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디클로로메탄

디클로로메탄
디클로로메탄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
75-09-2
한글명:
디클로로메탄
동의어(한글):
염화메틸렌;솔라에스틴;솔메틴;에어로텐MM;이염화메틸렌;TC523에폭시;나르코틸;다이클로로메테인;디클로로메탄;락코메틸렌염화물;메탄,디클로로-;설비세척솔벤트;에어로텐(R)MM솔벤트(AEROTHENE;이염화메탄
상품명:
Dichloromethane
동의어(영문):
F30;r30;R 30;HCC30;CH2Cl2;Freon30;Nevolin;Driverit;AROSE RA;Freon 30
CBNumber:
CB7740372
분자식:
CH2Cl2
포뮬러 무게:
84.93
MOL 파일:
75-09-2.mol

디클로로메탄 속성

녹는점
-97 °C
끓는 점
39.8-40 °C mm Hg(lit.)
밀도
1.325 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
2.9 (vs air)
증기압
24.45 psi ( 55 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.424(lit.)
인화점
39-40°C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
Miscible in ethyl acetate, alcohol, hexanes, methanol, diethyl ether, n-octanol, acetone benzene, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether and chloroform.
물리적 상태
Liquid
색상
APHA: ≤10
Specific Gravity
1.329 (20/20℃)
냄새
Odor threshold 160 to 230 ppm
폭발한계
13-22%(V)
수용성
20 g/L (20 ºC)
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 235 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.20
λ: 250 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.02
λ: 340-400 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck
14,6063
BRN
1730800
Henry's Law Constant
2.49 at 30 °C (headspace-GC, Sanz et al., 1997)
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 50 ppm (~175 mg/m3) (ACGIH); carcinogenicity: Suspected Human Carcinogen (ACGIH), Animal Sufficient Evidence, Human Inadequate Evidence (IARC).
CAS 데이터베이스
75-09-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Methylene chloride(75-09-2)
EPA
Methane, dichloro-(75-09-2)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,T,F,N,C
위험 카페고리 넘버 40-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-36/37/38-68/20/21/22-20/21/22-50-37-34
안전지침서 23-24/25-36/37-45-16-7-26-61-36/37/39
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1593 6.1/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 PA8050000
F 고인화성물질 3-10
자연 발화 온도 556 °C
위험 참고 사항 Harmful
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 2903 12 00
위험 등급 6.1
포장분류 III
유해 물질 데이터 75-09-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in young adult rats: 1.6 ml/kg (Kimura)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 2회 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P202 모든 안전 조치 문구를 읽고 이해하기 전에는 취급하지 마시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

디클로로메탄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

메틸렌 클로라이드, 다른 이름은 DCM, 디클로로 메탄 및 메틸렌 디 클로라이드로 투명하고 무색의 액체로 약간 단맛을 지니 며 주로 산업용 용제 및 강력한 페인트 스트리퍼 및 페인트 희석제로 사용됩니다.

개요

외관: 액체;응용 분야: 농업 살균제.

용도

메틸렌 클로라이드 (Dichloromethane) 인 DCM은 의약품 및 페인트 제거제에 주로 사용됩니다. 또한 유연한 우레탄 폼, 산업용 접착제 제형 및 플라스틱을 생산하는 데 사용됩니다. 단독으로, 가공 금속 부품의 세정제 및 추출 용매로 사용할 수 있습니다. 염화 메틸렌은 주로 산업 환경에서 사용됩니다. 그것은 또한 산업, 전문 및 소비자 제품을 공식화하는 데 사용됩니다. 권장 노출 가이드 라인 내에서 메틸렌 클로라이드 증기를 조절하는 데 특별한주의를 기울여야합니다.

용도

용제가 디클로로 메탄의 주요 용도입니다. 제약 산업에서 암피실린, 암피실린 및 세 팔로 스포린 등의 제조를위한 반응 매질을 수행한다. 오일 생산 용제, 오일 탈 왁스 용제, 에어로졸 추진제, 유기 합성 추출제, 폴리 우레탄 폼 발포제 및 금속 세정제를 이용한 플라스틱 생산에도 사용됩니다.

개요

A colorless liquid with an ethereal, but penetrating odor. Its miscibility in alcohol and ether and slight solubility in water has made it an ideal solvent and otherwise extremely versatile chemical. It has been used industrially (solvent and paint remover), as a drug (inhalation anesthetic) and as an agricultural chemical (growth regulator and fertilizer). It is narcotic in high concentrations and carcinogenic.

화학적 성질

Clear, colourless, volatile liquid.

화학적 성질

Methylene chloride is a colorless liquid with a mild, sweet odor. It does not occur naturally in the environment. It is made from methane gas or wood alcohol. Industrial uses of methylene chloride are extensive, as a solvent in paint strippers, as a propellant in aerosols, and as a process solvent in the manufacturing of drugs. Methylene chloride is also used as a metal cleaning and fi nishing solvent, and it is approved as an extraction solvent for spices and hops. Exposure to methylene chloride occurs in workplaces by breathing fumes from paint strippers that contain it (check the label), breathing fumes from aerosol cans that use it (check the label), and breathing contaminated air near waste sites.

화학적 성질

Methylene chloride is a nonflammable, colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. A gas above 40C/ 104F. The odor is noticeable @ 250 ppm. However, this level substantially exceeds the OSHA STEL and must not be relied upon as an adequate warning of unsafe concentrations.

물리적 성질

Clear, colorless liquid with a sweet, penetrating, ethereal odor. Leonardos et al. (1969) determined an odor threshold concentration of 214.0 ppmv. The average least detectable odor threshold concentrations of technical grade methylene chloride in water at 60 °C and in air at 40 °C were 5.6 and 24 mg/L, respectively (Alexander et al., 1982).

용도

Methylene chloride is widely used as asolvent, as a degreasing and cleaning reagent,in paint removers, and in extractions oforganic compounds from water for analyses.

용도

Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).

생산 방법

Dichloromethane was first prepared by Regnault in 1840 by the chlorination of methyl chloride in sunlight. It became an industrial chemical of importance during the Second World War. Two commercial processes are currently used for the production of dichloromethane—hydrochlorination of methanol and direct chlorination of methane (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
The predominant method of manufacturing dichloromethane uses as a first step the reaction of hydrogen chloride and methanol to give methyl chloride. Excess methyl chloride is then mixed with chlorine and reacts to give dichloromethane, with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride as co-products. This reaction is usually carried out in the gas phase thermally but can also be performed catalytically or photolytically. At low temperature and high pressure, the liquid-phase process is capable of giving high selectivity for dichloromethane (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
The older and currently less used production method for dichloromethane involves direct reaction of excess methane with chlorine at high temperatures (400–500°C), or at somewhat lower temperatures either catalytically or photolytically. Methyl chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride are also produced as co-products (Rossberg et al., 1986; Holbrook, 1993).
Global production of dichloromethane increased from 93 000 tonnes in 1960 to an estimated 570 000 tonnes in 1980 (IARC, 1986), and is estimated to range from 764 000 to 814 000 tonnes per year from 2005 to 2010 (OECD/SIDS, 2011). In 2009, dichloromethane was produced by 26 manufacturers worldwide and was available from 133 suppliers (NTP, 2011). Production and imports of dichloromethane in the USA totalled 45 000–227 000 tonnes between 1996 and 2006 (NTP, 2011). In the European Union, the total tonnage band for dichloromethane was reported to be 100 000 to 1 000 000 tonnes per year (ECHA, 2016). The production and import of dichloromethane reported in Japan was 58 000 tonnes in 2011 (METI, 2013).

공기와 물의 반응

Methylene chloride is a colourless liquid with a mild, sweet odour. Somewhat water soluble. Subject to slow hydrolysis which is accelerated by light.

반응 프로필

Dichloromethane reacts vigorously with active metals such as lithium, sodium and potassium, and with strong bases such as potassium tert-butoxide. Dichloromethane is incompatible with strong oxidizers, strong caustics and chemically active metals such as aluminum or magnesium powders. The liquid will attack some forms of plastic, rubber and coatings. Dichloromethane reacts with sodium-potassium alloy, (potassium hydrogen + N-methyl-N-nitrosurea), nitrogen tetraoxide and liquid oxygen. Dichloromethane also reacts with titanium. On contact with water Dichloromethane corrodes iron, some stainless steels, copper and nickel. Dichloromethane is incompatible with alkali metals. Dichloromethane is incompatible with amines, zinc and alloys of aluminum, magnesium and zinc. Dichloromethane is liable to explode when mixed with dinitrogen pentaoxide or nitric acid. Mixtures of Dichloromethane in air with methanol vapor are flammable.

위험도

Toxic. A narcotic. Central nervous systemimpairment and carboxyhemoglobinemia. Possiblecarcinogen.

건강위험

Exposures to methylene chloride cause adverse health effects and poisoning to users. Methylene chloride harms the human CNS. The symptoms of poisoning include, but are not limited to, dizziness, nausea, tingling, and numbness in the fi ngers and toes. Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of methylene chloride suffer unconsciousness and fatal injury/death. Occupational workers who are exposed to direct skin contact with methylene chloride indicate symptoms of intense burning and mild redness of the skin, damage to the eyes and cornea.

건강위험

INHALATION: anesthetic effects, nausea and drunkenness. CONTACT WITH SKIN AND EYES: skin irritation, irritation of eyes and nose.

건강위험

Dichloromethane is classified as only slightly toxic by the oral and inhalation routes. Exposure to high concentrations of dichloromethane vapor (>500 ppm for 8 h) can lead to lightheadedness, fatigue, weakness, and nausea. Contact of the compound with the eyes causes painful irritation and can lead to conjunctivitis and corneal injury if not promptly removed by washing. Dichloromethane is a mild skin irritant, and upon prolonged contact (e.g., under the cover of clothing or shoes) can cause burns after 30 to 60 min exposure. Dichloromethane is not teratogenic at levels up to 4500 ppm or embryotoxic in rats and mice at levels up to 1250 ppm.

건강위험

Methylene chloride is a low to moderatelytoxic compound, the toxicity varying withthe animal species. It is less toxic in smallanimals than in humans. The toxic routesof exposure are inhalation of its vapors,ingestion, and absorption through the skin.It may be detected from its odor at a con centration of 300 ppm. Acute toxic symp toms include fatigue, weakness, headache,lightheadedness, euphoria, nausea, and sleep.High concentrations may produce narcosis.Rabbits exposed to 10,000 ppm for 7 hoursdied from exposure. The LC50 value inmice is 14,400 ppm/7 h (NIOSH 1986). Mildeffects may be felt in humans from an 8-hourexposure to 500 ppm of methylene chloride vapors. Oral intake of 15–20 mL ofthe liquid may be lethal to humans. Chronicexposure to this compound can lead to liverinjury. Contact of the liquid with skin or eyescan cause irritation.
Methylene chloride metabolizes in bodyto carbon monoxide, which forms carboxy hemoglobin in blood. The concentration ofthe latter is related to the vapor concentrationand the duration of exposure.
Methylene chloride is carcinogenic to ani mals. Rats inhaling its vapors at concentra tions of 2000–3500 ppm, 5–6 hours per dayfor 2 years developed lung and endocrinetumors. It is a suspected human carcinogen.The evidence of carcinogenicity in humansis inadequate, however.

화재위험

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Dissociation products generated in a fire may be irritating or toxic.

화재위험

Noncombustible. Dichloromethane vapor concentrated in a confined or poorly ventilated area can be ignited with a high-energy spark, flame, or high-intensity heat source.

인화성 및 폭발성

Noncombustible. Dichloromethane vapor concentrated in a confined or poorly ventilated area can be ignited with a high-energy spark, flame, or high-intensity heat source.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, subcutaneous, and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: paresthesia, somnolence, altered sleep time, convulsions, euphoria, and change in cardlac rate. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. An eye and severe skin irritant. Human mutation data reported. It is flammable in the range of 12-19% in air but ignition is difficult. It will not form explosive mixtures with air at ordinary temperatures. Mixtures in air with methanol vapor are flammable. It will form explosive mixtures with an atmosphere having a high oxygen content, in liquid O2, N2O4, K, Na, NaK. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts violently with Li, NaK, potassiumtert- butoxide, (KOH + N-methyl-Nnitrosourea). It can be decomposed by contact with hot surfaces and open flame, and then yield toxic fumes that are irritating and give warning of their presence. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-.

잠재적 노출

Methylene chloride is used mainly as a low-temperature extractant of substances which are adversely affected by high temperature. It can be used as a solvent for oil, fats, waxes, bitumen, cellulose acetate; and esters. It is also used as a paint remover; as a degreaser; and in aerosol propellants

Carcinogenicity

Dichloromethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

환경귀착

Biological. Complete microbial degradation to carbon dioxide was reported under anaerobic conditions by mixed or pure cultures. Under enzymatic conditions formaldehyde was the only product reported (Vogel et al., 1987). In a static-culture-flask screening test, methylene chloride (5 and 10 mg/L) was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum. After 7 d, 100% biodegradation with rapid adaptation was observed (Tabak et al., 1981).
Under aerobic conditions with sewage seed or activated sludge, complete biodegradation was observed between 6 h to 1 wk (Rittman and McCarty, 1980).
Soil. Methylene chloride undergoes biodegradation in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, the following half-lives were reported: 54.8 d in sand (500 ppb); 1.3, 9.4, and 191.4 d at concentrations of 160, 500, and 5,000 ppb, respectively, in sandy loam soil; 12.7 d (500 ppb) in sandy clay loam soil; 7.2 d (500 ppb) following a 50-d lag time. Under anaerobic conditions, the half-life of methylene chloride in clay following a 70-d lag time is 21.5 d (Davis and Madsen, 1991). The estimated volatilization half-life of methylene chloride in soil is 100 d (Jury et al., 1990).
Photolytic. Reported photooxidation products via OH radicals include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formyl chloride, and phosgene (Spence et al., 1976). In the presence of water, phosgene hydrolyzes to HCl and carbon dioxide, whereas formyl chloride hydrolyzes to hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971).
Chemical/Physical. Under laboratory conditions, methylene chloride hydrolyzed with subsequent oxidation and reduction to produce methyl chloride, methanol, formic acid, and formaldehyde (Smith and Dragun, 1984). The experimental half-life for hydrolysis in water at 25 °C is approximately 18 months (Dilling et al., 1975).

운송 방법

UN1593Dichloromethane, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials

Purification Methods

Shake it with portions of conc H2SO4 until the acid layer remains colourless, then wash with water, aqueous 5% Na2CO3, NaHCO3 or NaOH, then water again. Pre-dry with CaCl2, and distil it from CaSO4, CaH2 or P2O5. Store it away from bright light in a brown bottle with Linde type 4A molecular sieves, in an atmosphere of dry N2. Other purification steps include washing with aqueous Na2S2O3, passage through a column of silica gel, and removal of carbonyl-containing impurities as described under Chloroform. It has also been purified by treatment with basic alumina, distillation, and stored over molecular sieves under nitrogen [Puchot et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 2353 1986]. Dichloromethane from Japanese sources contained MeOH as stabiliser which is not removed by distillation. It can, however, be removed by standing over activated 3A Molecular Sieves (note that 4A Sieves cause the development of pressure in bottles), passed through activated Al2O3 and distilled [Gao et al. J Am Chem Soc 109 5771 1987]. It has been fractionated through a platinum spinning band column, degassed, and distilled onto degassed molecular sieves Linde 4A (heated under high vacuum at over 450o until the pressure readings reached the low values of 10-6 mm, ~1-2hours ). Stabilise it with 0.02% of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol [Mohammad & Kosower J Am Chem Soc 93 2713 1971]. [Beilstein 1 IV 35.] Rapid purification: Reflux over CaH2 (5% w/v) and distil it. Store it over 4A molecular sieves.

비 호환성

Incompatible with strong oxidizers, caustics; chemically active metals, such as aluminum, magnesium powders; potassium, lithium, and sodium; concentrated nitric acid causing fire and explosion hazard. Contact with hot surfaces or flames causes decomposition producing fumes of hydrogen chloride and phosgene gas. Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel; care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene; an acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

법규

Several jurisdictions have acted to reduce the use and release of various volatile organic compounds, including dichloromethane. The California Air Resources Board was one of the first jurisdictions to regulate dichloromethane; in 1995, it limited the levels of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in aerosol coating products. Subsequent regulations prevented manufacture, sale, supply, or application of any aerosol coating product containing dichloromethane (Air Resources Board, 2001). California has also prohibited the manufacture, sale, or use of automotive cleaning and degreasing products containing dichloromethane.
In Japan, the environmental quality standards for dichloromethane state that outdoor air levels shall not exceed 0.15 mg/m3 (Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan, 2014).
A guideline value of 3 mg/m3 for 24-hour exposure is recommended by WHO. In addition, the weekly average concentration should not exceed one seventh (0.45 mg/m3) of this 24-hour guideline (WHO, 2000).
In the European Union, the VOC Solvent Emissions Directive (Directive 1999/13/EC) was implemented for new and existing installations on 31 October 2007 (European Commission,1999). The Directive aims to reduce industrial emissions of VOCs from solvent-using activities, such as printing, surface cleaning, vehicle coating, dry cleaning, and manufacture of footwear and pharmaceutical products. Installations conducting such activities are required to comply either with emission limit values or with a reduction scheme. Reduction schemes allow the operator to reduce emissions by alternative means, such as by substituting products with a lower solvent content or changing to solvent-free production processes. The Solvents Directive was implemented in 2010 into the Industrial Emission Directive 2010/75/EU (IED).

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