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아세트알데히드

아세트알데히드
아세트알데히드 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
75-07-0
한글명:
아세트알데히드
동의어(한글):
알데히드;에탄알;초산알데히드;아세트알데하이드;아세트알데히드;에틸알데히드
상품명:
Acetaldehyde
동의어(영문):
FORMOL;CH3CHO;Ethanal;MORBICID;METHANONE;Acetaldeyd;NCI-C56326;Acetaldehyd;Acetaldeyde;ALDEHYDE C1
CBNumber:
CB8175809
분자식:
C2H4O
포뮬러 무게:
44.05
MOL 파일:
75-07-0.mol

아세트알데히드 속성

녹는점
-123 °C
끓는 점
65-82 °C
밀도
0.785 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
1.03 (vs air)
증기압
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.377
FEMA
2003 | ACETALDEHYDE
인화점
133 °F
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
alcohols: soluble
산도 계수 (pKa)
13.57(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
solution
색상
White to off-white
Specific Gravity
0.823 (20/4℃) (?90% Soln.)
냄새
Pungent, fruity odor detectable at 0.0068 to 1000 ppm (mean = 0.067 ppm)
수소이온지수(pH)
5 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
폭발한계
4-57%(V)
수용성
> 500 g/L (20 ºC)
감도
Air Sensitive
Merck
14,39
JECFA Number
80
BRN
505984
Henry's Law Constant
7.69 at 25 °C (Snider and Dawson, 1985:Benkelberg et al., 1995)
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 180 mg/m3 (100 ppm) (ACGIH), 360 mg/m3 (200 ppm) (NIOSH); STEL 270 mg/m3 (150 ppm); IDLH 10,000 ppm.
안정성
Stable, but air sensitive. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, alkalies, halogens, halogen oxides. Highly flammable. Vapour/air mixtures explosive over a very wide concentration range. May form peroxides in storage.
InChIKey
IKHGUXGNUITLKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
75-07-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Acetaldehyde(75-07-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,Xn,F+,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 23/24/25-34-40-43-36/37-12-67-11-41-22-10-19
안전지침서 36/37-33-16-26
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 LP8925000
F 고인화성물질 10
자연 발화 온도 185 °C
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 3
포장분류 I
HS 번호 29121200
유해 물질 데이터 75-07-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 1930 mg/kg (Smyth)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H224 극인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 1 위험
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P337+P313 눈에 대한 자극이 지속되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P235 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하고 저온으로 유지하시오.

아세트알데히드 MSDS


Ethanal

아세트알데히드 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Acetaldehyde is a highly flammable, volatile colourless liquid. It has a characteristic, pungent, and suffocating odour and is miscible in water. Acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the ambient environment. It is an intermediate product of higher plant respiration and formed as a product of incomplete wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves, burning of tobacco, vehicle exhaust fumes, coal refining, and waste processing. Exposures to acetaldehyde occur during the production of acetic acid and various other industrial chemical substances, for instance, manufacture of drugs, dyes, explosives, disinfectants, phenolic and urea resins, rubber accelerators, and varnish.

화학적 성질

Acetaldehyde is a highly fl ammable, volatile, colorless liquid. It has a characteristic pun- gent and suffocating odor, and is miscible in water. Acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the ambient environment. It is an intermediate product of higher plant respiration and formed as a product of incomplete wood combustion in fi replaces and woodstoves, burning of tobacco, vehicle exhaust fumes, coal refi ning, and waste processing. Exposures to acetal- dehyde occur during the production of acetic acid and various other industrial chemical substances. For instance, the manufacture of drugs, dyes, explosives, disinfectants, pheno- lic and urea resins, rubber accelerators, and varnish.

화학적 성질

Acetaldehyde is a flammable, volatile, colorless liquid, or gas. It has a characteristic, penetrating, fruity odor.

물리적 성질

Colorless, mobile, fuming, volatile liquid or gas with a penetrating, pungent odor; fruity odor when diluted. Odor threshold concentrations ranged from 1.5 ppbv (Nagata and Takeuchi, 1990) to 0.21 ppmv (Leonardos et al., 1969). Katz and Talbert (1930) reported an experimental detection odor threshold concentration of 120 μg/m3 (67 ppbv). At low concentrations, acetaldehyde imparts a pleasant, fruity, green apple or leafy green-like flavor (van Aardt et al., 2001). Twenty-five panelists were randomly selected for testing milk products and water for determining flavor thresholds. Flavor threshold concentrations determined by a geometric approach were 3,939 ppb for nonfat milk (0.5% milk fat), 4,020 ppb for low-fat milk (2% milk fat), 4,040 ppb for whole milk, 10,048 ppb for chocolate milk, and 167 ppb for spring water (van Aardt et al., 2001).

출처

Reported.found.in.oak.and.tobacco.leaves;.in.the.fruital.aromas.of.pear,.apple,.raspberry,.strawberry.and.pineapple;.in.the.distillation.waters.of.Monarda punctata, orris,.cumin,.chenopodium;.in.the.essential.oils.of.Litsea cubeba, Magnolia grandiflora, Artemisia brevifolia, rosemary,.balm,.clary.sage,.Mentha arvensis, daffodil,.bitter.orange,.camphor,.angelica,.fennel,. mustard,.Scotch.blended.whiskey,.Japanese.whiskey,.rose.wine,.blackberry.brandy.and.rum.

용도

Acetaldehyde is used in producing acetic acid,acetic anhydride, cellulose acetate, syntheticpyridine derivatives, pentaerythritol, terephthalicacid, and many other raw materials.Release of acetaldehyde from poly ethyleneterephthalate (PET) bottles into carbonatedmineral waters has been observed (Lorussoet al. 1985); 180 ppm was detected in sampleskept for 6 months at 40°C (104°F).

용도

Acetaldehyde is used as a general solvent in organic and polymer chemical reactions. It also plays a role in fruit and food quality, ripening and deterioration.manufacture of paraldehyde, acetic acid, butanol, perfumes, flavors, aniline dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber; silvering mirrors, hardening gelatin fibers. Flavoring agent in foods and beverages. Fumigant for storage of apples and strawberries.

정의

ChEBI: The aldehyde formed from acetic acid by reduction of the carboxy group. It is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke.

Aroma threshold values

Detection:.0.7.to.200.ppb;.Recognition:.27.to.380.ppb

일반 설명

A clear colorless liquid with a pungent choking odor. Flash point -36°F. Boiling point 69°F. Density 6.5 lb / gal. Vapors are heaver than air and irritate the mucous membranes and especially the eyes. Used to make other chemicals.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable. Easily oxidized by air to form unstable peroxides which may explode. Forms explosive mixture with air above 100°C (30-60% of the vapor in air) owing to formation of peroxyacetic acid [White, A. G. et al., J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1950, 69, p. 206]. Soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Acetaldehyde undergoes a vigorously exothermic condensation reaction in contact with strong acids, bases or traces of metals. Can react vigorously with oxidizing reagents such as dinitrogen pentaoxide, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, silver nitrate, etc. Contamination often leads either to reaction with the contaminant or polymerization, both with the evolution of heat. Can react violently with acid anhydrides, alcohols, ketones, phenols, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, halogens, phosphorus, isocyanates, concentrated sulfuric acid, and aliphatic amines. Reactions with cobalt chloride, mercury(II) chlorate or perchlorate form sensitive, explosive products [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 5]. An oxygenation reaction of Acetaldehyde in the presence of cobalt acetate at -20°C exploded violently when stirred. The event was ascribed to peroxyacetate formation [Phillips B. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, p. 5982].

건강위험

The acute toxicity of acetaldehyde is low by inhalation and moderate by ingestion. Exposure to acetaldehyde by inhalation is irritating to the respiratory tract and mucous membranes; this substance is a narcotic and can cause central nervous system depression. Ingestion of acetaldehyde may cause severe irritation of the digestive tract leading to nausea, vomiting, headache, and liver damage. Acetaldehyde causes irritation and burning upon skin contact and is a severe eye irritant.br Acetaldehyde has caused nasal tumors in rats exposed by inhalation and is listed by IARC in Group 2B ("possible human carcinogen"). It is not classified as a "select carcinogen" according to the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Acetaldehyde is mutagenic and has been shown to be a reproductive toxin in animals. Acetaldehyde is formed by metabolism of ethanol, and chronic exposure can produce symptoms similar to alcoholism.

건강위험

Acetaldehyde is moderately toxic throughinhalation and ingestion routes. Ingestion canresult in conjunctivitis, central nervous system(CNS) depression, eye and skin burns,and dermatitis. Large doses can be fatal.Because of its metabolic link to ethanol,its intoxication consequences are similar tothose of chronic ethanol intoxication.
Inhalation can produce irritation of theeyes, nose, and throat, and narcotic effects.High concentrations can cause headache,sore throat, and paralysis of respiratory muscles.Prolonged exposure can raise bloodpressure and cause a decrease in red andwhite blood cells. A 4-hour exposure to 1.6%acetaldehyde in air was lethal to rats (ACGIH1986).
The functional groups- NH2,-OH, and-SH in the three-dimensional protein moleculesare susceptible to CHO attack. Acetaldehydecan therefore bind to liver proteinand hemoglobin to form stable adducts.Such covalent binding probably alters thebiological functions of protein and hemoglobinand thus contributes to its toxicity.Rats subjected to inhalation of acetaldehydefor 21 days showed the presence of such“bound” aldehyde adducts in their intracellularmedium. A control experiment on unexposedrats, however, showed similar adducts,but at a low concentration. This could probablyhave formed from trace aldehyde generatedfrom intestinal microbial fermentationof alcohols.
In a study on chronic inhalation toxicityof acetaldehyde on rats, the compound wasfound to effect increased mortality, growthretardation, and nasal tumors (Woutersenet al. 1986). The study indicates that acetaldehydeis both cytotoxic and carcinogenic tothe nasal mucosa of rats. Investigating thetoxicity of tobacco-related aldehydes in culturedhuman bronchial epithelial cells, Graftstromet al. (1985) reported that acetaldehydewas weakly cytotoxic, less so than acroleinand formaldehyde.

화재위험

Acetaldehyde is a dangerous fire hazard (NFPA rating = 4) owing to its volatility and low autoignition temperature. Its vapor is explosive in the concentration range 4 to 66% in air and may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates or light bulbs, or by static electricity discharges. The vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight acetaldehyde fires.

인화성 및 폭발성

Acetaldehyde is a dangerous fire hazard (NFPA rating = 4) owing to its volatility and low autoignition temperature. Its vapor is explosive in the concentration range 4 to 66% in air and may be ignited by hot surfaces such as hot plates or light bulbs, or by static electricity discharges. The vapor is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight acetaldehyde fires.

색상 색인 번호

Acetaldehyde, as its metabolite, is responsible for many of the effects of ethanol, such as hepatic or neurological toxicity. A case of contact allergy was reported in the textile industry, where dimethoxane was used as a biocide agent in textiles, and its degradation led to acetaldehyde

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intratracheal and intravenous routes. A human systemic irritant by inhalation. An experimental routes. A human systemic irritant by inhalation. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. A skin and severe eye irritant. A narcotic. Human mutation data reported. A common air contaminant. Highly flammable liquid. Mixtures of 30-60% of the vapor in air ignite above 100℃. It can react violently with acid anhydrides, alcohols, ketones, phenols, NH3, HCN, H2S, halogens, P, isocyanates, strong alkalies, and amines. Reactions with cobalt chloride, mercury(Ⅱ) chlorate, or mercury(Ⅱ) perchlorate form violently in the presence of traces of metals or acids. Reaction with oxygen may lead to detonation. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

Chemical Synthesis

The.method.of.synthesis.is.dependent.on.the.price.of.feedstock.and.may.be.produced.by.a.number.of.methods:.(1).by. oxidation.of.ethyl.alcohol.with.potassium.dichromate.or.manganese.dioxide.in.the.presence.of.sulfuric.acid;.(2).by.addition.of.water. to.acetylene;.(3).by.formation.during.the.natural.alcoholic.fermentation.process..Recovery.is.effected.by.suitable.fractionation,.subsequent.preparation.of.the.acetaldehyde.ammonia.and.final.treatment.of.the.addition.compound.with.diluted.sulfuric.acid.

잠재적 노출

Acetaldehyde is used as a chemical intermediate and can be found in many processed foods; in crafts, arts, automotive, and home improvement products

Carcinogenicity

Acetaldehyde is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogenbased on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.

Source

Manufactured by oxidizing ethanol with sodium dichromate and sulfuric acid or from acetylene, dilute sulfuric acid, and mercuric oxide catalyst.
Acetaldehyde was detected in diesel fuel at a concentration of 41,800 μg/g (Schauer et al., 1999). Identified as an oxidative degradation product in the headspace of a used engine oil (10 to 30W) after 4,080 miles (Levermore et al., 2001).
Acetaldehyde occurs naturally in many plant species including Merrill flowers (Telosma cordata), in which it was detected at a concentration of 1,026 ppm (Furukawa et al., 1993). In addition, acetaldehyde was detected in witch hazel leaves (160 ppm), orange juice (3 to 15 ppm), tangerines (0 to 2 ppm), pineapples (0.61–1.4 ppm), celery leaves, coffee seeds, cantaloupes, soybeans, carrot roots, tomatoes, tobacco leaves, apples, peaches, black currant, fishwort, peppermint, rice plants, and caraway (Duke, 1992). Acetaldehyde was detected in tobacco smoke and marijuana at concentrations of 980 and 1,200 μg/cigarette, respectively (Hoffman et al., 1975). The oil of alfalfa contained acetaldehyde at an approximate concentration of 0.2% (Kami, 1983). Also detected among 139 volatile compounds identified in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. reticulates cv. Sol Real) using an automated rapid headspace solid phase microextraction method (Beaulieu and Grimm, 2001). In hand-squeezed grapefruit, acetaldehyde was detected at a concentration of 6,150 μg/kg (Buettner and Schieberle, 2001).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of acetaldehyde were 1,704 mg/kg of pine burned, 823 mg/kg of oak burned, and 1,021 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned.
Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 3.94 and 301 mg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
Acetaldehyde is a degradation product of poly(ethylene terephthalate) during the melt processing packaging for milk, water, and other beverage products. Occurs in many food products such as yogurt and vinegar at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L (van Aardt et al., 2001).
Acetaldehyde is a key ingredient in yogurt and is formed during milk fermentation by microorganisms. Acetaldehyde is present in other fermented products such as cheese, butter, and buttermilk (Ott et al., 2000).

환경귀착

Biological. Heukelekian and Rand (1955) reported a 5-d BOD value of 1.27 g/g that is 69.8% of the ThOD value of 1.82 g/g.
Photolytic. Photooxidation of acetaldehyde in nitrogen oxide-free air using radiation between 2900 to 3500 ? yielded hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides, carbon monoxide, and lower molecular weight aldehydes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, photooxidation products include ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxyacyl nitrates (Kopczynski et al., 1974). Anticipated products from the reaction of acetaldehyde with ozone or OH radicals in the atmosphere are formaldehyde and carbon dioxide (Cupitt, 1980). Reacts with nitrogen dioxide forming peroxyacyl nitrates, formaldehyde, and methyl nitrate (Altshuller, 1983). Irradiation in the presence of chlorine yielded peroxyacetic acid, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (acetaldehyde into formic acid, methyl nitrate, and peroxyacetal nitrate (Cox et al., 1980).
Chemical/Physical. Oxidation in air yields acetic acid (Windholz et al., 1983). In the presence of sulfuric, hydrochloric, or phosphoric acids, polymerizes explosively forming trimeric paraldehyde (Huntress and Mulliken, 1941; Patnaik, 1992). In an aqueous solution at 25 °C, acetaldehyde is partially hydrated, i.e., 0.60 expressed as a mole fraction, forming a gem-diol (Bell and McDougall, 1960). Acetaldehyde decomposes at temperatures greater than 400 °C, forming carbon monoxide and methane (Patnaik, 1992).

저장

Acetaldehyde should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers. Acetaldehyde should always be stored under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen or argon to prevent autoxidation.

운송 방법

UN1088 Acetaldehyde, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.

Purification Methods

Acetaldehyde is usually purified by fractional distillation in a glass helices-packed column under dry N2, discarding the first portion of distillate. Or, it is shaken for 30minutes with NaHCO3, dried with CaSO4 and fractionally distilled at 760mm through a 70cm Vigreux column (p 11). The middle fraction is collected and further purified by standing for 2hours at 0o with a small amount of hydroquinone (free radical inhibitor), followed by distillation [Longfield & Walters J Am Chem Soc 77 810 1955]. [Beilstein 1 IV 3094.]

비 호환성

Reacts with air to form unstable peroxides which can explode. Contact with air causes acetaldehyde to chemically degrade to acetic acid. Strong oxidizers, acids, bases, alcohols, ammonia, amines, halogens, phenols, acid anhydrides, ketones, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide. May dissolve rubber. Slightly corrosive to mild steel. May explode without warning when exposed to heat, dust, corrosives, or oxidizers.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration.

법규

Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security
Minimum requirements have been established for safe transport of acetaldehyde on ships and barges.
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Acetaldehyde is considered a hazardous material, and special requirements have been set for marking, labeling, and transporting this material.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Clean Air Act
Mobile Source Air Toxics: Listed as a mobile source air toxic for which regulations are to be developed.
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Listed as a hazardous air pollutant.
New Source Performance Standards: Manufacture of acetaldehyde is subject to certain provisions for the control of volatile organic compound emissions.
Prevention of Accidental Release: Threshold quantity (TQ) = 10,000 lb.
Urban Air Toxics Strategy: Identified as one of 33 hazardous air pollutants that present the greatest threat to public health in urban areas.
Clean Water Act
Designated a hazardous substance.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Reportable quantity (RQ) = 1,000 lb.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act
Toxics Release Inventory: Listed substance subject to reporting requirements.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Listed Hazardous Waste: Waste code for which the listing is based wholly or partly on the presence of acetaldehyde = U001.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
While this section accurately identifies OSHA’s legally enforceable PELs for this substance in 2010, specific PELs may not reflect the more current studies and may not adequately protect workers.
Permissible exposure limit (PEL) = 200 ppm (360 mg/m3).
Considered a highly hazardous chemical: Threshold quantity (TQ) = 2,500 lb.

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