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니오븀

니오븀
니오븀 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-03-1
한글명:
니오븀
동의어(한글):
니오븀;니오브분;철,합금제조;니오븀(NIOBIUM)
상품명:
NIOBIUM
동의어(영문):
Nb;Niob;GAAD;NM23;NME1;VN 1;NDPKA;NIOBIUM;NB005115;NB005110
CBNumber:
CB6423818
분자식:
Nb
포뮬러 무게:
92.91
MOL 파일:
7440-03-1.mol

니오븀 속성

녹는점
2468 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
4742 °C(lit.)
밀도
8.57 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
저장 조건
-20°C
물리적 상태
wire
색상
Silver-gray
Specific Gravity
8.57
비저항
13-16 μΩ-cm, 20°C
수용성
Insoluble in water.
Merck
13,6584
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, halogens, oxygen.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-03-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F,Xi,C
위험 카페고리 넘버 17-36/37/38-40-34-20/21/22
안전지침서 17-36-26-6-45-36/37/39-27
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1383 4.2/PG 1
WGK 독일 -
RTECS 번호 QT9900000
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H228 인화성 고체 인화성 고체 구분 1
구분 2
위험
경고
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.

니오븀 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

shiny grey metallic solid

물리적 성질

Niobium is a soft grayish-silvery metal that resembles fresh-cut steel. It is usually found inminerals with other related metals. It neither tarnishes nor oxidizes in air at room temperaturebecause of a thin coating of niobium oxide. It does readily oxidize at high temperatures(above 200°C), particularly with oxygen and halogens (group 17). When alloyed with tin andaluminum, niobium has the property of superconductivity at 9.25 Kelvin degrees.
Its melting point is 2,468°C, its boiling point is 4,742°C, and its density is 8.57 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are 49 isotopes of niobium, ranging from Nb-81 to Nb-113. All are radioactiveand made artificially except niobium-93, which is stable and makes up all of theelement’s natural existence in the Earth’s crust.

Origin of Name

Niobium is named after the Greek mythological figure Niobe who was the daughter of Tantalus. Tantalus was a Greek god whose name is the source of the word “tantalize,” which implies torture: he cut up his son to make soup for other gods.

출처

Niobium is the 33rd most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and is considered rare.It does not exist as a free elemental metal in nature. Rather, it is found primarily in severalmineral ores known as columbite (Fe, Mn, Mg, and Nb with Ta) and pyrochlore [(Ca,Na)2Nb2O6 (O, OH, F)]. These ores are found in Canada and Brazil. Niobium and tantalum[(Fe, Mn)(Ta, Nb)2O6] are also products from tin mines in Malaysia and Nigeria. Niobium is a chemical “cousin” of tantalum and was originally purified by its separation through theprocess known as fractional crystallization (separation is accomplished as a result of the differentrates at which some elements crystallize) or by being dissolved in special solvents. Todaymost of the niobium metal is obtained from columbite and pyrochlore through a complicatedrefining process that ends with the production of niobium metal by electrolysis of moltenniobium potassium fluoride (K2NbF7).

Characteristics

Some of niobium’s characteristics and properties resemble several other neighboring elementson the periodic table, making them, as well as niobium, difficult to identify. This isparticularly true for tantalum, which is located just below niobium on the periodic table.
Niobium is not attacked by cold acids but is very reactive with several hot acids such ashydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids. It is ductile (can be drawn into wiresthrough a die) and malleable, which means it can be worked into different forms.

역사

Niobium was discovered in 1801 by Hatchett in an ore sent to England more that a century before by John Winthrop the Younger, first governor of Connecticut. The metal was first prepared in 1864 by Blomstrand, who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere. The name niobium was adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1950 after 100 years of controversy. Most leading chemical societies and government organizations refer to it by this name. Some metallurgists and commercial producers, however, still refer to the metal as “Niobium.” Niobium is found in niobite (or columbite), niobite-tantalite, pyrochlore, and euxenite. Large deposits of niobium have been found associated with carbonatites (carbon-silicate rocks), as a constituent of pyrochlore. Extensive ore reserves are found in Canada, Brazil, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, and Australia. The metal can be isolated from tantalum, and prepared in several ways. It is a shiny, white, soft, and ductile metal, and takes on a bluish cast when exposed to air at room temperatures for a long time. The metal starts to oxidize in air at 200°C, and when processed at even moderate temperatures must be placed in a protective atmosphere. It is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel. Thousands of pounds of niobium have been used in advanced air frame systems such as were used in the Gemini space program. It has also found use in super-alloys for applications such as jet engine components, rocket subassemblies, and heat-resisting equipment. The element has superconductive properties; superconductive magnets have been made with Nb-Zr wire, which retains its superconductivity in strong magnetic fields. Natural niobium is composed of only one isotope, 93Nb. Forty-seven other isotopes and isomers of niobium are now recognized. Niobium metal (99.9% pure) is priced at about 50¢/g.

용도

Refined niobium metal is most useful as an alloy with other metals. It is used to producespecial stainless steel alloys, to make high-temperature magnets, as special metals for rocketsand missiles, and for high- and low-temperature–resistant ceramics. Stainless steel that hasbeen combined with niobium is less likely to break down under very high temperatures.This physical attribute is ideal for construction of both land- and sea-based nuclear reactors.Niobium has special cryogenic properties. It can withstand very cold temperatures, whichimproves its ability to conduct electricity. This characteristic makes it an excellent metal forlow-temperature electrical superconductors.
Niobium alloyed with germanium becomes a superconductor of electricity that does notlose its superconductivity at 23.2° Kelvin as large amounts of electrical current are passedthrough it, as do some other superconductive alloys. In the pure metallic state, niobium wiresare also superconductors when the temperatures are reduced to near absolute zero (–273°C).Niobium alloys are also used to make superconductive magnets as well as jewelry.
.

용도

In ferrous metallurgy: Ferroniobium (produced by silicon reduction of columbite) is used to alloy stainless steels and metals for welding rods. In niobium base alloys for high temperatures and nuclear reactions. Niobium has some use as a getter in electronic vacuum tubes.

정의

The name niobium is officially approved by chemical authorities, but columbium is still used chiefly by metallurgists. Metallic element, atomic number 41, group VB of the periodic table, aw 92.9064, valences of 2, 3, 4, 5; no stable isotopes

정의

A soft silvery transition element used in welding, special steels, and nuclear reactor work. Symbol: Nb; m.p. 2468°C; b.p. 4742°C; r.d. 8.570 (20°C); p.n. 41; r.a.m. 92.90638.

정의

Columbium: a former name for theelement niobium.

정의

niobium: Symbol Nb. A soft ductilegrey-blue metallic transition element;a.n. 41; r.a.m. 92.91; r.d. 8.57;m.p. 2468°C; b.p. 4742°C. It occurs inseveral minerals, including niobite(Fe(NbO3)2), and is extracted by severalmethods including reduction ofthe complex fluoride K2NbF7 usingsodium. It is used in special steelsand in welded joints (to increasestrength). Niobium–zirconium alloysare used in superconductors. Chemically,the element combines with thehalogens and oxidizes in air at 200°C.It forms a number of compounds andcomplexes with the metal in oxidationstates 2, 3, or 5. The elementwas discovered by Charles Hatchett(c. 1765–1847) in 1801 and first isolatedby Christian Blomstrand(1826–97) in 1864. Formerly, it wascalled columbium.

위험도

Niobium is not considered reactive at normal room temperatures. However, it is toxic in itsphysical forms as dust, powder, shavings, and vapors, and it is carcinogenic if inhaled or ingested.

니오븀 준비 용품 및 원자재

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