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사이안화 나트륨

사이안화 나트륨
사이안화 나트륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
143-33-9
한글명:
사이안화 나트륨
동의어(한글):
청산소다;청조;나트륨시안화물,고체;사이안화나트륨;시안화나트륨;청화소다;화이트시안화물;시안화소다;청화소다;청화나트륨;청조;화이트시안화물;나트륨시아나이드;소듐시아나이드;시안화 나트륨;시안산, 소듐 염;시안화 소듐;시안화 소듐 (Na(CN))
상품명:
Sodium cyanide
동의어(영문):
NaCN;Cymag;Cyanobrik;Cyanogran;kyanidsodny;caswellno758;Kyanid sodny;Natriumcyanid;Sodium cyanide;cianurodisodio
CBNumber:
CB6754927
분자식:
CNNa
포뮬러 무게:
49.01
MOL 파일:
143-33-9.mol

사이안화 나트륨 속성

녹는점
563.7 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
1497°C
밀도
1.6
증기 밀도
1.7 (vs air)
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 817 °C)
인화점
1500°C
저장 조건
Poison room
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Solid
색상
White
pH 범위
11-12
냄새
The dry salts are odorless, but reaction with atmospheric moisture produces HCN, whose bitter almond odor is detectable at 1 to 5 ppm; however, 20 to 60% of the population are reported to be unable to detect the odor of HCN.
수소이온지수(pH)
11.7 (100g/l, H2O, 20°C)
수용성
37 g/100mL (20 ºC)
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,8605
BRN
3587243
노출 한도
TLV-TWA (measured as CN) skin 5 mg CN/m3 (ACGIH and OSHA), 5 mg CN/m3/ 10-minute ceiling (NIOSH).
안정성
hygroscopic
CAS 데이터베이스
143-33-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Sodium cyanide(143-33-9)
EPA
Sodium cyanide (143-33-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T+,N
위험 카페고리 넘버 26/27/28-32-50/53-48/25
안전지침서 7-28-29-45-60-61-28A
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1689 6.1/PG 1
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 VZ7525000
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 6.1
포장분류 I
HS 번호 28371110
유해 물질 데이터 143-33-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 15 mg/kg (Smyth)
기존화학 물질 KE-31401
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-90
사고대비 물질 필터링 33
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 사고대비물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 시안화 나트륨 및 이를 1% 이상 함유한 혼합물. 다만, 베를린청(Ferric ferrocyanide)ㆍ황혈염(Potassium ferrocyanide)ㆍ적혈염(Potassium ferri-cyanide) 및 그 중 하나를 함유한 혼합물질은 제외한다.
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H300 삼키면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 1,2 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 피부와 접촉하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 1,2 위험 P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H330 흡입하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 1, 2 위험 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H372 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
예방조치문구:
P320 긴급히 (…) 처치를 하시오.
P330 입을 씻어내시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
NFPA 704
0
3 0

사이안화 나트륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Sodium cyanide, NaCN, is a cyanide salt that is a white, deliquescent, crystalline powder and is soluble in water. The specific gravity is 1.6, which is heavier than water. Sodium cyanide is toxic by inhalation and ingestion, with a TLV of 4.7 ppm and 5 mg/m3 of air. The target organs are the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, kidneys, liver, and skin. Reactions with acids can release flammable and toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. Cyanides are incompatible with all acids. The four-digit UN identification number is 1689.
The NFPA 704 designation is health 3, flammability 0, and reactivity 0. The primary uses are in gold and silver extraction from ores, electroplating, fumigation, and insecticides.

화학적 성질

Sodium cyanide is found as white granules, flakes or lumps. Sodium cyanide is shipped as pellets or briquettes. Odorless when dry. It absorbs water from air (is hygroscopic or deliquescent). Hydrogen cyanide gas released by sodium cyanide has a distinctive mild, bitter almond odor, but a large proportion of people cannot detect it; the odor does not provide adequate warning of hazardous concentrations.

물리적 성질

Physical Properties White cubic crystals; hygroscopic; density 1.6 g/cm3; melts at 563°C; very soluble in water; aqueous solution strongly alkaline and decomposes rapidly.

용도

Extracting gold and silver from ores; electroplating baths; case hardening steel by liquid nitriding; manufacture of hydrocyanic acid and other cyanides.

용도

Sodium cyanide is used for electroplating metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium, silver, and gold, and their alloys; for extracting gold and silver from ores; and as a fumigant and a chelating agent. It occurs in many varieties of maniocs (cassava), especially in bitter manioc.

생산 방법

Sodium cyanide was first prepared in 1834 by heating Prussian Blue, a mixture of cyanogen compounds of iron, and sodium carbonate and extracting sodium cyanide from the cooled mixture using alcohol. Sodium cyanide remained a laboratory curiosity until 1887, when a process was patented for the extraction of gold and silver ores by means of a dilute solution of cyanide.

정의

sodium cyanide: A white orcolourless crystalline solid, NaCN,deliquescent, soluble in water and inliquid ammonia, and slightly solublein ethanol; cubic; m.p. 564°C; b.p.1496°C. Sodium cyanide is now madeby absorbing hydrogen cyanide insodium hydroxide or sodium carbonatesolution. The compound is extremelypoisonous because it reacts with the iron in haemoglobin in theblood, so preventing oxygen reachingthe tissues of the body. It is used inthe extraction of precious metals andin electroplating industries. Aqueoussolutions are alkaline due to salt hydrolysis.

제조 방법

Sodium cyanide can be prepared by several methods (See Potassium Cyanide).
It is prepared by passing hydrogen cyanide through a 50% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide followed by evaporation of the solution in vacuum: NaOH + HCN → NaCN + H2O
Another method is to reduce sodamide with carbon at red heat: NaNH2 + C → NaCN + H2
Also, sodium cyanide can be made by heating a mixture of sodium carbonate and carbon with ammonia at high temperatures: Na2CO3 + 4C + 2NH3 → 2NaCN + 3CO↑ + 3H2↑.

화학 반응

Sodium cyanide, NaCN, white solid, soluble, very poisonous, formed (1) by reaction of sodamide and carbon at high temperature, (2) by reaction of calcium cyanamide and sodium chloride at high temperature, reacts in dilute solution in air with gold or silver to form soluble sodium gold or silver cyanide, and used for this purpose in the cyanide process for recovery of gold. The percentage of available cyanide is greater than in potassium cyanide previously used. Used as a source of cyanide, and for hydrocyanic acid.

일반 설명

A clear colorless aqueous solution.

공기와 물의 반응

Slowly evolves flammable and poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas.

반응 프로필

Sodium cyanide is weakly basic. Reacts with acids of all kinds to generate quantities of very poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, especially if solution dries out. Gives insoluble products with silver(I), mercury(I) and lead(II) ions that may decompose violently under certain conditions.

위험도

Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.

건강위험

Sodium cyanide is a highly poisonous compound by oral intake and by ocular and skin absorption. Accidental ingestion of a small quantity; as low as 100–150 mg could result in immediate collapse and instantaneous death in humans. At a lower dosage it can cause nausea, vomiting, hallucination, headache, and weakness. The toxicology of NaCN is the same as that of HCN. The metal cyanide forms HCN rapidly in the body, causing immediate death from a high dosage.
The lethal effect from cyanide poisoning varied with species. Investigating the acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds, Wiemeyer et al. (1986) observed that the LD50 values for the flesh-eating birds were lower than that for the birds that fed on plant material; vulture 4.8 mg/kg versus chicken 21 mg/kg. In a study on marine species, Pavicic and Pihlar (1983) found that at 10 ppm concentration of NaCN, invertebrates were more sensitive than fishes. In animals, the lethal dose of NaCN were in the same range by different toxic routes. A dose of 8 mg NaCN/kg resulted in ataxia, immobilization, and death in coyotes (Sterner 1979); however, the lethal time was longer, at 18 minutes.
Ballantyne (1983b) studied the acute lethal toxicity of sodium and other cyanides by ocular route. He found that cyanide instilled into the eye was absorbed across conjunctival blood vessels causing systemic toxicity and death within 3–12 minutes of the eye being contaminated. The toxicity of the cyanide did not decrease by mixing the solid with an inert powder such as kaolin.
LD50 value, intraperitoneal (mice): 4.3 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rats): 6.4 mg/kg
Sodium cyanide is a teratogen, causing fetus damage and developmental abnormalities in the cardiovascular system in hamsters (NIOSH 1986).
Sodium cyanide reacts with acids to form highly toxic hydrogen cyanide. There could be a slow liberation of HCN in contact with water.

건강위험

Sodium cyanide is a white crystalline solid that is odorless when dry, but emits a slight odor of hydrogen cyanide in damp air. It is slightly soluble in ethanol and formamide. It is very poisonous. It explodes if melted with nitrite or chlorate at about 450°F. It produces a violent reaction with magnesium, nitrites, nitrates, and nitric acid. On contact with acid, acid fumes, water, or steam, it produces toxic and flammable vapors. Synonyms for sodium cyanide are hydrocyanic acid, sodium salt, and cyanide of sodium.

인화성 및 폭발성

Sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide are noncombustible solids. Reaction with acids liberates flammable HCN.

공업 용도

sodium cyanide and other water-soluble cyanides are used as modifying reagents for selective flotation of ores containing galena, sphalerite and gangue minerals.

Safety Profile

A deadly human poison by ingestion. A deadly experimental poison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, intramuscular, and ocular routes. An experimental teratogen. Human systemic effects by ingestion: hallucinations, dstorted perceptions, muscle weakness, and gastritis. Experimental reproductive effects. hydrocyanic acid physiologically, inhibiting tissue oxidation and causing death through asphyxia. Cyanogen is probably as toxic as hydrocyanic acid; the nitriles are generally considered somewhat less toxic, probably because of their lower volathty. The nonvolaule cyanide salts appear to be relatively nonhazardous systemically, so long as they are not ingested and care is taken to prevent the formation of hydrocyanic acid. Workers, such as electroplaters and picklers, who are daily exposed to cyanide solutions may develop a “cyanide” rash, characterized by itching and by macular, papular, and vesicular eruptions. Frequently there is secondary infection. Exposure to small amounts of cyanide compounds over long periods of time is reported to cause loss of appetite, headache, weakness, nausea, dizziness, and symptoms of irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. moisture, acid. Many cyanides evolve hydrocyanic acid rather easily. This is a flammable gas and is highly toxic. Carbon dioxide from the air is sufficiently acidc to liberate hydrocyanic acid from cyanide solutions. Explodes if melted with nitrite or chlorate @ about 450”. Violent reaction with F2, Mg, nitrates, HNO3, nitrites. Upon contact with acid, acid fumes, water, or steam, it wdl produce toxic and flammable vapors of CNand NanO. Used in the extraction of gold and silver ores, in electroplating, and in insecticides. See also CYANIDE and HYDROCYANIC ACID, The volaule cyanides resemble Flammable by chemical reaction with heat,

잠재적 노출

Sodium cyanide is used as a solid or in solution to extract metal ores, in electroplating and metal cleaning baths; in metal hardening; in treatment of rabbit and rat burrows and holes and termite nests; in insecticides

저장

In particular, work with cyanides should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Cyanide salts should be stored in a cool, dry location, separated from acids.

운송 방법

UN1689 Sodium cyanide, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.

비 호환성

Sodium cyanide decomposes on contact with acids, acid salts, water, moisture, alcohols, and carbon dioxide, releasing highly toxic and flammable hydrogen cyanide gas. Aqueous solution is a strong base; it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Absorbs moisture from the air forming a corrosive syrup. Corrosive to active metals, such as aluminum, copper, and zinc. Under acid conditions, sarin hydrolyzes to form hydrofluoric acid.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. Add strong alkaline hypochlorite and react for 24 hours. Then flush to sewer with large volumes of water.

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