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아르신(기체)

아르신(기체)
아르신(기체) 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7784-42-1
한글명:
아르신(기체)
동의어(한글):
아르신;비소화수소,아루신;비화수소;삼수소화비소;아르신(기체);삼수소화비소
상품명:
ARSINE
동의어(영문):
AsH3;ARSINE;ARSENE;Arsenowodor;Arsenic hydrid;INORGANICARSINE;Arsenic hydride;Arsenwasserstoff;Arsenous hydride;Hydrogen arsenide
CBNumber:
CB4375809
분자식:
AsH3
포뮬러 무게:
77.94542
MOL 파일:
7784-42-1.mol

아르신(기체) 속성

녹는점
-117°
끓는 점
bp -62.5°
밀도
1.321 (estimate)
증기압
>760 mmHg at 20 °C
물리적 상태
colorless gas
냄새
Garlic-like odor detectable at 0.5 to 1 ppm
수용성
mL/100g H2O (760mm): 42 (0°C), 30 (10°C), 28 (20°C) [LAN05]
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 0.2 mg/m3 (0.05 ppm) (ACGIH and OSHA); 0.002 mg(As)/m3/15 min; ceiling 0.005 ppm(As)/15 min (NIOSH).
안정성
Stable, but pyrophoric. Capable of detonation with some initiators. Flammable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, chlorine, nitric acid.
EPA
Arsine (7784-42-1)

안전

위험품 표기 F+,T+,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 12-26-48/20-50/53
안전지침서 9-16-28-33-36/37-45-60-61
유엔번호(UN No.) 2188
자연 발화 온도 Not established. Decomposes at 232 to 300 °C to form elemental arsenic and hydrogen.
위험 등급 2.3
독성 LCLO inhal (rat) 94 ppm (300 mg/m3; 15 min)
PEL (OSHA) 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 0.05 ppm (0.16 mg/m3)

아르신(기체) C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

colourless gas smelling of garlic

화학적 성질

Arsine is a highly toxic, colorless gas with a garlic odor. It is soluble in water, benzene, and chloroform. It is extremely flammable and explosive when exposed to heat, sparks, or flames. Arsine decomposes on heating and under the infl uence of light and moisture, producing toxic arsenic fumes. Arsine reacts with strong oxidants, causing explosion hazard and may explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion. Workers in the metallurgical industry involved in the production process and the maintenance of furnaces, and in the microelectronics industry get exposed to the substance. Arsine is extensively used in semiconductor industries, and in the manufacture of microchips.

화학적 성질

Arsine (SA) is an extremely flammable and poisonous, colorless, liquefied compressed gas. Slight garlic-like odor. SA is nonirritating, produces no immediate symptoms, and odor is not an adequate indicator of arsine’s (SA) presence, so persons exposed to hazardous levels may be unaware of its presence. The established PEL is 10 times lower than the concentration at which people begin to smell SA (odor threshold of 0.5 ppm and above).

용도

Organic synthesis, military poison, doping agent for solid-state electronic components.

용도

It is used as a doping agent for solidstateelectronic components and as a militarypoison gas. Risk of exposure may arise whenan arsenic compound reacts with an acid ora strong alkali.

용도

Arsine (AsH3), as a colorless gas, is also known as arsenic hydride. It is used to synthesize organic compounds and as the major ingredient of several military poisons, including the wartime gas lewisite.

정의

A poisonous colorless gas with an unpleasant smell. It decomposes to arsenic and hydrogen at 230°C. It is produced in the analysis for arsenic (Marsh’s test).

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. On exposure to light, decomposes rapidly depositing shiny black arsenic.

반응 프로필

ARSINE decomposes into its elements (arsenic, gaseous hydrogen) when heated to 300°C. Can form accidentally by the reaction of arsenic impurities with mineral acids (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid) in the presence of common metals (iron, zinc). A reducing agent---not oxidized by air at room temperature [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, 1978, p. 251], but may react vigorously with other oxidizing agents [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 279]. Moderately explosive in combination with chlorine or nitric acid. When heated to decomposition or ignited, ARSINE emits highly toxic fumes of metallic arsenic.

위험도

Highly poisonous by inhalation. Periph- eral nervous system and vacular system impairment, kidney and liver impairment.

건강위험

Arsine is a highly poisonous gas showingsevere acute and chronic toxicity in test animalsas well as in humans. Exposure to aconcentration of 5–10 ppm in air for severalminutes may be hazardous to human health.There are conflicting reports on the concentrationsat which arsine is fatal to humans.However, an exposure to 100 ppm in air for1 hour should be lethal. The LC50 valuesdetermined on animals varied according tothe species. The symptoms of acute toxicityare headache, weakness, dizziness, vomiting,abdominal pain, and dyspnea. Arsenicis excreted in urine following exposure.In severe cases of acute poisoning, deathcan result from renal failure and pulmonaryedema. Chronic poisoning can lead to jaundice,hemoglobinuria, hemolysis, and renaldamage. The target organs are the blood, kidneys,and liver. Arsine is a cancer-causinggas. There is sufficient evidence of its carcinogenicityin humans.

건강위험

ARSINE is highly toxic by inhalation; a very short exposure to small quantities may cause death or permanent injury. ARSINE is the most powerful hemolytic poison encountered in industry.

건강위험

Arsine is a highly toxic gas. It primarily targets the erythrocyte (red blood cell) and rapidly induces intravascular hemolysis. Secondary effects resulting from hemolysis include hemolytic anemia, hepatic and renal damage. The exact mechanism by which arsenic causes erythrocytes to rupture is unknown, but it is believed to be due to either oxidative damage or a reaction with sulfydryl. As stated, arsine is a potent hemolytic agent and causes acute intravascular hemolysis, rapid red blood cell destruction, and renal failure. Arsine is highly soluble in body fat and hence, can easily cross the alveolo-capillary membrane and into the red blood cell. Arsine causes chemical burns. Exposures to arsine cause headaches, malaise, weakness, dizziness, dyspnea; abdomen and back pain;nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bronze skin; hematuria (hemoglobin in urine), jaundice, liver enlargement, fever, anxiety, disorientation, delirium, shivering, muscular cramps, tachypnea, tachycardia, anemia, hyperkalemia, electro-cardiographic changes, burning sensations, peripheral neuropathy (focal anesthesia and paresthesia), agitation, disorientation, and hallucinations. The exposed individual and/or the occupational worker soon develops a sensation of cold and paresis in the limbs, hemoglobinuria, a garlic-like odor to the breath, multi-organ failure, and massive hemolysis and kidney failure. Toxic pulmonary edema or acute circulatory failure has been reported as the cause of death in some cases of arsine poisoning. Studies have indicated that occupational exposures to arsine cause increased rates of miscarriage among women associated with the semiconductor industry.

건강위험

The acute toxicity of arsine by inhalation is extremely high. This substance is a powerful systemic toxin with a strong affinity for the hemoglobin in the blood, causing hemolysis. Acute inhalation of arsine can cause the breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin, impairment of kidney function, damage to the liver and heart, electroencephalogram abnormality, hemolytic anemia, and death due to kidney or heart failure. Symptoms may be delayed for several hours, particularly if very low concentrations have been inhaled. Symptoms of exposure to arsine may include headache, malaise, weakness, dizziness, breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, dark red (bloody) urine followed by absence of urination, pulmonary edema, and coma. Exposure to a concentration of 5 to 10 ppm in air for several minutes may be hazardous to human health. The minimum amount of arsine detectable by odor is about 0.5 ppm; since the permissible exposure limit is 0.05 ppm, arsine does not have adequate warning properties to avoid overexposure. In cases where the amount of inhaled arsine is insufficient to produce acute effects, or where small quantities are inhaled over prolonged periods, destruction of red blood cells will occur. The only symptoms noted may be general tiredness, pallor, breathlessness on exertion, and palpitations as would be expected with severe secondary anemia. The carcinogenicity of arsine in humans has not been established; however, arsenic and certain inorganic arsenic compounds are recognized human carcinogens.

화재위험

Arsine is flammable in air, having a lower explosion limit (LEL) of 5.8%. The upper limit has not been determined. Combustion products (arsenic trioxide and water) are less toxic than arsine itself. In the event of an arsine fire, stop the flow of gas if possible without risk of harmful exposure and let the fire burn itself out.

화재위험

Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Container may explode in heat of fire. When heated to decomposition, emits highly toxic fumes. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. May explode when exposed to chlorine, nitric acid, or potassium plus ammonia. On exposure to light, moist ARSINE decomposes quickly, depositing shiny black arsenic.

인화성 및 폭발성

Arsine is flammable in air, having a lower explosion limit (LEL) of 5.8%. The upper limit has not been determined. Combustion products (arsenic trioxide and water) are less toxic than arsine itself. In the event of an arsine fire, stop the flow of gas if possible without risk of harmful exposure and let the fire burn itself out.

Safety Profile

Confirmed human carcinogen. Poison by inhalation. Human red blood cell, gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, and other systemic effects by inhalation. Flammable when exposed to flame. Moderately explosive when exposed to Cl2, HNO3, (K + NH3, open flame, or powerful shock. Dangerous, more toxic than its oxidation product. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of arsenic. See also ARSENIC, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, and HYDRIDES.

잠재적 노출

Arsine is used in making electronic, semiconductor components; in organic syntheses; and in making lead-acid storage batteries. Arsine may be generated by side reactions or unexpectedly; e.g., it may be generated in metal pickling operations; metal drossing operations; or when inorganic arsenic compounds contact sources of nascent hydrogen. It has been known to occur as an impurity in acetylene. Most occupational exposure occurs in chemical, smelting, and refining industries. It has been used as a poison gas. Cases of exposure have come from workers dealing with zinc, tin, cadmium, galvanized coated aluminum; and silicon and steel metals. A regulated, marked area should be established where this chemical is handled, used, or stored in compliance with OSHA Standard 1910.1045. SA is used as a military poison gas (blood agent). It forms cyanide in the body.

Carcinogenicity

Arsenic has been considered a human carcinogen for a number of years(1),but the mechanisms underlying these processes have remained elusive due in part to the absence of an appropriate animal model. There are a number of hypotheses for the mechanisms of arsenical action that include arsenical inhibition of DNA repair, cocarcinogenesis, and more recently the concept of arsenical production of ROS(65,66) that may act in concert with these mechanisms. It is clear from in vitro mutagenicity test systems that arsenicals are not direct-acting mutagens but rather act via some secondary mechanism(s). Given the long history and knowledge that arsenicals in air and water produce human cancers, this is a remarkable situation with regard to occupational and environmental exposures. Most studies of animals exposed to arsenate or arsenite by the oral route have not detected any clear evidence for an increased incidence of skin cancer or other cancers. Recently, a series of studies presented evidence that inorganic arsenic may be a transplacental carcinogen in animals. Waalkes et al. exposed timed pregnant mice to sodium arsenite in drinking water during gestation days 8–18. Dose-related increases in hepatocellular carcinomas and adrenal tumors in the male offspring and uterine hyperplasia in female offspring from treated dams were reported. The offspring also had increase in the number of malignant tumors. Aberrant estrogen signaling, potentially through inappropriate estrogen receptora, may play a role in the arsenic-induced tumors in these offspring.

저장

cylinders of arsine should be stored and used in a continuously ventilated gas cabinet or fume hood. Local fire codes should be reviewed for limitations on quantity and storage requirements. Carbon steel, stainless steel, Monel?, and Hastelloy ?C are preferred materials for handling arsine; brass and aluminum should be avoided. Kel-F? and Teflon? are preferred gasket materials; Viton? and Nylon? are acceptable.

운송 방법

UN2188 Arsine, Hazard class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3- Poisonous gas, 2.1-Flammable gas, Inhalation Hazard Zone A. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner. Military driver shall be given full and complete information regarding shipment and conditions in case of emergency. AR 50-6 deals specifically with the shipment of chemical agents. Shipments of agent will be escorted in accordance with AR 740-32.

비 호환성

Arsine forms explosive mixture with air. SA reacts with strong oxidizers, nitric acid, causing an explosion hazard. Thermally unstable; shock, friction, and concussion sensitive; can explosively decompose. Can explode on contact with warm, dry air. Violent reaction with acids, halogens, mixtures of potassium and ammonia. Decomposes to metallic arsenic (fumes) on exposure to light, moisture or upon decomposition from heat or ignition.

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Arsine may be disposed of by controlled burning. When possible, cylinders should be sealed and returned to suppliers. Seek guidance from regulatory agencies as to proper disposal. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

주의 사항

Occupational workers should be careful during handling/use of arsine. Workers should use protective gloves: neoprene, butyl rubber, PVC, polyethylene, or Tefl on. Workers should also use appropriate protective equipment. If a leak occurs in a user’s equipment, be certain to purge the piping with an inert gas prior to attempting repairs and evacuate all personnel from the affected area. The compressed gas cylinders should not be refi lled without the express written permission of the owner.

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