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D-만니트

D-만니트
D-만니트 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
69-65-8
한글명:
D-만니트
동의어(한글):
D-만니톨;D-만니트;만니톨;만니톨D
상품명:
D-Mannitol
동의어(영문):
Manna;Isotol;Mannit;SDM-25;Sugari;Manita;invenex;Osmosal;MANNITE;Diosmol
CBNumber:
CB7720972
분자식:
C6H14O6
포뮬러 무게:
182.17
MOL 파일:
69-65-8.mol

D-만니트 속성

녹는점
167-170 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
295°C
알파
141 º (c= USP-directives)
밀도
1.52
굴절률
1.3330 (estimate)
인화점
290-295°C/3.5mm
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Crystalline Powder
산도 계수 (pKa)
13.5(at 18℃)
색상
White
수소이온지수(pH)
5.0-6.5 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
optical activity
[α]25/D +23.3 to +24.3°(lit.)
수용성
soluble
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.04
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.04
Merck
14,5745
BRN
1721898
안정성
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
InChIKey
FBPFZTCFMRRESA-KVTDHHQDSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
69-65-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
D-Mannitol(69-65-8)
EPA
D-Mannitol(69-65-8)

안전

위험품 표기 Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38
안전지침서 24/25-36-26
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 OP2060000
F 고인화성물질 3
자연 발화 온도 410 °C
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 29054300
유해 물질 데이터 69-65-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 13500 mg/kg

D-만니트 MSDS


D-Mannitol

D-만니트 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

A white, crystalline solid consisting of D-mannitol and a small quantity of sorbitol. It is odorless and has a sweet taste. It is soluble in water, very slightly soluble in alcohol, and practically insoluble in most other common organic solvents. It is prepared commercially by catalytic reduction of glucose. Mannitol occurs in small amounts in a variety of foods such as olives, beets, and celery, and in the exudate of certain trees.

화학적 성질

Mannitol is D-mannitol. It is a hexahydric alcohol related to mannose and is isomeric with sorbitol.
Mannitol occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder, or freeflowing granules. It has a sweet taste, approximately as sweet as glucose and half as sweet as sucrose, and imparts a cooling sensation in the mouth. Microscopically, it appears as orthorhombic needles when crystallized from alcohol. Mannitol shows polymorphism.

화학적 성질

White or almost white, crystalline powder or free-flowing granules.

용도

inhibitor of norepinephrine and seritonin uptake, treatment of fibromyalgia

용도

Labelled D-Mannitol (M165000). D-Mannitol is widespread in plants and plant exudates; obtained from manna and seaweeds. D-Mannitol is used in the food industry as anticaking and free-flow agent, flavo ring agent, lubricant and release agent, stabilizer and thickener and nutritive sweetener.

용도

Used in titrimetric determination of boric acid.

용도

Used with boric acid in the manufacture of dry electrolytic condensers for radio applications; in making artificial resins and plasticizers; in pharmacy as excipient and diluent for solids and liqs; in analytical chemistry for boron determinations; in the manufacture of mannitol hexanitrate. Used in the food industry as anticaking and free-flow agent, flavoring agent, lubricant and release agent, stabilizer and thickener and nutritive sweetener.

정의

ChEBI: The D-enantiomer of mannitol.

생산 방법

Mannitol may be extracted from the dried sap of manna and other natural sources by means of hot alcohol or other selective solvents. It is commercially produced by the catalytic or electrolytic reduction of monosaccharides such as mannose and glucose.

상표명

Osmitrol (Baxter Healthcare); Resectisol (B Braun).

일반 설명

Odorless white crystalline powder or free-flowing granules. Sweet taste.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble.

반응 프로필

A sugar alcohol. More closely related to carbohydrates than to other polyhydric alcohols [Noller]. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination with alkali metals, nitrides, strong reducing agents and strong oxidizing agents.

위험도

Mildly toxic; mutagen.

화재위험

D-Mannitol is probably combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Mannitol is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and food products. In pharmaceutical preparations it is primarily used as a diluent (10–90% w/w) in tablet formulations, where it is of particular value since it is not hygroscopic and may thus be used with moisture-sensitive active ingredients.
Mannitol may be used in direct-compression tablet applications,for which the granular and spray-dried forms are available, or in wet granulations.Granulations containing mannitol have the advantage of being dried easily. Specific tablet applications include antacid preparations, glyceryl trinitrate tablets, and vitamin preparations. Mannitol is commonly used as an excipient in the manufacture of chewable tablet formulations because of its negative heat of solution, sweetness, and ‘mouth feel’.
In lyophilized preparations, mannitol (20–90% w/w) has been included as a carrier to produce a stiff, homogeneous cake that improves the appearance of the lyophilized plug in a vial.A pyrogen-free form is available specifically for this use. Mannitol has also been used to prevent thickening in aqueous antacid suspensions of aluminum hydroxide (<7% w/v). It has been suggested as a plasticizer in soft-gelatin capsules, as a component of sustained-release tablet formulations,and as a carrier in dry powder inhalers.It is also used as a diluent in rapidly dispersing oral dosage forms.It is used in food applications as a bulking agent. Therapeutically, mannitol administered parenterally is used as an osmotic diuretic, as a diagnostic agent for kidney function, as an adjunct in the treatment of acute renal failure, and as an agent to reduce intracranial pressure, treat cerebral edema, and reduce intraocular pressure. Given orally, mannitol is not absorbed significantly from the gastrointestinal tract, but in large doses it can cause osmotic diarrhea;

Safety

Mannitol is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol found in animals and plants; it is present in small quantities in almost all vegetables. Laxative effects may occur if mannitol is consumed orally in large quantities.If it is used in foods as a bodying agent and daily ingestion of over 20g is foreseeable, the product label should bear the statement ‘excessive consumption may have a laxative effect’. After intravenous injection, mannitol is not metabolized to any appreciable extent and is minimally reabsorbed by the renal tubule, about 80% of a dose being excreted in the urine in 3 hours.
A number of adverse reactions to mannitol have been reported, primarily following the therapeutic use of 20% w/v aqueous intravenous infusions.The quantity of mannitol used as an excipient is considerably less than that used therapeutically and is consequently associated with a lower incidence of adverse reactions. However, allergic, hypersensitive-type reactions may occur when mannitol is used as an excipient.
An acceptable daily intake of mannitol has not been specified by the WHO since the amount consumed as a sweetening agent was not considered to represent a hazard to health.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 14 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 7.47 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 22 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 9.69 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 13.5 g/kg

저장

Mannitol is stable in the dry state and in aqueous solutions. Solutions may be sterilized by filtration or by autoclaving and if necessary may be autoclaved repeatedly with no adverse physical or chemical effects.In solution, mannitol is not attacked by cold, dilute acids or alkalis, nor by atmospheric oxygen in the absence of catalysts. Mannitol does not undergo Maillard reactions.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

D-Mannitol is crystallised from EtOH, MeOH or H2O and dried at 100o. [Thomson Acta Chem Scand 6 270, 279, 280 1952, Beilstein 1 IV 2841.]

비 호환성

Mannitol solutions, 20% w/v or stronger, may be salted out by potassium chloride or sodium chloride.Precipitation has been reported to occur when a 25% w/v mannitol solution was allowed to contact plastic.Sodium cephapirin at 2 mg/mL and 30 mg/mL concentration is incompatible with 20% w/v aqueous mannitol solution. Mannitol is incompatible with xylitol infusion and may form complexes with some metals such as aluminum, copper, and iron. Reducing sugar impurities in mannitol have been implicated in the oxidative degradation of a peptide in a lyophilized formation.Mannitol was found to reduce the oral bioavailability of cimetidine compared to sucrose.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IP, IM, IV, and SC injections; infusions; buccal, oral and sublingual tablets, powders and capsules; ophthalmic preparations; topical solutions). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Mon-medicinal Ingredients.

D-만니트 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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