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산화알루미늄

산화알루미늄
산화알루미늄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
1344-28-1
한글명:
산화알루미늄
동의어(한글):
산화알루미늄;알루미나;알루미나알루미늄산화물디알루미늄트리산화물알루미트알미트마르톡신산화알루미나알루미나겔;산화알루미늄;합성사파이어
상품명:
Aluminum oxide
동의어(영문):
AD3;la6;ps1;Rex;RUBY;AD3H;H-30;khp2;Mafe;T-64
CBNumber:
CB9853056
분자식:
Al2O3
포뮬러 무게:
101.96
MOL 파일:
1344-28-1.mol

산화알루미늄 속성

녹는점
2040 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
2980°C
밀도
3.97
증기압
17 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
1.765
인화점
2980°C
저장 조건
-20°C
용해도
Miscible with ethanol.
물리적 상태
powder
색상
White to pink
Specific Gravity
3.97
수소이온지수(pH)
7.0±0.5 ( in H2O)
수용성
INSOLUBLE
Merck
14,356
InChIKey
PNEYBMLMFCGWSK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
1344-28-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Aluminum oxide(1344-28-1)
EPA
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)(1344-28-1)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38-67-36/38-11-36
안전지침서 26-24/25-16-7-36
유엔번호(UN No.) UN1219 - class 3 - PG 2 - Isopropanol, solution
WGK 독일 -
RTECS 번호 BD1200000
F 고인화성물질 3
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
HS 번호 28181010
유해 물질 데이터 1344-28-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 Chronic inhalation of Al2O3 dusts may cause lung damage.
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H222 극인화성 에어로졸 인화성 에어로졸 구분 1 위험 P210, P211, P251, P410+P412
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H304 삼켜서 기도로 유입되면 치명적일 수 있음 흡인 유해성물질 구분 1 위험
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H333 흡입하면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 5 P304+P312
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P251 압력용기 ; 사용 후에도 구멍을 뚫거나 연소시키지 마시오
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P331 토하게 하지 마시오.
P301+P330+P331 삼켰다면 입을 씻어내시오. 토하게 하려 하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P410+P412 직사광선으로부터 보호

산화알루미늄 MSDS


alpha-Alumina

산화알루미늄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Aluminum(III) oxide is also called aluminum oxide. In mineral form it is called corundum and is referred to as alumina in conjunction with mining and aluminum industries. Alumina exists in hydrated forms as alumina monohydrate, Al2O3?H2O and alumina trihydrate Al2O3?3H2O. The geologic source of aluminum is the rock bauxite, which has a high percentage of hydrated aluminum oxide. The main minerals in bauxite are gibbsite (Al(OH)3), diaspore (AlO(OH)), and boehmite (AlO(OH).

화학적 성질

Vary according to the method of prepa- ration. White powder, balls, or lumps of various mesh.Insoluble in water, dif- ficultly soluble in mineral acids and strong alkali. Noncombustible.

화학적 성질

Aluminum is a combustible, light, silverywhite, soft, ductile, malleable, amphoteric metal

화학적 성질

Aluminum oxide occurs as a white crystalline powder. Aluminum oxide occurs as two crystalline forms: α-aluminum oxide is composed of colorless hexagonal crystals, and γ-aluminum oxide is composed of minute colorless cubic crystals that are transformed to the α-form at high temperatures.

물리적 성질

Al2O3 Colorless hexagonal crystal; refractive index 1.768; density 3.965 g/cm3 (at 25°C); mp 2072°C; bp 2980°C; insoluble in water α-Al2O3 Colorless rhombic crystal; mp between 2005 to 2025°C ; density 4.022 g/m3 ; hardness 9Moh γ-Al2O3 white microscopic crystal Al2O3•H2O colorless rhombic crystal; refractive index 1.624; density 3.014 g/cm3 Al2O3•3H2O white monoclinic crystal; refractive index 1.577; density 2.420 g/cm3 All forms are insoluble in water.

Characteristics

Aluminum Oxide (Alumina) is the most widely used oxide, chiefly because it is plentiful, relatively low in cost, and equal to or better than most oxides in mechanical properties. Density can be varied over a wide range, as can purity — down to about 90% alumina — to meet specific application requirements. Alumina ceramics are the hardest, strongest, and stiffest of the oxides. They are also outstanding in electrical resistivity, dielectric strength, are resistant to a wide variety of chemicals, and are unaffected by air, water vapor, and sulfurous atmospheres. However, with a melting point of only 2039°C, they are relatively low in refractoriness, and at 1371°C retain only about 10% of room-temperature strength. In addition to its wide use as electrical insulators and its chemical and aerospace applications, the high hardness and close dimensional tolerance capability of alumina make this ceramic suitable for such abrasion-resistant parts as textile guides, pump plungers, chute linings, discharge orifices, dies, and bearings.

용도

Alumina is a white crystalline substance that resembles salt. Approximately 90% of all alumina is used for making aluminum, with the remainder used for abrasives and ceramics.

용도

Occurs in nature in abundance; the principal forms are bauxites and laterites. The mineral corundum is used to produce precious gems, such as ruby and sapphire. Activated aluminas are used extensively as adsorbents because of their affinity for water and other polar molecules; and as catalysts because of their large surface area and appropriate pore sturcture. As adsorbents, they are used for drying gases and liquids; and in adsorption chromatography. Catalytic properties may be attributed to the presence of surface active sites (primarily OH– , O2– , and Al3+ ions). Such catalytic applications include sulfur recovery from H2S (Clauss catalysis); dehydration of alcohols, isomerization of olefins; and as a catalyst support in petroleum refining.

용도

 

제조 방법

Pure Aluminum oxide, needed to produce aluminum by the Hall process, is made by the Bayer process. The starting material is bauxite (Al2O3 • nH2O). The ore contains impurities, such as, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, and Na2O. Most impurities are removed following treatment with caustic soda solution. Bauxite is dissolved in NaOH solution. Silica, iron oxides and other impurities are filtered out of the solution. CO2 is then bubbled through this solution. This precipitates are heated to remove water and produce Al2O3. These impurities are removed. Calcinations of bauxite produce Aluminum oxide of abrasive and refractory grades. Activated Aluminum oxide of amorphous type, as well as the transition Aluminum oxides of γ, η, χ, and ρ forms, are obtained from various aluminum hydroxides, such as, α- and β-trihydrates, α-monohydrate and Aluminum oxide gel. Such chemicals are also obtained from bauxite by the Bayer process.

생산 방법

The Bayer process begins by grinding the bauxite and mixing it with sodium hydroxide in a digester. The sodium hydroxide dissolves aluminum oxide components to produce aluminum hydroxide compounds. For gibbsite, the reaction is: Al(OH)3 + NaOH → Al(OH)4- + Na+. Insoluble impurities such as silicates, titanium oxides, and iron oxides are removed from the solution while sodium hydroxide is recovered and recycled. Reaction conditions are then modified so that aluminum trihydroxide (Al(OH)3) precipitates out. The reaction can be represented as the reverse of the previous reaction: Al(OH)4- + Na+ → Al(OH)3 + NaOH. Aluminum trihydroxide is calcined to drive off water to produce alumina:
Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O.

정의

The mineral corundum is natural aluminum oxide, and emery, ruby, and sapphire are impure crystalline varieties. The mixed mineral bauxite is a hydrated aluminum oxide.

생산 방법

Most of the aluminum oxide produced commercially is obtained by the calcination of aluminum hydroxide.

화학 반응

Aluminum oxide exhibits amphoteric behavior. It is soluble both in acids and bases. With acids, it produces their corresponding salts. It froms Al2(SO4)3, Al(NO3)3 and AlCl3 upon reactions with H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl, respectively. In acid medium, it exists as a solvated aluminum ion, in which water molecules are hexacoordinated to trivalent Al3+, as shown below:
Al2O3 + 6H3O+3H2O ——› 2[Al(H2O)6]3+
(Rollinson, C. L., 1978., Aluminum Compounds. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed. Vol 2, pp 188-97. NY,: Wiley Interscience)
Aluminum oxide forms hydroxide in aqueous alkaline solution. The reaction is slow. The products, aluminum hydroxides (hydrated aluminas), contain hexacoordinated aluminohydroxide anion:
Al2O3 + 2OH– + 7H2O → 2[Al(OH)4(H2O)2]–
In its dry state, Aluminum oxide exhibiting basicity reacts with silica, forming aluminum silicate
Al2O3 + 3SiO2 → Al2(SiO3)3
Similarly, with basic CaO or MgO aluminate salts are formed
MgO + Al2O3 → Mg(AlO2)2 CaO + Al2O3 → Ca(AlO2)2
It forms aluminum nitride, AlN when heated with coal in a stream of nitrogen; and aluminum borate, Al2O3 •B2O3 when heated with B2O3 at 1000°C.

일반 설명

White odorless crystalline powder. Water insoluble. Properties (both physical and chemical) vary according to the method of preparation; different methods give different crystalline modifications. The variety formed at very high temperature is quite inert chemically.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

Aluminum oxide is chemically amphoteric (behaves as a weak acid in the presence of base and as a weak base in the presence of acid). May act catalytically. May cause the exothermic polymerization of ethylene oxide. May cause the vigorous polymerization of vinyl chloride [MCA SD-75, 1970]. The degree of subdivision of the Aluminum oxide may affect the vigor of such reactions.

위험도

Toxic by inhalation of dust. Confirmed car- cinogen.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Aluminum oxide is used mainly in tablet formulations.It is used for decoloring powders and is particularly widely used in antibiotic formulations. It is also used in suppositories, pessaries, and urethral inserts. Hydrated aluminum oxide is used in mordant dyeing to make lake pigments, in cosmetics, and therapeutically as an antacid.

공업 용도

Fused aluminum oxide was the second synthetic abrasive to be developed. Synthetic aluminum oxide (alumina) is made as a white powder and can be somewhat harder than corundum (natural alumina) because of its purity. However, corundum has a Mohs hardness of approximately 9 (on a scale of 1 to 10. Alumina can be processed with different properties by slight alteration of the reactants in the manufacturing process. Several grain sizes of alumina are available, and alumina has largely replaced emery for several abrasive uses. Aluminum oxide is widely used to make bonded abrasives, coated abrasives, and air-propelled grit abrasives for dental applications.
Sintered aluminum oxide is used to make white stones, which are popular for adjusting dental enamel and finishing metal alloys, resin-based composites, and ceramic materials.
Pink and ruby variations of aluminum oxide abrasives are made by adding chromium compounds to the original melt. These variations are sold in a vitreous-bonded form as noncontaminating mounted stones for the preparation of metal– ceramic alloys to receive porcelain. Remnants of these abrasives and other debris should be removed from the surface of metals used for metal–ceramic bonding so as not to prevent optimal bonding of porcelain to the metal alloy. A review by Yamamoto (see Selected Reading) suggests that carbide burs are the most effective instruments for finishing this type of alloy because they do not contaminate the metal surface with entrapped abrasive particles.

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data by implantation. Inhalation of finely divided particles may cause lung damage (Shaver's disease). Exothermic reaction above 200℃ with halocarbon vapors produces toxic HCl and phosgene. See also ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS

Safety

Aluminum oxide is generally regarded as relatively nontoxic and nonirritant when used as an excipient. Inhalation of finely divided particles may cause lung damage (Shaver’s disease).

잠재적 노출

Most hazardous exposures to aluminum occur in smelting and refining processes. Aluminum is mostly produced by electrolysis of Al2O3 dissolved in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6). Aluminum is alloyed with copper, zinc, silicon, magnesium, manganese, and nickel; special additives may include chromium, lead, bismuth, titanium, zirconium, and vanadium. Aluminum and its alloys can be extruded or processed in rolling mills, wire works, forges, or foundries; and are used in the shipbuilding, electrical, building, aircraft, automobile, light engineering, and jewelry industries. Aluminum foil is widely used in packaging. Powdered aluminum is used in the paints and pyrotechnic industries. Alumina, emery, and corundum has been used for abrasives, refractories, and catalysts; and in the past in the first firing of china and pottery.

응급 처치

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

저장

Aluminum oxide should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry, place. It is very hygroscopic.

운송 방법

UN1309 Aluminum powder, coated, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN1383 Pyrophoric metals, n.o.s. or Pyrophoric alloys, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material, Technical Name Required. UN1396 Aluminum powder, uncoated, Hazard Class: 4.3; Labels: 4.3-Dangerous when wet material. NA9260 (North America) Aluminum, molten, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material.

Purification Methods

Stir the oxide with hot 2M HNO3, either on a steam bath for 12hours (changing the acid every hour) or three times for 30minutes, then wash it with hot distilled water until the washings have pH 4, and follow by three washings with hot MeOH. The product is dried at 270o [Angyal & Young J Am Chem Soc 81 5251 1959]. For the preparation of alumina for chromatography see Chapter 1. [For  ,  and  Al2O3 see Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 822-823 1963 and Wagner in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol II p 1662 1965.]

비 호환성

Aluminum powder forms an explosive mixture with air and is a strong reducing agent that reacts violently with oxidizers, strong bases; strong acids; somehalogenated hydrocarbons; nitrates, sulfates, metal oxides and many other substances. Keep away from combustible materials.

비 호환성

Aluminum oxide should be kept well away from water. It is incompatible with strong oxidizers and chlorinated rubber. Aluminum oxide also reacts with chlorine trifluoride, ethylene oxide, sodium nitrate, and vinyl acetate. Exothermic reactions above 2008℃ with halocarbon vapors produce toxic hydrogen chloride and phosgene fumes.

폐기물 처리

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposalpractices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal of Aluminum Oxide-Disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mixing of industrial process wastes and municipal wastes at such sites is not encouraged however. Aluminum powder may be recovered and sold as scrap. Recycling and recovery is a viable option to disposal for aluminum metal and aluminum fluoride (A-57).

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral tablets and topical sponge). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK.

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