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스테아르산

스테아르산
스테아르산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
57-11-4
한글명:
스테아르산
동의어(한글):
스테아르산;N-옥타데카노산;스테아로판산;옥타데카노;1-헵타데칸카르복실산;스테아린산;스테아릭애씨드;스테아린산
상품명:
Stearic acid
동의어(영문):
C18;C18:0;pd185;naa173;NAA180;PD 185;Stearic;groco54;groco55;groco58
CBNumber:
CB4853859
분자식:
C18H36O2
포뮬러 무게:
284.48
MOL 파일:
57-11-4.mol

스테아르산 속성

녹는점
67-72 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
361 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.84
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 173.7 °C)
굴절률
1.4299
FEMA
3035 | STEARIC ACID
인화점
>230 °F
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
Practically insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol (96 per cent) and in light petroleum (bp: 50-70 °C).
물리적 상태
powder
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 5.75±0.00(H2O t = 35) (Uncertain)
Specific Gravity
0.84 (80℃)
색상
White
수용성
0.1-1 g/100 mL at 23 ºC
Merck
14,8804
JECFA Number
116
BRN
608585
InChIKey
QIQXTHQIDYTFRH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
57-11-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Octadecanoic acid(57-11-4)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 38-36/37/38-11
안전지침서 37/39-26-16
유엔번호(UN No.) 1325
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 WI2800000
자연 발화 온도 395 °C
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 38231100
유해 물질 데이터 57-11-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 i.v. in mice, rats: 23±0.7, 21.5±1.8 mg/kg, L. Or, A. Wretlind, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 18, 141 (1961)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어:
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

스테아르산 MSDS


Stearic acid

스테아르산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

용도

"일반적으로 스테아르산의 활용은 금속 양이온에 부착될 수 있는 극성 머리 부분과 유기 용매에 용해성을 가진 비극성 사슬의 양친매적인 성질을 이용한다. 스테아르산은 주로 샴푸, 면도 크림 제품과 같은 세제, 비누 및 화장품의 생산에 사용된다. 윤활제, 연화제 및 이형제"

용도

"스테아르산은 납 축전지 제조시 음극판 첨가제로도 사용된다. 오래전부터 지방산은 양초 제조 과정에서 필요한 성분이었다. 스테아르산은 단순당 또는 옥수수 시럽과 함께 사탕 제조에서 경화제로 사용된다.스테아르산은 식이 보조 제품 생산에 사용된다. 스테아르산은 종종 불꽃놀이에서 알루미늄 및 철과 같은 금속 분말을 코팅하는데 사용된다. 이는 산화를 방지하여 구성 물질들을 보다 오랜 시간동안 저장할 수 있게 한다. 스테아르산은 세라믹 분말의 사출 성형 및 압축 공정에서 일반적인 윤활제이다. 또한 석재 몰드에서 구워지는 폼 라텍스의 이형제로 사용된다."

용도

플라스틱 가공 : PVC, PP, PE 등에서 사용되는 가소제, 윤활제, 대전 방지제, 방담 제, 노화 방지제 및 발포제

생산/준비/합성

"스테아르산은 뜨거운 물(약 100°C)을 사용하여 트라이글리세라이드의 비누화에 의해 지방 및 오일로부터 얻는다. 이어서, 생성된 혼합물을 증류시킨다. 정제된 스테아르산을 이용할 수 있지만, 상업용 스테아르산은 보통 스테아르산과 팔미트산의 혼합물이다. 스테아르산이 풍부한 지방과 오일은 식물성 지방(일반적으로 5% 미만)보다 동물성 지방(30% 까지)에 더 풍부하다. 중요한 예외는 코코아 버터와 시어버터이며, 스테아르산 함량(트라이글리세라이드 로)은 28~48%이다. 생합성 과정에서 스테아르산은 아세틸-CoA가 2탄소 단위를 제공하는 지방산의 합성 과정을 통해 탄수화물로부터 생성된다."

개요

Stearic acid (STAIR-ik or STEER-ik) is the saturated fatty acid with an 18 carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid, and its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)16CO2H. Its name comes from the Greek word στ?αρ "stéar", which means tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. Stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid.

화학적 성질

Stearic acid has a characteristic odor and taste resembling tallow. It is a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from fats consisting chiefly of stearic acid (C18H36O2) and palmitic acid (C16H32O2).

화학적 성질

Stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH, is a white or colorless, waxlike solid with a melting point of 70°C (158 OF), and a boiling point of 232°C (450 OF) at 2 kPa. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform,and is insolublein water. Stearic acid, nature's most common fatty acid, is derived from natural animal and vegetable fats. Also known as n-octadecanoic acid, stearic acid is used in the preparation of metallic stearates, as a lubricant, and in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, candles, and food packaging.

화학적 성질

Stearic acid is a hard, white or faintly yellow-colored, somewhat glossy, crystalline solid or a white or yellowish white powder. It has a slight odor (with an odor threshold of 20 ppm) and taste suggesting tallow.

출처

Stearic acid is naturally present in the glycerides of animal fats and most vegetable oils. Reported found in fresh apple, banana, Vitis vinifera L., melon, tomato, ginger, blue cheeses, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, feta cheese, buttermilk, raw fatty fish, raw lean fish, raw shrimp, grapefruit juice, guava, papaya, cucumber, saffron, pork and lamb liver, pork fat, hop oil, beer, cognac, rum, whiskies, sherry, tea, peanut oil, soybean, roast coconut, coconut milk, avocado, passion fruit, rose apple, mushroom, starfruit, fenugreek, mango, cardamom, cooked rice, prickly pear, dill seed, buckwheat, malt, wort, cassava, loquat, shrimp, crab, cape gooseberry and Chinese quince.

용도

Generally applications of stearic acid exploit its bifunctional character, with a polar head group that can be attached to metal cations and a nonpolar chain that confers solubility in organic solvents. The combination leads to uses as a surfactant and softening agent. Stearic acid undergoes the typical reactions of saturated carboxylic acids, notably reduction to stearyl alcohol, and esterification with a range of alcohols.
Soaps , cosmetics , detergents
Stearic acid is mainly used in the production of detergents, soaps, and cosmetics such as shampoos and shaving cream products. Soaps are not made directly from stearic acid, but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol; glycol stearate and glycol distearate, are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. They are added to the product in molten form and allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid.
Lubricants , softening and release agents
In view of the soft texture of the sodium salt, which is the main component of soap, other salts are also useful for their lubricating properties. Lithium stearate is an important component of grease. The stearate salts of zinc, calcium, cadmium, and lead are used to soften PVC. Stearic acid is used along with castor oil for preparing softeners in textile sizing. They are heated and mixed with caustic potash or caustic soda. Related salts are also commonly used as release agents, e.g. in the production of automobile tires.
Niche uses
Being inexpensively available and chemically benign, stearic acid finds many niche applications. When making plaster castings from a plaster piece mold or waste mold and when making the mold from a shellacked clay original. In this use, powdered stearic acid is mixed in water and the suspension is brushed onto the surface to be parted after casting. This reacts with the calcium in the plaster to form a thin layer of calcium stearate which functions as a release agent. When reacted with zinc it forms zinc stearate which is used a lubricant for playing cards (fanning powder) to ensure a smooth motion when fanning. In compressed confections, it is used as a lubricant to keep the tablet from sticking to the die.
Fatty acids are classic components of candle - making. Stearic acid is used along with simple sugar or corn syrup as a hardener in candies.
Stearic acid is used to produce dietary supplements.
In fire works, stearic acid is often used to coat metal powders such as aluminium and iron. This prevents oxidation, allowing compositions to be stored for a longer period of time. Stearic acid is a common lubricant during injection molding and pressing of ceramic powders. It is also used as a mold release for foam latex that is baked in stone molds. .

용도

Stearic Acid is a fatty acid that is a mixture of solid organic acids obtained principally from stearic acid and palmitic acid. it is practi- cally insoluble in water. it functions as a lubricant, binder, and defoamer. it is used as a softener in chewing gum base.

용도

Pharmaceutic aid (emulsion adjunct); pharmaceutic aid (tablet and/or capsule lubricant).

용도

stearic acid is an emulsifier and thickening agent found in many vegetable fats. Stearic acid is the main ingredient used in making bar soaps and lubricants. It occurs naturally in butter acids, tallow, cascarilla bark, and in other animal fats and oils. Stearic acid may cause allergic reactions in people with sensitive skin and is considered somewhat comedogenic.

정의

ChEBI: A C18 straight-chain saturated fatty acid component of many animal and vegetable lipids. As well as in the diet, it is used in hardening soaps, softening plastics and in making cosmetics, candles and plastics.

생산 방법

Stearic acid is manufactured by hydrolysis of fat by continuous exposure to a countercurrent stream of high-temperature water and fat in a high-pressure chamber. The resultant mixture is purified by vacuum steam distillation and the distillates are then separated using selective solvents.
Stearic acid may also be manufactured by the hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils; by the hydrogenation and subsequent saponification of olein followed by recrystallization from alcohol; and from edible fats and oils by boiling with sodium hydroxide, separating any glycerin, and decomposing the resulting soap with sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. The stearic acid is then subsequently separated from any oleic acid by cold expression.
Stearic acid is derived from edible fat sources unless it is intended for external use, in which case nonedible fat sources may be used. The USP32–NF27 states that stearic acid labeled solely for external use is exempt from the requirement that it be prepared from edible sources. Stearic acid may contain a suitable antioxidant such as 0.005% w/w butylated hydroxytoluene.

생산 방법

Stearic Acid occurs in many animal and vegetable fats and oils, but it is more abundant in animal fat (up to 30 %) than vegetable fat (typically < 5 % ) . The important exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28 – 45 %.
Stearic acid is prepared by treating these fats and oils with water at a high pressure and temperature (above 200 °C), leading to the hydrolysis of triglycerides. The resulting mixture is then distilled. Commercial stearic acid is often a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available.
In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery via acetyl-CoA .

정의

A solid carboxylic acid present in fats and oils as the glyceride.

제조 방법

Commercially it is produced by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids of soybean, cottonseed or other vegetable oils. When obtained from animal fats by hydrolysis and fractional crystallization, commercial stearic acid is a mixture of solid organic acids, chiefly palmitic and stearic acids. Commercial products containing about 90% stearic acid are produced by hydrolysis and crystallization of a completely hydrogenated vegetable oil or by fractional distillation of fatty acid mixtures obtained from tallow

상표명

Hystrene 5016 (Witco).

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 20 ppm

일반 설명

White solid with a mild odor. Floats on water.

공기와 물의 반응

Slightly soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Stearic acid is incompatible with strong oxidizers and strong bases. Stearic acid is also incompatible with reducing agents.

건강위험

Compound is generally considered nontoxic. Inhalation of dust irritates nose and throat. Dust causes mild irritation of eyes.

화재위험

Stearic acid is combustible. Stearic acid can heat spontaneously.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Stearic acid is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is mainly used in oral formulations as a tablet and capsule lubricant, although it may also be used as a binder or in combination with shellac as a tablet coating. It has also been suggested that stearic acid may be used in enteric tablet coatings and as a sustained-release drug carrier.
In topical formulations, stearic acid is used as an emulsifying and solubilizing agent. When partially neutralized with alkalis or triethanolamine, stearic acid is used in the preparation of creams. The partially neutralized stearic acid forms a creamy base when mixed with 5–15 times its own weight of aqueous liquid, the appearance and plasticity of the cream being determined by the proportion of alkali used.
Stearic acid is used as the hardening agent in glycerin suppositories.
Stearic acid is also widely used in cosmetics and food products.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. A human sktn irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by implantation route. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. Heats spontaneously. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Stearic acid is widely used in oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations; it is also used in cosmetics and food products. Stearic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material. However, consumption of excessive amounts may be harmful.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 23 mg/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 21.5 mg/kg

신진 대사

An isotope labeling study in humans concluded that the fraction of dietary stearic acid oxidatively desaturated to oleic acid was 2.4 times higher than the fraction of palmitic acid analogously converted to palmitoleic acid. Also, stearic acid was less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies stearic acid was associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids. These findings may indicate that stearic acid is healthier than other saturated fatty acids.

저장

Stearic acid is a stable material; an antioxidant may also be added to it. The bulk material should be stored in a wellclosed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Crystallise stearic acid from acetone, acetonitrile, EtOH (5 times), aqueous MeOH, ethyl methyl ketone or pet ether (b 60-90o), or by fractional precipitation by dissolving in hot 95% EtOH and pouring into distilled water, with stirring. The precipitate, after washing with distilled water, is dried under vacuum over P2O5. It has also been purified by zone melting and partial freezing. [Tamai et al. J Phys Chem 91 541 1987, Beilstein 2 IV 1206.]

비 호환성

Stearic acid is incompatible with most metal hydroxides and may be incompatible with bases, reducing agents, and oxidizing agents.
Ointment bases made with stearic acid may show evidence of drying out or lumpiness due to such a reaction when compounded with zinc or calcium salts.
A number of differential scanning calorimetry studies have investigated the compatibility of stearic acid with drugs. Although such laboratory studies have suggested incompatibilities, e.g. with naproxen, they may not necessarily be applicable to formulated products.
Stearic acid has been reported to cause pitting in the film coating of tablets applied using an aqueous film-coating technique; the pitting was found to be a function of the melting point of the stearic acid.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe (fatty acids). Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (sublingual tablets; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

스테아르산 준비 용품 및 원자재

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