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인듐

인듐
인듐 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7440-74-6
한글명:
인듐
동의어(한글):
인듐;인디움
상품명:
Indium
동의어(영문):
In;VRB-AG;INDIUM;IN000080;IN000180;IN005140;IN000266;IN005120;IN005110;IN005142
CBNumber:
CB9854194
분자식:
In
포뮬러 무게:
114.82
MOL 파일:
7440-74-6.mol

인듐 속성

녹는점
156 °C
끓는 점
2000 °C
밀도
7.3 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기압
<0.01 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
인화점
2072°C
저장 조건
Flammables area
물리적 상태
wire
색상
White
Specific Gravity
7.31
비저항
8.37 μΩ-cm
수용성
insoluble
Merck
14,4947
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents, sulfur.
CAS 데이터베이스
7440-74-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Indium(7440-74-6)
EPA
Indium(7440-74-6)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,Xn,F,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 25-26-34-36/37/38-20/21/22-20-11-36/38
안전지침서 9-16-36/37/39-36-26-45-28
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 NL1050000
TSCA Yes
HSCode  8112 99 70
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
유해 물질 데이터 7440-74-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H228 인화성 고체 인화성 고체 구분 1
구분 2
위험
경고
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H332 흡입하면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 4 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P240 용기와 수용설비를 접지 및 접합시키시오.
P241 폭발 방지용 장비[전기적/환기/조명/...]을(를) 사용하시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.

인듐 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Indium lies in Group 13 (13th vertical column of the periodic table). it shows a wide variety of properties. It is considered to be metal of the ‘poor metals’ group.

화학적 성질

solid

물리적 성질

Indium is silvery-white and malleable and looks much like aluminum and tin. However,it is softer than lead. Indium metal is so soft that it cannot be “wiped” onto other surfaces aswith a graphite pencil. Because it is noncorrosive and does not oxidize at room temperatures,it can be polished and will hold its shine better than silver. Its melting point is 156.60°C, itsboiling point is 2,075°C, and its density is 7.31 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are a total of 73 isotopes of indium. All are radioactive with relativelyshort half-lives, except two that are considered stable. Isotope In-113 makes up just4.29% of the total indium found in the Earth’s crust. The isotope In-115, with a half-lifeof 4.41×10-14 years contributes the balance (95.71%) of the element’s existence in theEarth’s crust.

Origin of Name

Indium’s name is derived from the Latin word indicum, meaning “indigo,” which is the color of its spectral line when viewed by a spectroscope.

출처

Indium is a rather rare metal. It is the 69th most abundant element, which is about asabundant as silver at 0.05 ppm. Although it is widely spread over the Earth’s crust, it is foundin very small concentrations and always combined with other metal ores. It is never found inits natural metallic state.
Indium is recovered as a by-product of smelting other metal ores such as aluminum,antimony, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. About 1,000 kg of indium is recovered each year (ora concentration of 1 part indium per 1000 parts of dust) from the flue stacks (chimneys) ofzinc refineries.
Indium is found in metal ores and minerals located in Russia, Japan, Europe, Peru, andCanada, as well as in the western part of the United States.

Characteristics

Indium has one odd characteristic in that in the form of a sheet, like the metal tin, it willemit a shrieking sound when bent rapidly. Indium has some of the characteristics of othermetals near it in the periodic table and may be thought of as an “extension” of the secondseries of the transition elements. Although it is corrosion-resistant at room temperature, it willoxidize at higher temperatures. It is soluble in acids, but not in alkalis or hot water.

역사

Discovered by Reich and Richter, who later isolated the metal. Indium is most frequently associated with zinc materials, and it is from these that most commercial indium is now obtained; however, it is also found in iron, lead, and copper ores. Until 1924, a gram or so constituted the world’s supply of this element in isolated form. It is probably about as abundant as silver. About 4 million troy ounces ofindium are now produced annually in the Free World. Canada is presently producing more than 1,000,000 troy ounces annually. The present cost of indium is about $2 to $10/g, depending on quantity and purity. It is available in ultrapure form. Indium is a very soft, silvery-white metal with a brilliant luster. The pure metal gives a high-pitched “cry” when bent. It wets glass, as does gallium. Indium has found application in making low-melting alloys; an alloy of 24% indium–76% gallium is liquid at room temperature. Indium is used in making bearing alloys, germanium transistors, rectifiers, thermistors, liquid crystal displays, high definition television, batteries, and photoconductors. It can be plated onto metal and evaporated onto glass, forming a mirror as good as that made with silver but with more resistance to atmospheric corrosion. There is evidence that indium has a low order of toxicity; however, care should be taken until further information is available. Seventy isotopes and isomers are now recognized (more than any other element). Natural indium contains two isotopes. One is stable. The other, 115In, comprising 95.71% of natural indium is slightly radioactive with a very long half-life.

용도

In bearing alloys; as a thin film on moving surfaces made from other metals. In dental alloys. In semiconductor research. In nuclear reactor control rods (in the form of an Ag-In-Cd alloy).

용도

Indium element is used in the synthesis of therapeutic particles containing metal ions; characterized by the use of unique ligand sets capable of making the metal ion complex soluble in biolgical medi a to induce selective toxicity in diseased cells.

용도

Indium’s low melting point is the major factor in determining its commercial importance.This factor makes it ideal for soldering the lead wires to semiconductors and transistors in theelectronics industry. The compounds of indium arsenide, indium antimonide, and indiumphosphide are used to construct semiconductors that have specialized functions in the electronicsindustry.
Another main use is as an alloy with other metals when it will lower the melting point ofthe metals with which it is alloyed. Alloys of indium and silver and indium and lead have theability to carry electricity better than pure silver and lead.
Indium is used as a coating for steel bearings to increase their resistance to wear. It alsohas the ability to “wet” glass, which makes it an excellent mirror surface that lasts longer than mercury mirrors. Sheets of indium foil are inserted into nuclear reactors to help control thenuclear fission reaction by absorbing some of the neutrons.

정의

A soft silvery metallic element belonging to group 13 of the periodic table. It is found in minute quantities, primarily in zinc ores and is used in alloys, in several electronic devices, and in electroplating. Symbol: In; m.p. 155.17°C; b.p. 2080°C; r.d. 7.31 (25°C); p.n. 49; r.a.m. 114.818.

정의

indium: Symbol In. A soft silvery elementbelonging to group 13 (formerlyIIIB) of the periodic table; a.n.49; r.a.m. 114.82; r.d. 7.31 (20°C);m.p. 156.6°C; b.p. 2080±2°C. It occursin zinc blende and some iron oresand is obtained from zinc flue dust intotal quantities of about 40 tonnesper annum. Naturally occurring indiumconsists of 4.23% indium–113(stable) and 95.77% indium–115 (halflife6 × 1014 years). There are a furtherfive short-lived radioisotopes.The uses of the metal are small –some special-purpose electroplatesand some special fusible alloys. Severalsemiconductor compounds areused, such as InAs, InP, and InSb.With only three electrons in its valencyshell, indium is an electron acceptorand is used to dope puregermanium and silicon; it forms stableindium(I), indium(II), and indium(III) compounds. The elementwas discovered in 1863 by FerdinandReich (1799–1882) and HieronymusRichter (1824–90).

정의

ChEBI: A metallic element first identified and named from the brilliant indigo (Latin indicum) blue line in its flame spectrum.

일반 설명

Soft, ductile, shiny, silver-white metal. Mp: 155.6°C; bp: 2080°C. Density 7.31 g cm-3.

반응 프로필

Indium is a non-combustible solid in bulk form but is flammable in the form of a dust. Reacts with strong oxidizing agents. Reacts explosively with dinitrogen tetraoxide dissolved in acetonitrile. Reacts violently with mercury(II)bromide at 350°C. Mixtures with sulfur ignite when heated.

위험도

Metal and its compounds are toxic by inhalation.

위험도

Indium metal dust, particles, and vapors are toxic if ingested or inhaled, as are most of thecompounds of indium. This requires the semiconductor and electronics industries that useindium compounds to provide protection for their workers.

공업 용도

Indium (symbol In) is a silvery-white metal with a bluish hue, whiter than tin.It is very ductile and does not work-harden, because its recrystallization point is below normal room temperature, and it softens during rolling. The metal is not easily oxidized, but above its melting point, 157 C, it oxidizes and burns with a violet flame.
Indium is now obtained as a by-product from a variety of ores. Because of its bright color, light reflectance, and corrosion resistance, it is valued as a plating metal, especially for reflectors. It is softer than lead, but a hard surface is obtained by heating the plated part to diffuse the indium into the base metal. It has high adhesion to other metals. When added to chromium plating baths it reduces brittleness of the chromium.
The three largest uses of indium are in semiconductordevices, bearings, and low meltingpointalloys.

Purification Methods

Before use, the metal surface is cleaned with dilute HNO3, followed by thorough washing with water and an alcohol rinse. [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 856 1963.]

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