Back to ChemicalBook Home--->CAS DataBase List--->7440-66-6

7440-66-6

7440-66-6 Structure

7440-66-6 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

ZINC
[CAS]

7440-66-6
[Synonyms]

65ZN
BUTTER OF ZINC
CLAYZIC
'LGC' (2611)
MARSCH REAGENT
PLATING SOLUTION Z-100ENC
RIEKE(R) ZINC
ZINC
ZINC-65
ZINC AA/ICP CALIBRATION/CHECK STANDARD
ZINC AA SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD
ZINC, AAS STANDARD SOLUTION
ZINC AA STANDARD
ZINC, ANALYTICAL STANDARD
Zinc ashes
ZINC ATOMIC ABSORPTION SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD
ZINC ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD
ZINC ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD SOLUTION
ZINC ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY STANDARD
ZINC CHLORIDE
[EINECS(EC#)]

231-592-0
[Molecular Formula]

Zn
[MDL Number]

MFCD00011291
[Molecular Weight]

65.39
[MOL File]

7440-66-6.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Appearance]

silver or blueish-white foil or powder
[Appearance]

Zinc is a soft silvery colored metal; the dust is odorless and gray.
[mp ]

420 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

907 °C(lit.)
[density ]

7.14 g/mL at 25 °C
[vapor pressure ]

1 mm Hg ( 487 °C)
[Fp ]

1 °F
[storage temp. ]

2-8°C
[solubility ]

H2O: soluble
[form ]

wire
[Stability:]

Stable. Incompatible with amines, cadmium, sulfur, chlorinated solvents, strong acids, strong bases. Air and moisture sensitive. Zinc powder is very flammable.
[Merck ]

14,10132
[History]

Centuries before zinc was recognized as a distinct element, zinc ores were used for making brass. Tubal-Cain, seven generations from Adam, is mentioned as being an “instructor in every artificer in brass and iron.” An alloy containing 87% zinc has been found in prehistoric ruins in Transylvania. Metallic zinc was produced in the 13th century A.D. in India by reducing calamine with organic substances such as wool. The metal was rediscovered in Europe by Marggraf in 1746, who showed that it could be obtained by reducing calamine with charcoal. The principal ores of zinc are sphalerite or blende (sulfide), smithsonite (carbonate), calamine (silicate), and franklinite (zinc, manganese, iron oxide). Canada, Japan, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands are suppliers of zinc ores. Zinc is also mined in Alaska, Tennessee, Missouri, and elsewhere in the U.S. Zinc can be obtained by roasting its ores to form the oxide and by reduction of the oxide with coal or carbon, with subsequent distillation of the metal. Other methods of extraction are possible. Naturally occurring zinc contains five stable isotopes. Twenty-five other unstable isotopes and isomers are recognized. Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous metal. It is brittle at ordinary temperatures but malleable at 100 to 150°C. It is a fair conductor of electricity, and burns in air at high red heat with evolution of white clouds of the oxide. The metal is employed to form numerous alloys with other metals. Brass, nickel silver, typewriter metal, commercial bronze, spring brass, German silver, soft solder, and aluminum solder are some of the more important alloys. Large quantities of zinc are used to produce die castings, used extensively by the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. An alloy called Prestal?, consisting of 78% zinc and 22% aluminum, is reported to be almost as strong as steel but as easy to mold as plastic. It is said to be so plastic that it can be molded into form by relatively inexpensive die casts made of ceramics and cement. It exhibits superplasticity. Zinc is also extensively used to galvanize other metals such as iron to prevent corrosion. Neither zinc nor zirconium is ferromagnetic; but ZrZn2 exhibits ferromagnetism at temperatures below 35 K. Zinc oxide is a unique and very useful material to modern civilization. It is widely used in the manufacture of paints, rubber products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, floor coverings, plastics, printing inks, soap, storage batteries, textiles, electrical equipment, and other products. It has unusual electrical, thermal, optical, and solid- state properties that have not yet been fully investigated. Lithopone, a mixture of zinc sulfide and barium sulfate, is an important pigment. Zinc sulfide is used in making luminous dials, X-ray and TV screens, and fluorescent lights. The chloride and chromate are also important compounds. Zinc is an essential element in the growth of human beings and animals. Tests show that zinc-deficient animals require 50% more food to gain the same weight as an animal supplied with sufficient zinc. Zinc is not considered to be toxic, but when freshly formed ZnO is inhaled a disorder known as the oxide shakes or zinc chills sometimes occurs. It is recommended that where zinc oxide is encountered good ventilation be provided. The commercial price of zinc in January 2002 was roughly 40¢/lb ($90 kg). Zinc metal with a purity of 99.9999% is priced at about $5/g.
[Uses]

This bluish white metallic element is found in sphalerite ore that is roasted to give an oxide that is reduced with carbon to make zinc vapor, which is condensed. Elemental zinc foil was occasionally used to decolorize old collodion rich in iodine. The zinc halides were used primarily in collodion emulsions.
[Uses]

zinc is described as an oligo element, trace element, or micro nutrient. Zinc is believed to accelerate wound healing. It is also considered an anti-oxidant, offering protection against uV radiation. It appears to favor the sulfur uptake in sulfurated amino acids and facilitates the incorporation of cysteine, an amino acid, into the skin. It also has a synergistic effect with vitamins A and e. Zinc is a component of more than 70 metal enzymes. It promotes collagen synthesis in the dermis and keratinization of the corneum layer. Zinc is useful for acne treatments because it lowers sebaceous secretion, and is also used in the treatment of psoriasis.
[Uses]

(Zn) A metallic element that functions as a nutrient and dietary supplement. It is believed to be necessary for nucleic acid metabolism, protein synthesis, and cell growth. Sources of include zinc acetate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, gluconate, oxide, stearate, and sulfate. The gluconate form is used in lozenges. The sulfate form exists as prisms, needles, or powder. It has a solubility of 1 g in 0.6 ml of water and is found in frozen egg substitutes.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7440-66-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Zinc(7440-66-6)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

7440-66-6(EPA Substance)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Zinc is one of the most common elements in the earth’s crust. Metal zinc was fi rst produced in India and China during the middle ages. Industrially important compounds of zinc are zinc chloride (ZnCl2), zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc stearate (Zn(C16H35O2)2), and zinc sulfi de (Sphalerite, ZnS) found in hazardous waste sites. It is found in air, soil, and water, and is present in all foods. Pure zinc is a bluish-white shiny metal. Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry-cell batteries, and mixed with other metals to make alloys like brass and bronze. Zinc combines with other elements to form zinc compounds. Zinc compounds are widely used in industry to make paint, rubber, dye, wood preservatives, and ointments.
[General Description]

A grayish powder. Insoluble in water. May produce toxic zinc oxide fumes when heated to very high temperatures or when burned. Used in paints, bleaches and to make other chemicals.
[Reactivity Profile]

ZINC METAL is a reducing agent. Reacts violently with oxidants causing fire and explosion hazards [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 966]. In the presence of carbon, the combination of chlorine trifluoride with zinc results in a violent reaction [Mellor 2, Supp. 1: 1956]. Sodium peroxide oxidizes zinc with incandescence [Mellor 2:490-93 1946-47]. Zinc powder or dust in contact with acids forms hydrogen. The heat generated by the reaction is sufficient to ignite the hydrogen evolved [Lab. Govt. Chemist 1965]. A mixture of powdered zinc and an oxidizing agent such as potassium chlorate or powdered sulfur can be exploded by percussion. Zinc burns in moist chlorine. A mixture of zinc and carbon disulfide reacts with incandescence. Zinc powder reacts explosively when heated with manganese chloride. The reaction between zinc and selenium or tellurium is accompanied by incandescence [Mellor 4:476-480 1946-47]. When zinc and ammonium nitrate are mixed and wetted with a minimum of water, a violent reaction occurs with evolution of steam and zinc oxide. When hydrazine mononitrate is heated in contact with zinc a flaming decomposition occurs at temperatures a little above its melting point. Hydroxylamine is reduced when heated with ZINC DUST(7440-66-6), unpredictably ZINC DUST(7440-66-6) may either ignite and burn or explode [Mellor 8 1946-47].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Can evolve gaseous hydrogen in contact with water or damp air. The heat of the reaction may be sufficient to ignite the hydrogen produced [Haz. Chem. Data 1966. p. 171]. Flammable. May form an explosive mixture with air [Hawley].
[Health Hazard]

Inhalation or contact with vapors, substance or decomposition products may cause severe injury or death. May produce corrosive solutions on contact with water. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
[Health Hazard]

Zinc and its compounds are relatively non-toxic, but very large doses can produce an acute gastroenteritis characterized by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc is 15 mg/day for men, 12 mg/day for women, 10 mg/day for children, and 5 mg/day for infants. Insuffi cient zinc in the diet can result in a loss of appetite, a decreased sense of taste and smell, slow wound healing and skin sores, or a damaged immune system. Pregnant women with low zinc intake have babies with growth retardation. Exposure to zinc in excess, however, can also be damaging to health. Harmful health effects generally begin at levels from 10–15 times the RDA (in the 100–250 mg/day range). Eating large amounts of zinc, even for a short time, can cause stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Chronic exposures to zinc chloride fumes cause irritation, pulmonary edema, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary fi brosis, and cyanosis. It also causes anemia, pancreas damage, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Breathing large amounts of zinc (as dust or fumes) can cause a specifi c short-term disease, called metal fume fever, including disturbances in the adrenal secretion. Information on the possible toxicological effects following prolonged period of exposures to high concentrations of zinc is not known.
[Potential Exposure]

Zinc is used most commonly as a protective coating of other metals. In addition, it is used in alloys, such as bronze and brass, for electrical apparatus in many common goods; and in organic chemical extractions and reductions. Zinc chloride is a primary ingredient in smoke bombs used by military for screening purposes, crowd dispersal and occasionally in firefighting exercises by both military and civilian communities. In pharmaceuticals, salts of zinc are used as solubilizing agents in many drugs, including insulin.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
[Fire Hazard]

Produce flammable gases on contact with water. May ignite on contact with water or moist air. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. Some are transported in highly flammable liquids. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
[Shipping]

UN1436 Zinc powder or zinc dust, Hazard Class: 4.3; Labels: 4.3-Dangerous when wet material, 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material.
[Incompatibilities]

Dust is pyrophoric and may self-ignite in air. A strong reducing agent. Violent reaction with oxidizers, chromic anhydride; manganese chloride; chlorates, chlorine and magnesium. Reacts with water and reacts violently with acids, alkali hydroxides; and bases forming highly flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with sulfur, halogenated hydrocarbons and many other substances, causing fire and explosion hazard.
[Waste Disposal]

Zinc powder should be reclaimed. Unsalvageable waste may be buried in an approved landfill. Leachate should be monitored for zinc content.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

N,F,Xi,Xn
[Risk Statements ]

R52/53:Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R17:Spontaneously flammable in air.
R15:Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R36/37:Irritating to eyes and respiratory system .
R22:Harmful if swallowed.
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
[Safety Statements ]

S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label .
S43:In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases the risk add-Never use water) .
S36:Wear suitable protective clothing .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3264 8/PG 3
[WGK Germany ]

3
[RTECS ]

ZH1400000
[F ]

3
[HazardClass ]

8
[PackingGroup ]

III
[HS Code ]

79011100
[Safety Profile]

Human systemic effects by ingestion: cough, dyspnea, and sweating. A human skin irritant. Pure zinc powder, dust, and fume are relatively nontoxic to humans by inhalation. The dfficulty arises from oxidation of zinc fumes immedately prior to inhalation or presence of impurities such as Cd, Sb, As, Pb. Inhalation may cause sweet taste, throat dryness, cough, weakness, generalized aches, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. May i p t e spontaneously in air when dry. Explosive in the form of dust when reacted with acids. Incompatible with NH4NO3, BaO2, Ba(NO3)2, Cd, CS2, chlorates, Cl2, ClF3, CrO3, (ethyl acetoacetate + tribromoneo- pentyl alcohol), F2, hydrazine mononitrate, hydroxylamine, Pb(N3)2, (Mg + Ba(NO3)2 + BaO2), MnCl2, HNO3, performic acid, KCLO3, KNO3, K2O2, Se, NaClO3, Na2O2, S, Te, H2O2 (NH4)2S, As2O3, CS2, CaCl2, NaOH, chlorinated rubber, catalytic metals, halocarbons, o-nitroanisole, nitrobenzene, nonmetals, oxidants, paint primer base, pentacarbonyliron, transition metal halides, seleninyl bromide. To fight fire, use special mixtures of dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of ZnO. See also ZINC COMPOUNDS.
[Hazardous Substances Data]

7440-66-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Sulfuric acid -->Packing barrel-->Zinc calcine-->Oscillating screen
[Preparation Products]

Dopamine-->Fast Blue BB-->9,10-DIMETHYLANTHRACENE-->AZOBENZENE-->5-BROMO-2-(METHYLTHIO)PYRIMIDINE-->Chlorotrifluoroethylene-->ASTRAZON PINK FG-->1-Amino-4-methylpiperazine-->2-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)HYDRAZINESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT MONOHYDRATE-->3-Pyrroline-->4(3H)-Pyrimidinone, 5-methyl-2-(methylthio)--->4-(METHYLTHIO)BENZYLAMINE-->3-AMINO-2-METHYLTHIENO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDIN-4(3H)-ONE-->Zinc bromide-->Chloromethyl silane-->2,3-DIHYDRO-2-PHENYL-1H-ISOINDOL-1-OXO-ISOINDOLINE-->N-Methylpropylamine-->2-(2'-Hydroxy-3',5'-di-tert-butylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole-->2-(Phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid-->2-[(diisopropyl)amino]ethyl 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylate-->(4-CHLORODIPHENYL)METHYL BETA-CHLOROETHYL ETHER-->1-Methyl-1-phenylhydrazine-->Acridine-->N-HEXADECANE-D34-->5-Methylthianaphthene-->round type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->4-(2-AMINO-ETHYL)-2-METHOXY-PHENOL -->BENZHYDRYL B-CHLOROETHYL ETHER-->2-METHYL-2-IMIDAZOLINE-->XANTHENE-9-CARBONITRILE-->flat type zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->2-ANTHRACENECARBOXYLIC ACID-->Zinc iodide-->ZINC PHOSPHIDE-->PHYSOSTIGMINE-->2-Aminofluorene-->4-Chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol-->4-Ethylpyridine-->azelaic acid, compound with morpholine -->Water-soluble inorganic zinc rich primer
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

zinc powder(7740-66-6).msds
Questions and Answers (Q&A)Back Directory
[Toxicity]

Zinc is an essential nutrient and is not regarded as toxic. However, the metal fumes, its oxide fumes, and chloride fumes can produce adverse inhalation effects. (See Zinc Oxide and Zinc Chloride, Toxicity) Ingestion of soluble salts can cause nausea.
[Reactions]

Zinc exhibits a valence of +2 in all its compounds. It also is a highly electropositive metal. It replaces less electropositive metals from their aqueous salt solutions or melts. For example, a zinc metal bar put into Cu2+ solution acquires a brown-black crust of copper metal deposited on it. At the same time the blue color of the solution fades. Zinc reduces Cu2+ ions to copper metal. The overall reaction is:

Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) This spontaneous reaction was used first in 1830 to make a voltaic cell. The metal is attacked by mineral acids. Reactions with sulfuric and hydrochloric acids produce hydrogen. With nitric acid, no hydrogen is evolved but the pentavalent nitrogen is reduced to nitrogen at lower valence states. Zinc is attacked by moist air at room temperature. Dry air has no action at ambient temperatures but the metal combines with dry oxygen rapidly above 225°C. Zinc reacts with carbon dioxide in the presence of moisture at ordinary temperatures forming a hydrated basic carbonate. The metal, on heating with dry halogen gases, yields zinc halides. However, in the presence of moisture the reaction occurs rapidly at ambient temperatures. The metal dissolves in hot solutions of caustic alkalis to form zincates and evolves hydrogen:

Zn + 2NaOH → Na2ZnO2 + H2

[Physical properties]

Bluish-white lustrous metal; brittle at room temperature; malleable between 100 to 150°C; hexagonal close-packed structure; density 7.14 g/cm3; melts at 419.6°C; vaporizes at 907°C; vapor pressure 1 torr at 487°C, 5 torr at 558°C and 60 torr at 700°C; good conductor of electricity, electrical resistivity 5.46 microhm-cm at 0°C and 6.01 microhm-cm at 25°C; surface tension 768 dynes/cm at 600°C; viscosity 3.17 and 2.24 centipoise at 450 and 600°C, respectively; diamagnetic; magnetic susceptibility 0.139x10–6 cgs units in polycrystalline form; thermal neutron absorption cross-section 1.1 barns.
[Uses]

Zinc is another earliest known metal. Use of its alloy, brass, dates back to prehistoric times. The metal was produced in India in the 13th century by reducing calamine (a silicate mineral of zinc) with wool. Marggraf produced the metal in 1746 by reducing calamine with charcoal. The element took its name from the German word zink meaning “of obscure origin.” Lohneyes first used this name in 1697. Zinc occurs in nature, widely distributed. The principal ores are sphalerite (and wurtzite) known as zinc blende, ZnS; gahnite, ZnAl2O4; calamine; smithsonite, ZnCO3; franklinite, ZnFe2O4; and zincite, ZnO. Abundance in earth’s crust is about 70 mg/kg and average concentration in sea water is about 10 µg/L. Some important applications of zinc include galvanizing steel; to produce die castings; as a chemical additive in rubber and paints; in dry cells; in making electrodes; and as a reducing agent. Steel is galvanized by a thin coating of zinc to protect it from corrosion. Such galvanized steel is used in buildings, cars, and appliances. High-purity zinc is alloyed with aluminum at varying compositions, along with small amounts of copper and magnesium, to produce die castings. Such die castings are used extensively in automotive, hardware, and electrical industries. Zinc forms numerous alloys including brass, nickel silver, German silver, commercial bronze, soft solder, aluminum solder, and spring brass. The laboratory use of zinc includes preparating hydrogen gas and as a reducing agent in a number of chemical reactions. Zinc salts have numerous uses (See under specific compounds). Zinc is an essential nutrient element required for growth of animals.
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Zinc, powder,-100 +200 mesh, 99.999%(7440-66-6)
[Alfa Aesar]

Zinc wire, 3.18mm (0.125in) dia, 99.95% (metals basis)(7440-66-6)
[Sigma Aldrich]

7440-66-6(sigmaaldrich)
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