|Company Name:||Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd Gold|
|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Nicotinamide Chemical Properties|
|Nicotinamide Usage And Synthesis|
|B vitamins||Nicotinamide is also called vitamin B3 or vitamin PP, is a kind of water-soluble vitamin, belong to B vitamin, as NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADP) composition, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties of nicotinamide in the body part of this two kinds of structure of coenzyme the reversible, play a role of hydrogen delivery in biological oxidation, can promote tissue respiration, biological oxidation process and the new supersedes the old, having a great significance in maintaining normal tissue, especially the integrity of the skin digestive tract and the nervous system. When the lack of B vitamins, due to respiration and metabolism of cells affected by pellagra, so this product is mainly used for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, stomatitis, glossitis and so on. In addition, this product has prevention of heart block and improving the sinoatrial node and anti-fast experimental arrhythmia function, can significantly improve Vera Pammy induced bradycardia and atrioventricular block. The clinical for coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis, rheumatic heart disease and a handful of digitalis poisoning associated with arrhythmia (mostly applied only when other medications fail), generally the degree atrioventricular block has obvious curative effect, basically after the treatment, all block can disappear, has obvious curative effect in sick sinus syndrome, right bundle branch block effect is poor. After the stomach intestinal absorption by the oral, intramuscular absorption faster, then absorption distribution to the body tissues, t1/2 is 45 min. The liver metabolism, most metabolize N- n-methylnicotinamide, only a small amount of treatment as the prototype from the urine was more than necessary. If the daily urinary excretion of N- methyl nicotinamide is lower than 4mg, suggesting that nicotinamide deficiency.|
Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are collectively referred to vitamin PP, nicotinic acid in the animal body is involved in metabolic processes in the form of nicotinamide, both have a common vitamin activity. It is white crystalline powder, odorless or almost odorless, bitter taste, easily soluble in water or ethanol, soluble in glycerol. Hygroscopic weak stable., acid, alkali and high temperature. The nature mainly exists in cereal skin, yeast, peanuts, meat, animal organs, milk and green leafy vegetables, in the body it is from tryptophan synthesis, but the efficiency is very low. Escherichia coli in the intestine (Escherichia coli) can be converted into synthesis of nicotinic acid, nicotinamide. Prevention and treatment of pellagra, exposed parts of symmetric dermatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, anorexia, dermatitis, liver disease, coronary heart disease, atrioventricular block, sick sinus syndrome, diarrhea, neuritis and dementia.
[Adverse reaction] Occasionally dizziness, nausea, abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite, disappear on their own, in early pregnancy overdose possible teratogenic intramuscular injection can cause pain, so less.
The above information is Chemicalbook Hanya edited.
|Content analysis||Precision 300mg sample that prefetching in silica gel dry 4h after specimen , dissolved in 20 ml of glacial acetic acid, necessary slightly heated to help dissolve. After adding 100ml of benzene and 2 drops of crystal violet solution (TS-74), with 0.1mol/L perchloric acid titrated. At the same time the blank test and amended necessarily. Per Ml 0.1mol/L high chlorine acid is equivalent to nicotinamide(C6H6N2O) 12.21mg.|
Or it is determined by using high pressure liquid chromatography (GT-10-4).
|Content Analysis||Accurately weigh 300 mg of sample which has been dried for 4 h via silica gel, then dissolved in 20 ml glacial acetic acid, slightly heating to dissolve when necessary. Add 100 ml of benzene and 2 drops of crystal violet test solution (TS - 74), then titration with 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid. Blank experiment is carried out at the same time and correction when necessary.
Every 1mL of 0.1 mol/L perchlorate equivalent of 12.21 mg of nicotinamide (C6H6N2O).
Or use high-pressure liquid chromatography (GT - 10-4) method.|
|Toxicity||LD50 2.5 ~ 3.5 g/kg (rats, through the mouth).|
ADI is no special regulation (EEC, 1990).
|Toxicity||LD50 is 2.5 ~ 3.5 g/kg (rat, by mouth).|
GRAS (FDA, 182.55352000).
ADI does not make special provisions (EEC, 1990).
|Utilization Limitation||GB 14880-94: same as "01017, Niacin".|
Within the limit of the GMP (FDA § 184.1535, 2000).
Japan (1998) : wheat flour, 35 mg/kg; Rice 7 mg/kg; Modified formula 4 mg/kg; The hair color additives 0.02% ~ 0.1% of meat (share) and vitamin C. To maintain and enhance the ham, color, aroma and taste of the sausage. Shall not be used for meat and fish and shellfish, whale meat.
|Chemical Properties||White needle crystalls or crystal powder, odourless or a slight odor, taste bitter. Relative density is 1.4, melting point is 129-131 oC. 1 g of this product can dissolve in 1 mL water, 1.5 mL ethanol or 10 mL glycerin, insoluble in ether. PH of 10% of the aqueous solution is 6.5-7.5. Light and heat stability in dry air, to generate nicotinic acid when heated in alkaline or acidic solution. LD502.5 of rat through mouth is 3.5 g/kg, ADI value do not make special provisions (ECC, 1990).|
|Maximum allowable amount and maximum allowable residual standard of food additives|
|Chemical property||It is white needle crystal or crystalline powder, no smell or odor slightly, slightly bitter taste. The relative density is 1.4, melting point is 131-132 ℃.1 g of the above the product is soluble in 1 ml of water, 1.5 ml ethanol or 10 ml glycerin, insoluble in ether. The pH of 10% aqueous solution is 6.5-7.5. in dry air to light and heat stability, in alkaline or acidic solution, heating generation to nicotinic acid. Rats by oral LD502.5-3.5g/kg ADI value does not make special provisions (ECC, 1990)
|Application||Same as nicotinic acid. Water soluble is better than niacin acid, easy to generate complex agglomerate with vitamin C. The dosage is 30-80 mg/kg.|
Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are in common use generally and nicotinic acid can transform into nicotinamide in animals. Lack of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, results in pellagra. So they can prevent pellagra. They also play a role in the metabolism of protein and sugar, which can improve human and animal nutrition. In addition to be used as a medicine, it can also be applied in food and feed additives. The production capacity is more than 30000 tons in the world. In Japan, niacinamide used in medicine (40%), feed additives (50%) and food additives (10%). Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are non-toxic, naturally contains in liver, kidney, yeast and honey. The niacinamide LD50 of subcutaneous injection for rat is 1.7 g/kg.
It is of Vitamin drugs, and involved in metabolic process. Can be used in skin care products, to prevent coarse skin, maintain healthy skin cells, and promote skin whitening. In addition, it can also be used in hair care products, to promote scalp blood circulation, healthy hair follicles, promotes hair growth and prevent alopecia.
Used in biochemical research. To prepare tissue culture medium. The pharmaceutical industry.
|Production Method||Oxidize β-methyl pyridine by air into niacin, the latter reacts with ammonium hydroxide, heating and dehydration.|
By nicotinic acid and ammonia reaction to generate salt, then dehydration.
Put nicotinic acid, boric acid and ammonia into a reaction pot, pumped in ammonia with stir, heating to dissolution, then distillation to recycle ammonia. When temperature increases to 120 oC, move to dehydration pot to continue concentration. when the temperature reaches 145 oC, add liquid ammonia, and keeping pumping in ammonia for 20-30 h at 185-190 oC. Then cooled to 130 oC, add distilled water to dilute, add activated carbon to decolor, and pump in ammonia for 2 h at 70-80 oC. Filtrate the reaction when hot, cold the filtrate in water for 24 h, fractional crystallization, washing with ethanol, drying, then could obtain yield of 89% of product.
|Application||1. The same as nicotinic acid, water solubility is better than that of nicotinic acid, but it is easy to form complex with vitamin C and agglomerate. The amount is 30-80mg/kg.|
2. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are mostly the same, nicotinic acid can generate to nicotinamide in animal body. In the absence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, you can get pellagra. So they can prevent pellagra. In protein and sugar metabolism,they can play a role, and improve the human and animal nutrition. In addition to using in medicine, but also a large number of them are used as food and feed additive. The world production capacity has more than 3 million tons. In Japan, nicotinamide is used in medicine, which accounted for 40%, the feed additives accounted for 50%. Food additives accounted for 10%. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are non-toxic in nature in animal liver, kidney, yeast and rice, sugar, nicotinamide on rat subcutaneous LD50 was 1.7 g / kg.
3. Vitamin medicine, which participated in metabolism, is used for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, niacin deficiency.
4.Used for skin care, the products can prevent rough skin, maintain the health of the skin cells, promote skin whitening. For the hair, they can promote blood circulation of the scalp, hair follicle health, promote hair growth, and prevent baldness.
5. Biochemical studies; tissue culture based nutrition; clinical drug for B vitamins for the prevention and treatment of pellagra and stomatitis, glossitis and other diseases treatment.
6. Used for biochemical researches, Preparation of tissue culture media , pharmaceutical industry.
|Methods of production||1.β- methyl pyridine is oxidized to nicotinic acid by air, and the latter is produced by the action of ammonium hydroxide, and then heating and dehydration.|
2.Nicotinic acid, boric acid and ammonia into reaction pot, stirring at the condition of ammonia gas, heating dissolution; then distilled ammonia recovery, to 120℃ after the immigration dewatering pot continues to enrich; when the temperature reached 145 ℃, start adding liquid ammonia, and in 185 to 190℃ to ammonia reaction 20～30h. And then cooled to 130℃, diluted with distilled water, activated carbon was added, and in 70~80℃through ammonia decolorization 2h; reaction after filtered, , filtrate in 24 hours after analysis of cold water, fractional crystallization and washing with ethanol, and drying to obtain the finished product. The yield was 89%.
3. From the nicotinic acid and ammonia react into salt and then dehydrated.
|Chemical Properties||White crystalline powder|
|Usage||Niacinamide USP is used as food additive, for multivitamin preparations and as intermediate for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. WWW Link|
|Usage||Niacinamide USP DC is used as food additive, for multivitamin preparations and as intermediate for pharmaceuticals WWW Link|
|Usage||A water-soluble vitamin B, incorporated within nicotinamide cofactors such as NADH and NADPH.|
|Usage||Vitamin B3; enzyme cofactor; anti-pellagra|
|General Description||White powder.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||An amine and amide. Acts as a weak base in solution. Amines are chemical bases. They neutralize acids to form salts plus water. These acid-base reactions are exothermic. The amount of heat that is evolved per mole of amine in a neutralization is largely independent of the strength of the amine as a base. Amines may be incompatible with isocyanates, halogenated organics, peroxides, phenols (acidic), epoxides, anhydrides, and acid halides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is generated by amines in combination with strong reducing agents, such as hydrides. Organic amides/imides react with azo and diazo compounds to generate toxic gases. Flammable gases are formed by the reaction of organic amides/imides with strong reducing agents. Amides are very weak bases (weaker than water). Imides are less basic yet and in fact react with strong bases to form salts. That is, they can react as acids. Mixing amides with dehydrating agents such as P2O5 or SOCl2 generates the corresponding nitrile. The combustion of these compounds generates mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx).|
|Nicotinamide Preparation Products And Raw materials|