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휘발유

휘발유
휘발유 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
8006-61-9
한글명:
휘발유
동의어(한글):
가솔린;휘발유
상품명:
gasoline
동의어(영문):
GASOLINE;GASOLINE(FROM50-100OCTANE);Gasoline, natural Low boiling point naphtha
CBNumber:
CB52130573
분자식:
포뮬러 무게:
0
MOL 파일:
Mol file

휘발유 속성

안전

휘발유 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Gasoline is a highly flammable, mobile liquid with a characteristic odor. A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics). Physical property values may vary depending on grade. The Odor Threshold is 0.25 ppm.

용도

Highly flammable, dangerous fire, and explosion risk. Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant, and central nervous system impairment. Possible carcinogen.

정의

A mixture of volatile hydrocarbons suitable for use in a spark-ignited internal-combustion engine and having an octane number of at least 60. The major components are branched-chain paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. There are several methods of pr

반응 프로필

GASOLINE may be incompatible with strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid, peroxides, and perchlorates. Charring may occur followed by ignition of unreacted hydrocarbon and other nearby combustibles. In other settings, mostly unreactive. Not affected by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, most oxidizing agents, and most reducing agents. When heated sufficiently or when ignited in the presence of air, oxygen or strong oxidizing agents, burns exothermically to produce carbon dioxide and water.

건강위험

INHALATION causes irritation of upper respiratory tract; central nervous system stimulation followed by depression of varying degrees ranging from dizziness, headache, and incoordination to anesthesia, coma, and respiratory arrest; irregular heartbeat is dangerous complication. ASPIRATION causes severe lung irritation with coughing, gagging, dyspnea, substernal distress, and rapidly developing pulmonary edema; later, signs of bronchopneumonia and pneumonitis; acute onset of central nervous system followed by depression. INGESTION causes irritation of mucous membranes of throat, esophagus, and stomach; stimulation followed by depression of central nervous system; irregular heartbeat.

농업용

Gasoline, also known as petrol, is a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons having 4 to 12 carbon atoms per molecule. It has an octane number of at least 60. It is used as fuel for internal combustion engines and as a solvent. The major components of gasoline are branched-chain paraffins, cycloparaffins and aromatics.
There are several methods used for the production of gasoline. Among these, distillation or fractionation yields a straight run product of relatively low octane number, which is used primarily for blending, thermal and catalytic cracking, reforming, polymerization, isomerization and dehydrocyclodimerization. The various means of converting hydrocarbon gases into motor fuels by modification of chemical structure usually makes use of catalysts. The present source of gasoline is petroleum; gasoline may also be produced from shale oil and tar sands as well as by gasification of coal.
While gasoline can be synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen, almost all gasoline is made by refining, cracking and alkylation. The fractions are blended to produce the required fuels. Motor gasoline boils between 30°C and 200°C. If the fuel is too volatile, the vapor bubbles are formed which hinder the flow of fuel (vapor lock).
Different kinds of gasoline are:
(a) Cracked gasoline: Gasolines are produced by catalytic decomposition of high-boiling components of petroleum. Such gasolines have higher octane ratings than that produced by fractional distillation. The difference is due to a higher content of unsaturated, aromatic and branched-chain hydrocarbons. The actual properties vary widely depending on the source, temperature, pressure and the catalyst used in cracking.
(b) High-octane gasoline: It is a gasoline with an octane value of 90to 100.
(c) Lead-free gasoline: It is a gasoline containing no more than 0.05 g of lead per 4.5 1 designed for use in engines equipped with a catalytic converter.
(d) Natural gasoline: It is the gasoline based on butane, pentane and hexane hydrocarbons. It is used in blending to produce finished gasoline with adjusted volatility but having a low octane number.
(e) Polymer gasoline: A gasoline produced by polymerization of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propene and butene is called polymer gasoline. It is used in small amounts for blending with other gasolines to improve their octane number.
(f) Pyrolysis gasoline: Gasolinep roduced by thermal cracking as a by-product of ethylene manufacture is pyrolysis gasoline. It is used as a source of benzene.
(8) Reformed gasoline: It is a high octane gasoline obtained from low octane gasoline by heating the vapors to high temperatures or passing the vapors over a catalyst.
(h) Straight-run gasoline: Gasoline produced by distillation, without the use of cracking or other chemical conversion processes, is called straight-run gasoline.
(i) White gasoline: It is an unleaded gasoline especially designed for use in motor boats. It is uncracked and strongly inhibited against oxidation to avoid gum formation, and is usually not colored to distinguish it from other grades. It also serves as a fuel for camp lanterns and portable stoves.
Aviation fuel contains a less of low and high boiling components. The octane number or maximum power is carefully controlled by the structure of gasoline components. The gasoline may further be improved by an antiknocking additive. Other additives include lead scavengers (ethylene bromide), antioxidants, metal deactivators, anti-icing agents and detergents. The host of properties exhibited by gasolines results from the use of additives. These gasolines are used as a source of hydrogen in ammonia manufacture and as a source of energy for tractors and jeeps.

공업 용도

Gasoline is a colorless liquid hydrocarbonobtained in the fractional distillation of petroleum.It is used chiefly as motor fuel, but alsoas a solvent. Ordinary gasoline consists of thehydrocarbons between C6H14 and C10H22, whichdistill off between the temperatures 69 and174°C, usually having the light limit at heptane,C7H16,or octane, C8H18.The octane number isthe standard of measure of detonation in theengine. Motor fuel, or the general name gasoline,before the wide use of high-octane gasolinesobtained by catalytic cracking meant anyhydrocarbon mixture that could be used as afuel in an internal-combustion engine by sparkignition without being sucked in as a liquid andwithout being so volatile as to cause imperfectcombustion and carbon deposition. Theseincluded also mixtures of gasoline with alcoholor benzol.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: cough, conjunctiva irritation, hallucinations or distorted per ceptions. Repeated or prolonged dermal ex posure causes dermatitis. Can cause blister ing of skin. Inhalation or ingestion can cause central nervous system depression. Pulmon ary aspiration can cause severe pneumonitis. Some addiction has been reported from inhalation of fumes. Even brief inhalations of high concentrations can cause a fatal pulmonary edema. The vapors are consider ed to be moderately poisonous. If its con-centration in air is sufficiently high to reduce the oxygen content below that needed to maintain life, it acts as a simple asphyxiant. A human eye irritant. Gasohe is a common air contaminant. A very dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fKe, use foam, CO2, dry chemical.

잠재적 노출

Gasoline is used as a fuel, diluent, and solvent throughout industry.

운송 방법

UN1203 Gasoline includes gasoline mixed with ethyl alcohol, with not >10% alcohol, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.

비 호환성

May form explosive mixture with air. Strong oxidizers may cause fire and explosions. Incompatible with nitric acid. May accumulate static elec trical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors.

폐기물 처리

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinera tor equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Alternatively, gasoline vapors may be recovered from fuel transfer operations by various techniques.

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