|Company Name:||Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd Gold|
|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Nicotinamide Chemical Properties|
|Nicotinamide Usage And Synthesis|
|B vitamins||Nicotinamide is also called vitamin B3 and vitamin PP. It is water-soluble and belonging to the B vitamins. It is the component of coenzymeⅠ(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD) and coenzyme Ⅱ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADP). Parts of nicotinamide in the two coenzymes have the effects of reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenation in the structure of human body and transfer hydrogen in the biological oxidation process, which can promote tissue respiration, biological oxidation and metabolism, and is of great significance to maintain normal tissues, especially in the integrity of the skin, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. Lacking of nicotinamide affects the respiratory and metabolic of cells, which will cause pellagra. So, this product is mainly used for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, stomatitis, glossitis, etc. In addition, this product has the effects of prevention and treatment of cardiac conduction block, improves the sinoatrial node function and resistance to rapid experimental arrhythmia, which can significantly improves the verapamil caused heart rate slow and atrioventricular block. Clinical treatment of coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and a few digitalism with arrhythmia (most invalid when applied to other drugs), and generally has obvious curative effect to various degree of atrioventricular block. Basically, conduction block disappears after treatment, and it also has obvious curative effect for sick sinus atrial node syndrome, but poor curative effect for bundle branch block. Nicotinamide is gastrointestinal absorption after been taken orally, and can be absorbed faster by intramuscular. it distributes throughout the body after been absorbed, t1/2 for 45 minutes. It is liver metabolism, and most metabolized to N-methyl niacinamide, only a small amount of treatment quantity is to exclude with the urine. Urine increases when been taken more than needed. Less than 4 mg of N-methyl nicotinamide in urine suggests lacking of nicotinamide. |
Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are collectively referred to as vitamin PP. Nicotinic acid is involved in the metabolic process in the form of nicotinamide in animals. Both two have the common activity of vitamin. It is white crystalline powder, odourless or almost odourless, and taste bitter. Soluble in water, ethanol or glycerin, has a faint moisture absorption. Relatively stable in acid, alkali and high temperature. Nature mainly exist in the grain husk, yeast, peanut, meat, animal internal organs, milk and green leafy vegetables, can be synthesized from tryptophan in the human body, but the efficiency is very low. Escherichia coli in intestine can synthesize niacin, which further turns into niacinamide. It can prevent pellagra, exposed parts symmetry dermatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, anorexia, solar dermatitis, liver disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), atrioventricular block, sick sinus syndrome, diarrhea, neuritis and dementia, etc.
[Side effects]Occasional dizziness, nausea, epigastric discomfort, loss of appetite, etc., it can disappear, overdose may results in defects with birth in the early pregnancy, intramuscular injection can cause pain, so use less.
|Content Analysis||Accurately weigh 300 mg of sample which has been dried for 4 h via silica gel, then dissolved in 20 ml glacial acetic acid, slightly heating to dissolve when necessary. Add 100 ml of benzene and 2 drops of crystal violet test solution (TS - 74), then titration with 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid. Blank experiment is carried out at the same time and correction when necessary.
Every 1mL of 0.1 mol/L perchlorate equivalent of 12.21 mg of nicotinamide (C6H6N2O).
Or use high-pressure liquid chromatography (GT - 10-4) method.|
|Toxicity||LD50 2.5 ~ 3.5 g/kg (rats, through the mouth).|
ADI is no special regulation (EEC, 1990).
|Utilization Limitation||GB 14880-94: same as "01017, Niacin".|
Within the limit of the GMP (FDA § 184.1535, 2000).
Japan (1998) : wheat flour, 35 mg/kg; Rice 7 mg/kg; Modified formula 4 mg/kg; The hair color additives 0.02% ~ 0.1% of meat (share) and vitamin C. To maintain and enhance the ham, color, aroma and taste of the sausage. Shall not be used for meat and fish and shellfish, whale meat.
|Chemical Properties||White needle crystalls or crystal powder, odourless or a slight odor, taste bitter. Relative density is 1.4, melting point is 129-131 oC. 1 g of this product can dissolve in 1 mL water, 1.5 mL ethanol or 10 mL glycerin, insoluble in ether. PH of 10% of the aqueous solution is 6.5-7.5. Light and heat stability in dry air, to generate nicotinic acid when heated in alkaline or acidic solution. LD502.5 of rat through mouth is 3.5 g/kg, ADI value do not make special provisions (ECC, 1990).|
|Application||Same as nicotinic acid. Water soluble is better than niacin acid, easy to generate complex agglomerate with vitamin C. The dosage is 30-80 mg/kg.|
Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are in common use generally and nicotinic acid can transform into nicotinamide in animals. Lack of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, results in pellagra. So they can prevent pellagra. They also play a role in the metabolism of protein and sugar, which can improve human and animal nutrition. In addition to be used as a medicine, it can also be applied in food and feed additives. The production capacity is more than 30000 tons in the world. In Japan, niacinamide used in medicine (40%), feed additives (50%) and food additives (10%). Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are non-toxic, naturally contains in liver, kidney, yeast and honey. The niacinamide LD50 of subcutaneous injection for rat is 1.7 g/kg.
It is of Vitamin drugs, and involved in metabolic process. Can be used in skin care products, to prevent coarse skin, maintain healthy skin cells, and promote skin whitening. In addition, it can also be used in hair care products, to promote scalp blood circulation, healthy hair follicles, promotes hair growth and prevent alopecia.
Used in biochemical research. To prepare tissue culture medium. The pharmaceutical industry.
|Production Method||Oxidize β-methyl pyridine by air into niacin, the latter reacts with ammonium hydroxide, heating and dehydration.|
By nicotinic acid and ammonia reaction to generate salt, then dehydration.
Put nicotinic acid, boric acid and ammonia into a reaction pot, pumped in ammonia with stir, heating to dissolution, then distillation to recycle ammonia. When temperature increases to 120 oC, move to dehydration pot to continue concentration. when the temperature reaches 145 oC, add liquid ammonia, and keeping pumping in ammonia for 20-30 h at 185-190 oC. Then cooled to 130 oC, add distilled water to dilute, add activated carbon to decolor, and pump in ammonia for 2 h at 70-80 oC. Filtrate the reaction when hot, cold the filtrate in water for 24 h, fractional crystallization, washing with ethanol, drying, then could obtain yield of 89% of product.
|Chemical Properties||White crystalline powder|
|Usage||Niacinamide USP is used as food additive, for multivitamin preparations and as intermediate for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. WWW Link|
|Usage||Niacinamide USP DC is used as food additive, for multivitamin preparations and as intermediate for pharmaceuticals WWW Link|
|Usage||A water-soluble vitamin B, incorporated within nicotinamide cofactors such as NADH and NADPH.|
|Usage||Vitamin B3; enzyme cofactor; anti-pellagra|
|General Description||White powder.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||An amine and amide. Acts as a weak base in solution. Amines are chemical bases. They neutralize acids to form salts plus water. These acid-base reactions are exothermic. The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides. Organic amides/imides react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed by the reaction of organic amides/imides with strong reducing agents. Amides are very weak bases (weaker than water). Imides are less basic yet and in fact react with strong bases to form salts. That is, they can react as acids. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates the corresponding nitrile. The combustion of these compounds generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx).|
|Nicotinamide Preparation Products And Raw materials|