|Isopropanol Chemical Properties|
|mp ||-89.5 °C|
|bp ||82 °C(lit.)|
|density ||0.785 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)|
|vapor density ||2.1 (vs air)|
|vapor pressure ||33 mm Hg ( 20 °C)|
|refractive index ||n20/D 1.377(lit.)|
|Fp ||53 °F|
|storage temp. ||Flammables area|
|Water Solubility ||miscible|
|CAS DataBase Reference||67-63-0(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Isopropyl alcohol(67-63-0)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||2-Propanol(67-63-0)|
|Isopropanol Usage And Synthesis|
|Outline||Isopropanol is also known as dimethylcarbinol and 2-propanol. It is the simplest secondary alcohol and is one of the isomers of n-propanol. It is a kind of flammable liquid which is colorless with strong smell being similar to the smell of the mixture of ethanol and acetone. It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform and most organic solvents and is miscible with water, alcohol, ether and can form azeotrope with water. Density (specific gravity): 0.7863g / cm3, melting point: -88.5 ℃, boiling point: 82.5 ℃, flash point: 11.7 ℃, ignition point: 460 ℃, refractive index: 1.3772. Its vapor can cause slight irritation on the eyes, nose and throat; it can be absorbed through the skin. Its vapor can form explosive mixture with air. Its explosion limit is 2.0% to 12% (by volume). It belongs to a moderate explosive hazardous material and flammable, low toxic substance. The toxicity of its vapors is twice as high as ethanol while oral administration causes the opposite toxicity. |
Figure 1 is the structural formula of isopropanol.
In many cases, isopropanol can substitute ethanol as the solvent and is a good solvent and chemical raw materials which can be applied to not only painting, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics and other industries, but also the production of acetone, isopropyl ester, isopropylamine (the raw material for production of atrazine), di-isopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate and thymol crystal etc. It was the first product which is made from the petroleum raw material in the history of the development of petrochemicals.
|Production Process||In 1855, Frenchman M. Berthelot first reported the production of isopropanol through the hydration reaction between propylene and sulfuric acid, called indirect hydration. In 1919, the Americans C. Ellis had conducted industrial development on this. At the end of 1920, the American Standard Oil Company of New Jersey adopted the approach of Ellis Act and established the production equipment for putting into formal production. In 1951, the British company Imperial Chemical Industries began to produce isopropanol with the direct hydration method from propylene. Since then, many countries have used this method and made related improvements. |
Indirect hydration reaction: propylene is first reacted with sulfuric acid to obtain isopropyl hydrogen sulfate, which generates isopropanol after hydrolysis, and the reaction of the formula:
CH3CH = CH2 + H2SO4 → (CH3) 2CHOSO3H
(CH3) 2CHOSO3H + H2O─ → (CH3) 2CHOH + H2SO4
the concentration of the applied sulfuric acid is generally greater than 60% (by mass), and the reaction is conducted at 2 ~ 2.8MPa and 60 ~ 65 ° C; The hydrolysis reaction happens at slight increased pressure and at below 30 ° C.
Direct hydration: propylene directly has hydration reaction with water in the presence of a catalyst upon heating and increased pressure to generate isopropanol with a selectivity of 96%. Reaction is: CH3CH = CH2 + H2O → (CH3) 2CHOH; the used catalyst includes tungsten compound, phosphate and ion exchange resin; the commonly used catalyst is phosphoric acid catalyst with carrier (see solid acid catalyst) with conditions of 2 ~ 6MPa, 240 ~ 260 ° C. Compared with the indirect method, this method does not have issue regarding to sulfuric acid corrosion and dilute acid concentration and therefore, it dominant in industrial production.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
|Role and purpose||Isopropanol is an important chemical products and raw materials. It is mainly applied to various fields including pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, fragrances, paint as well as being used as the dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in and electronics industry. It can also be used as the reagent for determination of barium, calcium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium and strontium. It can also be used as the reference material of chromatographic analysis. |
In the manufacturing industry of circuit board, it is used as a cleaning agent, and the production of PCB holes for conductivity. Many people find that it can not only clean the motherboard with excellent performance, but also get the best results. In addition, it is used for other electronic devices, including cleaning disc cartridge, floppy disk drives, magnetic tape, and the laser tip of the disc driver of CD or DVD player.
Isopropanol can also be used as a solvent for flexographic printing, offset printing, gravure printing, and as equipment cleaner. It is also often supplied to the ink. It is also an important solvent for dilution and extraction in laboratory. In addition, isopropanol is also used as a gasoline additive and fuel pipeline deicers.
In the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, isopropanol can be used for the manufacturing of scouring liquid, hand and body lotions, antiseptics and the pharmaceutical redness agents. It is also used in paints, thinners, paint, cleaning and polishing, and surface sterilization, disinfection hospitals, food processing plants.
In many industrial and consumer products, isopropanol is used as a low-cost solvent as well as a kind of extraction agents which can substitute the application of ethanol in many cases.
Isopropanol can also be used as the solvent of oil and gel as well as for the manufacture of fishmeal feed concentrate. Low-quality isopropanol can also be used in automotive fuels. As the raw material of production of acetone, the usage amount of isopropanol is reducing. There are several compounds which are synthesized from isopropanol, such as isopropyl ester, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isopropylamine, di-isopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, thymol and many kinds of esters. We can supply isopropanol of different quality depending on the end use it. The conventional quality of anhydrous isopropanol is more than 99%, while the special grade isopropanol content is higher than 99.8% (for flavors and drugs).
|Analysis of market demand for different applications||European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) said that the intermediate demand in Europe in 2001 accounted for 32% of the total isopropanol consumption, with 14% isopropanol being used as anti-icing agent, 13% being used in paints and resins, 9% being used in drugs, and 4% and 3% being used as food for inks and adhesives, respectively. |
At present, China mainly applied isopropanol as the solvent in inks and pharmaceutical industries with the demand accounting for about 50% of total demand. However, due to competition of ethanol, it is predicted that the future trends of the growth rate in this field will be slowed down; The demand for different areas of organic intermediates in isopropanol accounts for about 25% of total demand. The demand from various kinds of other additives and isopropanol esters also accounts for 25% of the total demand. The application of isopropanol in the cleaning agent of the electronics industry has become one of the fastest growing areas in current growth of the global isopropanol demand. China has become the world's leading production base of electronic and electrical appliances. Owing to this field of application has just started in China, it has a huge development potential as well as broad market prospects.
|Toxicity||ADI value is not specified (FAO / WHO, 2001). |
LD5050: 45rag / kg (rat, oral).
|Limited use||FEMA (mg / kg): soft drinks: 25; sweets: 10 to 75; baked good: 75.
|Harm||For people being constantly exposed to isopropanol, there is a certain risk of poisoning. Worker of test analysts, typists, painters, carpenters and internal affairs belong to the occupationally exposed population. |
Oral, inhalation, skin and eyes are the four most fundamental ways for taking effect. Accidental intake of more than twenty ml of isopropanol may cause the onset of toxicity. When the nearby concentration exceeds 500ppm, you should use self-contained breathing apparatus. When the concentration reaches 12,000, it will be dangerous for the health and life. Although skin absorption is small, but long-term exposure can also cause adverse reactions. Excessive exposure can cause discomfort in eye, nose and throat. It may also cause the depression of central nervous system. In severe cases, it can cause confusion and problems on the spirit of coordination, circulatory system and respiratory system.
Upon the case of disease associated with isopropanol inhalation, you should first remove the source of pollution or transfer the victim to fresh air place. If the patient is not breathing, you should administer artificial respiration immediately before being subject to medical treatment.
Upon the case of eating isopropanol, you should first have the patients take a lot of water and then take them to hospital for treatment.
Isopropanol emissions will also pollute the environment. Isopropanol is a photochemical oxidant, which can generate ozone upon sunshine which is similar with other trace gases near the ground, resulting in the so-called "summer smog" phenomenon. The photochemical smog will irritate the eyes and respiratory system, doing harm to the people's health and growth of the plant. Therefore isopropanol is a chemical product which is harmful to the human body as well as the environment. It is now becoming an inevitable trend to reduce the applied amount.
|The maximum amount of allowable food additives and maximum allowable residue limits|
|Chemical Property||It is colorless and flammable liquid with a smell similar as alcohol. It is miscible with water, alcohol, ether, and chloroform.
|Application||It can be used as the chemical reagents for experimental purpose and chromatography reagents. |
It can be used as the extraction solvent as well as carrier solvent. GB 2760-1996: temporary food spices allowed for application. It can be applied to the processing of beet sugar, candy, nutritional supplement tablets, hops extract, lemon oil, spice oleoresins, and yeast.
As the organic raw material and solvent, it has a wide range of applications and materials. As a chemical raw material, it can be used to produce acetone, hydrogen peroxide, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isobutyl ketone, isopropylamine, isopropyl ether, isopropyl alcohol ether, isopropyl chloride, isopropyl fatty acids ester and chlorinated isopropyl fatty acid. In the fine chemical industry, it can be used for the production of iso-propyl nitrate, proxam, tri-isopropyl phosphite, tri-isopropyl aluminum and pharmaceuticals and pesticides. As the solvent, it can be used for the production of coatings, inks, extraction solvent, and aerosol. It can also be used as antifreeze, detergents, additive for reconciling gasoline, dispersant of pigment production, the fixer of the industrial printing and dyeing and the antifogging agent of glass and transparent.
Isopropanol is an important intermediate in the production of pesticides. It can be used to produce fungicides such as isoprothiolane and Iprobenfos; insecticide and acaricide such as propetamphos, isocarbophos, isofenphos-methyl, propoxur, and fenvalerate as well as herbicides Propisochlor. It can also be used to prepare isopropyl bromide and isopropyl chloride.
It is mainly used in pharmaceutical, also used as a solvent, extraction agent, antifreeze agent, etc.
Purposes: for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, fragrances, paint, etc.
It can be used as the solvent of creosote, shellac, resins, gums, and nitrocellulose. It can also be used as the solvent for determination of vegetable oil through esterification analysis. It can also used for determination of barium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium and strontium. It can be used for the extraction of rare earth and metal extraction and separation. It can also be used for the extraction of alkaloids. It can be applied to the pesticide analysis as well as being used for organic Synthesis. It is also used as the component of the antifreeze agent.
|Production method||The preparation method is based on using propylene as raw materials and diatomaceous earth phosphate as the catalyst for hydration into isopropanol in a pressurized condition. The process is increasing the pressure of propylene and water separately to 2.03 MPa, and preheated to 200 °C and further mixing them and putting into the reactor for hydration reaction. The reactor contains phosphate diatomaceous earth as the catalyst; the reaction temperature was 95 °C and the pressure is 2.03 MPa; the molar ratio of water to propylene is from 0.7:1; the propylene conversion rate was 5.2% with a selectivity of 99%; the reaction gas was further subject to neutralization and heat exchange and put into the high pressure cooler and high-pressure separator; the gas phase of isopropanol is recycled from the recovery column using saline spray; the unreacted gas was recycled for using via recycle compressor; the liquid phase is low concentration of isopropanol (15% to 17%) which is put into the crude distillation column to generate 85% to 87% isopropyl propanol aqueous solution; this is further subject to the distillation in distillation column to 95%. The purity is further increased to over 99% through benzene extraction. This method is the main method of domestic and foreign production of isopropanol. |
The method has no sulfuric acid without any corrosion problems. The process is relatively simple.
There is also a sulfuric acid hydration method, namely using over 50% propylene as raw materials; the propylene is absorbed with 75% to 85% concentrated sulfuric acid at 50 ℃ and at low pressure in the absorber. Dilute the absorption solution to a sulfuric acid content of 35%; use low pressure steam to hydrolyze into isopropanol in the desorption tower. The propylene conversion rate of this method can be over 90% with the crude isopropanol product containing isopropanol of up to 50% to 60%. However, this method uses sulfuric acid with great corrosion on the equipment; in addition, the dilute sulfuric acid needs to be concentrated for recycling usage.
CH3CH = CH2 + H2SO4 → (CH3) 2CHOSO3H [H2O] → (CH3) 2CHOH + H2SO4
|Chemical Properties||colourless liquid with slight alcohol odour|
|Usage||When compared to ethanol, 50% less is required for nucleic acid precipitation, thus minimizing the total volume to be centrifuged for DNA or RNA recovery.|
|Usage||Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing|
|Acute toxicity||Oral- rat LD50: 5045 mg / kg; Oral - Mouse LD50: 3600 mg / kg
|Data of irritation||Eye- rabbit 100 mg / 24 hours; moderate
|Hazardous characteristics of explosive||it is explosive when mixed with air
|Flammability and hazard characteristics||it is flammable in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant with burning generating irritated smoke
|Storage characteristics||Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and dry; store it separately from oxidants and acids
|Extinguishing agent||dry powder, dry sand, carbon dioxide, foam
|Professional standards||TWA 980 mg / m
|General Description||Volatile, colorless liquid with a sharp musty odor like rubbing alcohol. Flash point of 53°F. Vapors are heavier than air and mildly irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Density approximately 6.5 lb / gal. Used in making cosmetics, skin and hair preparations, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquer formulations, dye solutions, antifreezes, soaps, window cleaners. Sold in 70% aqueous solution as rubbing alcohol.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Highly flammable. Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||Isopropanol reacts with air or oxygen to form dangerously unstable peroxides. Contact with 2-butanone increases the rate of peroxide formation. An explosive reaction occurs when Isopropanol is heated with (aluminum isopropoxide + crotonaldehyde). Forms explosive mixtures with trinitromethane and hydrogen peroxide. Reacts with barium perchlorate to form a highly explosive compound. Ignites on contact with dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate, chromium trioxide and potassium-tert-butoxide. Vigorous reactions occur with (hydrogen + palladium), nitroform, oleum, COCl2, aluminum triisopropoxide and oxidizing agents. Reacts explosively with phosgene in the presence of iron salts. Incompatible with acids, acid anhydrides, halogens and aluminum . Isopropanol can react with PCl3, forming toxic HCl gas. (Logsdon, John E., Richard A. Loke., sopropyl Alcohol. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996.).|
|Health Hazard||Vapors cause mild irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract; high concentrations may be anesthetic. Liquid irritates eyes and may cause injury; harmless to skin; if ingested causes drunkenness and vomiting.|
|Fire Hazard||HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.|
|Isopropanol Preparation Products And Raw materials|