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페난트렌 구조식 이미지
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페난트렌 속성

98-100 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
340 °C(lit.)
1.063 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
0.00012 hPa (20 °C)
저장 조건
Soluble in alcohol, benzene, toluene, and glacial acetic acid
물리적 상태
platelets (fine)
산도 계수 (pKa)
>15 (Christensen et al., 1975)
Henry's Law Constant
0.49, 1.80, 3.35, and 7.89 at 5, 15, 25, and 35 °C, respectively (gas stripping-GC, Odabasi et al., 2006)
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS 데이터베이스
85-01-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,N,F,T
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-36/37/38-50-50/53-40-67-65-38-11-52/53-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-63-43-45-20/21/22-20
안전지침서 26-60-61-36/37-29-62-45-16-7-24/25-23-53-37/39-22-33-25-9
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 SF7175000
F 고인화성물질 8
자연 발화 온도 >450 °C
HS 번호 2902 90 00
위험 등급 9
포장분류 III
유해 물질 데이터 85-01-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 i.p. in mice: 700 mg/kg (IARC)
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H304 삼켜서 기도로 유입되면 치명적일 수 있음 흡인 유해성물질 구분 1 위험
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H411 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 2
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P270 이 제품을 사용할 때에는 먹거나, 마시거나 흡연하지 마시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P330 입을 씻어내시오.
P331 토하게 하지 마시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

페난트렌 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산


무색의 판상 결정인데, 벤젠·에테르에는 녹지만 알코올에는 잘 녹지 않는다. 크롬산으로 산화하면 페난트렌퀴논을 생성한다.염료·의약품의 합성원료로서 중요하다.


1. 페난트렌은 phenanthrenequinone를 생성할 수 있습니다, 2. 제지에서는, 펄프의 antifogging 대리인입니다; 3. 약에서는, 그것은 알카로이드를 생성할 수 있습니다; 4. 염료 기업, 그것에서는 2 아미노 phenanthrenequinone, benzanthrone 및 황 큰 통 염료에서 사용된 b3e는 할 수 있습니다; 5. 페난트렌은 제트기의 연료의 생산에서 이용될 수 있습니다.

화학적 성질

white crystals

화학적 성질

Phenanthrene is a white crystalline substance. Weak aromatic odor. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds containing multiple benzene rings and are also called polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

물리적 성질

Colorless, monoclinic crystals with a faint, aromatic odor


Labelled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as micropollutants.


Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an environmental pollutant.


ChEBI: A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings which takes its name from the two terms 'phenyl' and 'anthracene.'

일반 설명

Colorless monoclinic crystals with a faint aromatic odor. Solutions exhibit a blue fluorescence.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Phenanthrene may react with oxidizing materials .


The acute oral toxicity of phenanthrene is low.It is more toxic than anthracene. An oral LD50value in mice is reported at 700 mg/kg. It maycause tumor in skin at the site of application.The evidence of carcinogenicity in animals,however, is inadequate.


Phenanthrene is combustible.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Mutation data reported. A human skin photosensitizer. Questionable carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data by skin contact. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use water, foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes

잠재적 노출

Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides.


Detected in groundwater beneath a former coal gasification plant in Seattle, WA at a concentration of 130 μg/L (ASTR, 1995). Detected in 8 diesel fuels at concentrations ranging from 0.17– 110 mg/L with a mean value of 41.43 mg/L (Westerholm and Li, 1994) and in distilled water-soluble fractions of new and used motor oil at concentrations of 1.9–2.1 and 2.1–2.2 μg/L, respectively (Chen et al., 1994). Lee et al. (1992) reported concentration ranges of 100 to 300 mg/L and 15 to 25 μg/L in diesel fuel and the corresponding aqueous phase (distilled water), respectively. Schauer et al. (1999) reported phenanthrene in diesel fuel at a concentration of 57 μg/g and in a diesel-powered medium-duty truck exhaust at an emission rate of 93.1 μg/km. Identified in Kuwait and South Louisiana crude oils at concentrations of 26 and 70 ppm, respectively (Pancirov and Brown, 1975). Diesel fuel obtained from a service station in Schlieren, Switzerland contained phenanthrene at an estimated concentration of 327 mg/L (Schluep et al., 2001).
Phenanthrene was detected in asphalt fumes at an average concentration of 57.73 ng/m3 (Wang et al., 2001).
Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 625. Phenanthrene was only detected in the water-soluble fraction of diesel fuel at an average concentration of 17 μg/L.
Based on laboratory analysis of 7 coal tar samples, phenanthrene concentrations ranged from 3,100 to 35,000 ppm (EPRI, 1990). Detected in 1-yr aged coal tar film and bulk coal tar at an identical concentration of 10,000 mg/kg (Nelson et al., 1996). A high-temperature coal tar contained phenanthrene at an average concentration of 2.66 wt % (McNeil, 1983). Also identified in high-temperature coal tar pitches at concentrations ranging from 7,500 to 40,300 mg/kg (Arrendale and Rogers, 1981). Lee et al. (1992a) equilibrated eight coal tars with distilled water at 25 °C. The maximum concentration of phenanthrene observed in the aqueous phase is 0.4 mg/L.
Nine commercially available creosote samples contained phenanthrene at concentrations ranging from 48,000 to 120,000 mg/kg (Kohler et al., 2000).
Typical concentration of phenanthrene in a heavy pyrolysis oil is 2.5 wt % (Chevron Phillips, May 2003).


Biological. Catechol is the central metabolite in the bacterial degradation of phenanthrene. Intermediate by-products include 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, and salicylic acid (Chapman, 1972; Hou, 1982). It was reported that Beijerinckia, under aerobic conditions, degraded phenanthrene to cis-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthracene (Kobayashi and Rittman, 1982).
Soil. The reported half-lives for phenanthrene in a Kidman sandy loam and McLaurin sandy loam are 16 and 35 d, respectively (Park et al., 1990). Manilal and Alexander (1991) reported a half-life of 11 d in a Kendaia soil.
Surface Water. In a 5-m deep surface water body, the calculated half-lives for direct photochemical transformation at 40 °N latitude in the midsummer during midday were 59 and 69 d with and without sediment-water partitioning, respectively (Zepp and Schlotzhauer, 1979).
Photolytic. A carbon dioxide yield of 24.2% was achieved when phenanthrene adsorbed on silica gel was irradiated with light (λ >290 nm) for 17 h (Freitag et al., 1985). In a 2-wk experiment, [14C]phenanthrene applied to soil-water suspensions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions gave 14CO2 yields of 7.2 and 6.3%, respectively (Scheunert et al., 1987). Matsuzawa et al. (2001) investigated the photochemical degradation of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate matter deposited on the ground and in various soil components. The photochemical degradation by artificial sunlight was accomplished using a 900-W xenon lamp. Light from this lamp was passed through a glass filter to eliminate light of shorter wavelengths (λ <290 nm). The intensity of this light was about 170 mW/cm2. In addition, a solar simulator equipped with a 300-W xenon lamp was used to provide the maximum sunlight intensity observed in Tokyo (latitude 35.5 °N). The half-lives of phenanthrene in diesel particulate matter using 900- and 300-W sources were 4.29 and 60.63 h, respectively. The following half-lives were determined for phenanthrene adsorbed on various soil components using 900-W apparatus: 3.04 h for quartz, 2.90 h for feldspar, 1.15 h for kaolinite, 4.97 h for montmorillonite, 3.26 h for silica gel, and 1.17 h for alumina.
Chemical/Physical. The aqueous chlorination of phenanthrene at pH <4 produced phenanthrene- 9,10-dione and 9-chlorophenanthrene. At high pH (>8.8), phenanthrene-9,10-oxide, phenanthrene- 9,10-dione, and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenediol were identified as major products (Oyler et al., 1983). It was suggested that the chlorination of phenanthrene in tap water accounted for the presence of chloro- and dichlorophenanthrenes (Shiraishi et al., 1985).

운송 방법

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Likely contaminants include anthracene, carbazole, fluorene and other polycyclic hydrocarbons. Purify it by distillation from sodium under vacuum, boiling with maleic anhydride in xylene, crystallisation from acetic acid, sublimation and zone melting. It has also been recrystallised repeatedly from EtOH, *benzene or pet ether (b 60-70o), with subsequent drying under vacuum over P2O5 in an Abderhalden pistol. Feldman, Pantages and Orchin [J Am Chem Soc 73 4341 1951] separated most of the anthracene impurity by refluxing phenanthrene (671g) with maleic anhydride (194g) in xylene (1.25L) under nitrogen for 22hours, then filtered. The filtrate was extracted with aqueous 10% NaOH, the organic phase was separated, and the solvent was evaporated. The residue, after stirring for 2hours with 7g of sodium, was distilled in a vacuum, then recrystallised twice from 30% *benzene in EtOH. It was then dissolved in hot acetic acid (2.2mL/g), and to it was slowly added an aqueous solution of CrO3 (60g in 72mL H2O plus 2.2L of acetic acid), followed by slow addition of conc H2SO4 (30mL). The mixture was refluxed for 15minutes, diluted with an equal volume of water and cooled. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water, dried and distilled, then recrystallised twice from EtOH. Further purification is possible by chromatography from a CHCl3 solution on activated alumina, with *benzene as eluent, and by zone refining. The picrate (1:1) forms golden yellow needles with m 146o, and the styphnate (1:1) has m 138-139o (plates or needles from EtOH or EtOH/H2O respectively). [Dornfeld et al. Org Synth Coll Vol III 134 1955, Beilstein 5 H 667, 5 I 327, 5 II 579, 5 III 2136, 5 IV 2297.]

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

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