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카보퓨란

카보퓨란
카보퓨란 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
1563-66-2
한글명:
카보퓨란
동의어(한글):
카보퓨란;카보푸란
상품명:
Carbofuran
동의어(영문):
Nex;yalox;d1221;mef248;BURAON;Yaltox;brifur;D 1221;oms864;bay 70
CBNumber:
CB4322944
분자식:
C12H15NO3
포뮬러 무게:
221.25
MOL 파일:
1563-66-2.mol

카보퓨란 속성

녹는점
150-153 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
200°C
밀도
1.18
증기압
2 x 10-5 mmHg at 33 °C (quoted, Verschueren, 1983)
굴절률
1.5200 (estimate)
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
Methylene chloride (>200 g/L), 2-propanol (20–50 g/L) (Worthing and Hance, 1991)
물리적 상태
Powder
색상
White, brown
수용성
Slightly soluble. 0.07 g/100 mL
Merck
13,1813
BRN
1428746
Henry's Law Constant
3.88 (x 10-8 atm?m3/mol)at 30 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
노출 한도
OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 mg/m3; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.1 mg/m3.
CAS 데이터베이스
1563-66-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Carbofurane(1563-66-2)
EPA
7-Benzofuranol, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-, methylcarbamate(1563-66-2)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T+,N,T
위험 카페고리 넘버 26/28-50/53
안전지침서 36/37-45-60-61-1/2
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2811 6.1/PG 1
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 FB9450000
위험 등급 6.1(a)
포장분류 I
HS 번호 29329990
유해 물질 데이터 1563-66-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in mice: 2 mg/kg (Fahmy, 1970)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
예방조치문구:
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P284 호흡 보호구를 착용하시오.
P310 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오. 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 도움을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.

카보퓨란 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

White Solid

화학적 성질

Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide and nematicide. It is an odorless, white crystalline solid. On heating, it breaks down and can release toxic fumes, and irritating or poisonous gases. It is sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, and cyclohexone. The liquid formulations of carbofuran are classifi ed as RUPs because of their acute oral and inhalation toxicity to humans. Granular formulations are also classifi ed as an RUP. In fact, carbofuran was fi rst registered in the United States in 1969 and classifi ed as an RUP. Exposure to heat breaks down carbofuran, with the release of toxic fumes. Carbofuran is used for the control of soil-dwelling and foliar-feeding insects. It is also used for the control of aphids, thrips, and nematodes that attack vegetables, ornamental plants, crops of sunfl ower, potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, sugar cane, cotton, rice, and a variety of other crops

화학적 성질

Carbofuran is white, odorless crystalline solid.

용도

Systemic insecticide, acaricide, nematocide.

용도

Broad-spectrum, systemic insecticide, nematocide and acaricide applied in soil to control soil insects and nematodes or on foliage to control insects and mites.

용도

Cholinesterase inhibitor. Use as systemic insecticide, acaricide, nematocide.

용도

Carbofuran is used to control soil-dwelling insect pests and nematodes in a wide range of crops.

일반 설명

Carbofuran is an odorless white crystalline solid. Contact with skin may burn skin and eyes. When exposed to heat or flames Carbofuran may emit toxic oxides of nitrogen. Carbofuran is toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and/ or ingestion. Carbofuran is used as a pesticide.

공기와 물의 반응

Slightly soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Carbofuran is a carbamate ester. Carbamates are chemically similar to, but more reactive than amides. Like amides they form polymers such as polyurethane resins. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is produced by the combination of active metals or nitrides with carbamates. Strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides are incompatible with carbamates. Carbofuran is unstable in an alkaline media. .

건강위험

Carbofuran is extremely poisonous. May be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through skin. Contact may burn skin or eyes. Probable lethal oral dose to humans 5 to 50 mg/kg or 7 drops to 1 teaspoon for 150 lb. person.

건강위험

The acute oral LD50 of carbofuran to male and female rats is about 8 mg/kg, while the acute dermal LD50 for rats is more than 3000 mg/kg. Carbofuran is mildly irritating to the eyes and skin of rabbits. The acute inhalation toxicity (LC50, 4 h) is 0.075 mg/L for rats. As with other carbamate compounds, carbofuran’s cholinesterase-inhibiting effect is short term and reversible. The symptoms of carbofuran poisoning include, but are not limited to, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, sweating, diarrhea, excessive salivation, weakness, imbalance, blurring of vision, breathing diffi culty, increased blood pressure, and incontinence. Death may result at high doses from respiratory system failure associated with carbofuran exposure. Complete recovery from an acute poisoning by carbofuran, with no long-term health effects, is possible if exposure ceases and the victim has time to regain his or her normal level of cholinesterase and to recover from symptoms. Reports have indicated that risks from exposure to carbofuran are especially high among occupational workers and general public suffering with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts disturbances. The available studies indicate carbofuran is unlikely to cause reproductive effects in humans at expected exposure levels. Studies indicate carbofuran is not teratogenic. No signifi cant teratogenic effects have been found in the offspring of rats given carbofuran (3 mg/kg/day) on days 5 to 19 of gestation

건강위험

Extremely toxic carbamate pesticide; routesof entry — ingestion, skin absorption, andinhalation of vapors; although the vaporpressure is very low [0.00002 torr at 33°C(91.4°F)], because of high toxicity, eventrace inhalation could be harmful; can causedeath if swallowed, absorbed through skinor inhaled; ingestion of about 0.5- to 2-gsubstance could cause death to humans; manifests acute, delayed, and chronic toxicity;choline sterase inhibitor; acute exposure maycause increased salivation, lacrimation, spontaneous urination, blurred vision, tremor,confusion, muscle twitching, and convulsion;high exposure may result in coma or respiratory collapse; other effects may includegastrointestinal effects, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea; cancause burn on skin contact; produced adversereproductive effects in experimental animals.
LD50 inhalation (guinea pig): 0.043 mg/L/4 hr(RTECS 1985 )
LD50 oral (rat): ~10 mg/kg
LD50 rat (skin): 120 mg/kg
Carbofuran hydrolyzes to less toxic 3-hydroxy carbamate and phenolic products.

화재위험

May release nitrogen oxides. Containers may explode in heat of fire. Avoid alkalies. Stable under neutral or acid conditions.

농업용

Insecticide, Acaricide, Nematicide: Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate pesticide that kills insects, mites, and nematodes on contact or after ingestion. It is used against soil and foliar pests of field, fruit, vegetable, and forest crops. Carbofuran, granule form, is banned in the U.S. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Not approved for use in EU countries. There are 40 global suppliers.. According to the Ecological Incident Investigation System, carbofuran has been responsible for more avian deaths than any other pesticide.

상품명

A13-27164®; AU'ULTRAMICIN®; BAY 704143®; BAY 78537®; BRIFUR®; CARBODAN®; CARBOSIP 5G®; CRISFURAN®; CURETERR®; CHINUFUR®; D 1221®; DIAFURAN®; FMC 10242®; FURACARB®; FURADAN®; FURAN®; FURODAN®; KENFURAN®; KENOFURAN®; NEX®; NIA10242; NIAGARA 10242; NIAGARA NIA-10242; PILLARFURAN®; RAMPART®; YALTOX®

색상 색인 번호

It is a pesticide with insecticide properties, of the carbamate group. It was implicated as a sensitizer in two farmers

Safety Profile

to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of

잠재적 노출

A potential danger to those involved in the manufacture, formulation, and application of this insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.

환경귀착

Biological. Carbofuran or their metabolites (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) at normal and ten times the field application rate had no effect on Rhizobium sp. However, in a nitrogen-free culture medium, Azotobacter chroococcum growth was inhibited by carbofuran, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran (Kale et al., 1989). Under in vitro conditions, 15 of 20 soil fungi degraded carbofuran to one or more of the following compounds: 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, carbofuran phenol and 3-hydroxyphenol (Arunachalam and Lakshmanan, 1988).
Plant. Carbofuran is rapidly metabolized in plants to nontoxic products (Cremlyn, 1991). Metcalf et al. (1968) reported that carbofuran undergoes hydroxylation and hydrolysis in plants, insects and mice. Hydroxylation of the benzylic carbon gives 3-hydroxycarbofuran which is subsequently oxidized to 3-ketocarbofuran. In carrots, carbofuran initially degraded to 3-hydroxycarbofuran. This compound reacted with naturally occurring angelic acid in carrots forming a conjugated metabolite identified as 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-(((methylamino)-carbonyl)oxy)-3-benzofuranyl (Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid (Sonobe et al., 1981). Metabolites identified in three types of strawberries (Day-Neutral, Tioga and Tufts) were 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-benzofuranol, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3,7-benzofuranol and 2,3- dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-7-benzofuranol (Archer et al., 1977). Oat plants were grown in two soils treated with [14C]carbofuran. Most of the residues recovered in oat leaves were in the form of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran. Other metabolites identified were 3-ketocarbofuran, a 3-keto-7-phenol and a 3-hydroxy-7-phenol (Fuhremann and Lichtenstein, 1980).
Surface Water. Sharom et al. (1980) reported that the half-lives for carbofuran in sterilized and non-sterilized water collected from the Holly Marsh in Ontario, Canada were 2.5 to 3 weeks at pH values of 7.8–8.0 and 8.0, respectively. The half-lives observed in distilled water were 2 and 3.8 weeks at pH values of 7.0–7.2 and 6.8, respectively. They reported that chemical degradation of dissolved carbofuran was more significant than microbial degradation.
Chemical/Physical. Releases toxic nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition (Sax and Lewis, 1987; Lewis, 1990).
The hydrolysis half-lives for carbofuran in a sterile 1% ethanol/water solution at 25°C and pH values of 4.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 were 170, 690, 690, 8.2 and 1.0 week, respectively (Chapman and Cole, 1982).

신진 대사 경로

The fate of carbofuran has been investigated in soils, plants, mammals, birds, fish and insects. Metabolic pathways include hydrolysis, oxidation (ring and N-methyl hydroxylation) and conjugation. The metabolism of carbofuran has been extensively reviewed by Schlagbauer and Schlagbauer (1972) and Kuhr and Dorough (1976). Metabolism in economic animals was reviewed by Akhtar (1985). Consequently the many primary publications are not usually cited.

저장

Carbofuran should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place, in their original containers only. It should not be kept stored or used near heat, open flame, or hot surfaces

운송 방법

UN2757 Carbamate pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN 2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name RequiredUN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required

Degradation

Carbofuran (1) is very stable in weakly acidic media and has a DT50 of <1 year at pH 4 (22°C). It is stable in neutral media but unstable in basic conditions (PM). Carbofuran was hydrolysed to the phenol (5) with a half-life of 67 minutes at 37.5 °C at pH 9.5. 3-Ketocarbofuran (3) and N-hydroxymethylcarbofuran (4) (Scheme 2) were hydrolysed faster than carbofuran in alkaline solution (Metcalf et al., 1968). Unlabelled carbofuran was dissolved in water and irradiated by sunlight in India for 30 days. Samples were extracted and analysed by GC and TLC.
Products were 3-ketocarbofuran (3) and the 4-hydroxycarbofuran phenol (8). (Raha and Das, 1990). Solid carbofuran was applied to glass plates and irradiated with fluorescent light or sunlight. 3-Hydroxycarbofuran (2) was detected after 2 days; 3-ketocarbofuran (3) was not detected (Metcalf et al., 1968). These pathways are illustrated in Scheme 1.

비 호환성

Alkaline substances, acid, strong oxidizers, such as perchlorates, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates, permanganates.

폐기물 처리

Alkaline hydrolysis is the recommended mode of disposal. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.

주의 사항

During use/handling of carbofuran, workers should wear coveralls or a long-sleeved uniform, head covering, and chemical protective gloves made of materials such as rubber, neoprene, or nitrile. Occupational workers should know that areas treated with carbofuran are hazardous. The runoff of carbofuran material and the fi re control releases irritating or poisonous gases. It is advisable that workers should enter storehouses or carbofuran-treated close spaces with caution

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