A short-chain saturated fatty acid comprising ethane attached to the carbon of a carboxy group.

생산 방법

Propionic acid can be obtained from wood pulp waste liquor by fermentation. It can also be prepared from ethylene, carbon monoxide and steam; from ethanol and carbon monoxide using boron trifluoride catalyst; from natural gas; or as a by-product in the pyrolysis of wood. Very pure propionic acid can be obtained from propionitrile. Propionic acid can be found in dairy products in small amounts.

정의

A colorless liquid carboxylic acid.

생명 공학 생산

Generally, propionic acid is produced via petrochemical routes. However, fermentative processes are interesting for food-grade production, although the price of biotechnologically produced propionic acid may be twice that of petrochemistry- based propionic acid. The microbial production of propionic acid is done with propionibacteria (e.g. Propionibacterim freudenreichii) . Several fermentation methods have been studied. For example, an extractive fermentation is suggested to avoid low productivity and yields caused by product inhibition . With this technique, a product concentration of 75 g.L-1 propionic acid, a yield of 0.66 g propionic acid per gram lactose, and a productivity of approximately 1 g.L-1.h-1 are reached .
Different substrates, such as glycerol , wheat flour , or mixtures of glycerol and glucose , have been analyzed to reduce costs. Also, techniques of cell immobilization show promising results . Fibrous-bed reactor systems show the highest product concentrations: up to 106 g.L-1 propionic acid and a yield of 0.56 g propionic acid per gram glycerol. In recent years, metabolic engineering has been used to improve the acid tolerance and to reduce byproduct formation . 104 H. Quitmann et al.
For example, the acetate kinase gene has been inactivated by mutation of Propionibacterium acidipropionici . Additionally, an adaptive evolution has been carried out. As result, the productivity was enhanced by approximately 50 %, up to 0.25 g.L-1.h-1 and a yield of 0.59 g propionic acid per gram glycerol, using immobilized cells adapted to high acid concentration.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 60 ppm: acidic, dairy with a pronounced fruity lift.

일반 설명

A clear oily aqueous liquid with a pungent rancid odor. Burns skin and the vapors irritate mucous membranes. Corrosive to most metals and tissue. Density 8.3 lb / gal.

공기와 물의 반응

Dilution with water causes release of heat.

반응 프로필

Propionic acid reacts as an acid to neutralize bases in exothermic reactions. Burns when exposed to heat, flame or oxidizers. When heated to decomposition emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 1090].

위험도

Moderate fire risk. Strong eye, skin and upper respiratory tract irritant.

건강위험

Propionic acid is a toxic and corrosive liquid. Contact with the eyes can result ineye injury. Skin contact may cause burns.Acute exposures to its vapors can causeeye redness, mild to moderate skin burns,and mild coughing (ACGIH 1986). Ingestionof high amounts of this acid may producecorrosion of the mouth and gastrointestinaltract in humans. Other symptoms includevomiting, diarrhea, ulceration, and convulsions. Oral LD50 value in rats is about3500–4300 mg/kg. The LD50 value by skinabsorption in rabbits is 500 mg/kg..

화재위험

Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Propionic acid is primarily used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial preservative in foods, and in oral and topical pharmaceutical applications. It is also used as an esterifying agent.

Clinical Use

Propionic acid is an antifungal agent that is nonirritatingand nontoxic. After application, it is present in perspiration in low concentration ( 0.01%). Salt forms with sodium,potassium, calcium, and ammonium are also fungicidal.Propionic acid is a clear, corrosive liquid with a characteristicodor. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Thesalts are usually used because they are nonvolatile andodorless.

Safety Profile

Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, skin contact, and intravenous routes. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Flammable liquid. Highly flammable when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Propionic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material when used in low levels as an excipient. Up to 1% may be used in food applications (up to 0.3% in flour and cheese products). Propionic acid is readily metabolized.
The pure form of propionic acid is corrosive and will cause burns to any area of contact. Both liquid and vapor forms are flammable. Concentrated propionic acid is harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. See also Sodium Propionate.
(mouse, IV): 0.63 g/kg
(rabbit, skin): 0.5 g/kg
(rat, oral): 2.6 g/kg

Chemical Synthesis

Commercial processes produce propionic acid by chemical synthesis and in small quantities by bacterial fermentation

잠재적 노출

Propionic acid is used in the manufac- ture of inorganic propionates and propionate esters which are used as mold inhibitors, electroplating additives; emul- sifying agents; flavors and perfumes. It is an intermediate in pesticide manufacture, pharmaceutic manufacture; and in the production of cellulose propionate plastics. Also used as grain preservative.

저장

Although stable, propionic acid is flammable. It should be stored in an airtight container away from heat and flames.

운송 방법

UN1848 Propionic acid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3463 Propionic acid, with not <90% acid by mass, Hazard Class 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 3-Flammable liquid.

Purification Methods

Dry the acid with Na2SO4 or by fractional distillation, then redistil after refluxing with a few crystals of KMnO4. An alternative purification uses conversion to the ethyl ester, fractional distillation and hydrolysis. [Bradbury J Am Chem Soc 74 2709 1952.] Propionic acid can also be heated for 0.5hour with an amount of benzoic anhydride equivalent to the amount of water present (in the presence of CrO3 as catalyst), followed by fractional distillation. [Cham & Israel J Chem Soc 196 1960, Beilstein 2 IV 695.]

비 호환성

The substance is a medium strong acid. Incompatible with sulfuric acid, strong bases; ammonia, isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin. Reacts with bases; strong oxidizers; and amines, causing fire and explo- sion hazard. Attacks many metals forming flammable/ explosive hydrogen gas.

비 호환성

Propionic acid is incompatible with alkalis, ammonia, amines, and halogens. It can be salted out of aqueous solutions by the addition of calcium chloride or other salts.

폐기물 처리

Incineration in admixture with flammable solvent.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use in Europe as a food additive. In Japan, propionic acid is restricted to use as a flavoring agent.

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