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クロム

クロム 化学構造式
7440-47-3
CAS番号.
7440-47-3
化学名:
クロム
别名:
クロム;クロム(粉末);クロム(片状),4N;◎クロム;クロム,粉末;クロム,塊状;クロム,粉末 -200MESH;クロム,粒状 2-3MM;クロム標準液 1,000PPM (硝酸クロム);クロム(粉末) 200メッシュ;クロム(塊状);クロム.粉末;クロム.片状;クロムクリスタリット, ピース;クロムピース, 電解, 6MM以下;クロム GRANULES 1-3 MM/ 99+%;クロム, 粉末, -45ΜM, 99.5%;クロム chips (99.8%);クロム crystallites (99.996%);クロム flakes (99.3%)
英語化学名:
Chromium
英語别名:
chrom;chrome;CR000070;CR007930;CR000025;CR000060;CR004850;CR000170;CR000130;CR008010
CBNumber:
CB7854190
化学式:
Cr
分子量:
52
MOL File:
7440-47-3.mol

クロム 物理性質

融点 :
1857 °C (lit.)
沸点 :
2672 °C (lit.)
比重(密度) :
7.14 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
闪点 :
50 °F
貯蔵温度 :
no restrictions.
外見 :
powder
色:
Silver-gray
比重:
7.2
PH:
<1 (H2O, 20°C)
臭い (Odor):
Odorless
電気抵抗率 (resistivity):
12.7 μΩ-cm, 20°C
水溶解度 :
Insoluble in water.
Merck :
13,2252
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA: chromium metal 0.5 mg/m3 (ACGIH and MSHA), 1 mg/m3 (OSHA); Cr(II) and Cr(III) compounds 0.5 mg/m3 (ACGIH); Cr(VI) compounds, water soluble and certain water insoluble, 0.05 mg/m3 (ACGIH).
安定性::
Stable. Incompatible with carbonates, strong bases, mineral acids, lithium, sulfur dioxide, strong acids.
CAS データベース:
7440-47-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Chromium(7440-47-3)
IARC:
3 (Vol. Sup 7, 49) 1990
EPAの化学物質情報:
Chromium (7440-47-3)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  F,C,Xn,Xi
Rフレーズ  11-20/21/22-34-40-23-67-36
Sフレーズ  16-26-36/37/39-45-36/37-27
RIDADR  UN 2924 3/PG 2
WGK Germany  3
RTECS 番号 GB4200000
自然発火温度 580°C
TSCA  Yes
HSコード  8112 21 90
国連危険物分類  4.1
容器等級  III
有毒物質データの 7440-47-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
安衛法 57,57-2
PRTR法 1-87
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Warning
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H228 可燃性固体 可燃性固体 1
2
危険
警告
P210, P240,P241, P280, P370+P378
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H410 長期的影響により水生生物に非常に強い毒性 水生環境有害性、慢性毒性 1 警告 P273, P391, P501
注意書き
P201 使用前に取扱説明書を入手すること。
P202 全ての安全注意を読み理解するまで取り扱わないこ と。
P210 熱/火花/裸火/高温のもののような着火源から遠ざ けること。-禁煙。
P240 容器を接地すること/アースをとること。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P308+P313 暴露または暴露の懸念がある場合:医師の診断/手当てを 受けること。
P405 施錠して保管すること。

クロム 価格 もっと(320)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ALF010147
Chromium powder, -100 mesh, 99% (metals basis)
7440-47-3 10g ¥6900 2021-03-23 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ALF010147
Chromium powder, -100 mesh, 99% (metals basis)
7440-47-3 100g ¥21900 2021-03-23 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01ALF010147
Chromium powder, -100 mesh, 99% (metals basis)
7440-47-3 500g ¥65600 2021-03-23 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07356-02 クロム(粉末) >98.0%(T)
Chromium, powder >98.0%(T)
7440-47-3 500g ¥9000 2021-03-23 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 07356-32 クロム(粉末) >98.0%(T)
Chromium, powder >98.0%(T)
7440-47-3 25g ¥2700 2021-03-23 購入

クロム 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

灰色~黒灰色, 粉末

溶解性

水に不溶。塩酸, 硫酸に溶解するが, 濃硝酸, 王水などの酸化力のある酸に不溶。希塩酸、希硫酸に溶けるが、硝酸、王水には不働態になって溶けない。希塩酸に溶け、水にほとんど溶けない。

解説

Cr.原子番号24の元素.電子配置[Ar]3d54s1の周期表6族遷移金属元素.原子量51.9961(6).天然には,質量数50(4.345(13)%),52(83.789(18)%),53(9.501(17)%),54(2.365(7)%)の安定核種が存在し,ほかに質量数42~67までの放射性同位体がある.1797年,フランスのN-L. Vauquelinが,紅鉛鉱PbCrO4から新元素を発見し,翌年炭素による酸化物の還元により金属を得た.元素名は,得られる塩類が各種の色彩をもつことから,ギリシア語の“色”χρωμα(chr"ma)にちなんで命名された.遊離の状態では産出せず,主要鉱石はクロム鉄鉱Cr2FeO4や紅鉛鉱PbCrO4である.また,ルビー,エメラルドの着色原因となって,これらの宝石中に微量存在している.地殻中の存在度185 ppm.世界の埋蔵量の95% がカザフスタンと南アフリカに偏在し,ついでインドの順である.産業にとって不可欠で重要な原材料であるレアメタルとして,Ni,Mn,Moなどとともに,1983年から実施している国家備蓄対象鉱種の一つ.わが国は,ほぼ全需要量を中間製品であるフェロクロムの形で,南アフリカから50%,カザフスタンから27% 輸入した(2005年).クロム鉄鉱を電気炉中で,融剤とともに溶融してコークスなどで還元してクロム含量約60% のフェロクロムが得られる.金属は,アルミニウム-テルミット法による酸化クロム(Ⅲ)Cr2O3の還元や,アンモニウムクロムミョウバンなど CrⅢ水溶液の電解によって得られる.銀白色の体心立方格子金属で,融点1860 ℃,沸点2671 ℃.密度7.19 g cm-3.第一イオン化エネルギー6.766 eV.標準電極電位 Cr2+/Cr-0.90 V,Cr3+/Cr2+-0.424 V.原子半径0.125 nm.塩酸,硫酸には二価の化合物として溶解し,酸化力の強い硝酸や王水には,不動態となって不溶.常温ではきわめて安定で,空気中では侵されず,ハロゲン,硫黄,酸素などの非金属元素とは高温で直接反応する.酸化数は-2~6であるが,通常は2,3,6.二価のクロムは空気中の酸素により容易に酸化され三価になるので除酸素剤としての応用がある([別用語参照]クロム化合物).もっとも安定な酸化数は3で,多くの六配位八面体錯塩をつくる.六価のクロムは強い酸化剤である.クロムは,不動態をつくりやすいため耐食性に富み,めっきとしての用途は,きわめて広い.光沢,硬さ,耐摩耗性にもすぐれている.添加すると強度,耐食性,高温耐熱性が向上するため,合金成分として多用される.用途の約95% はステンレス鋼,耐熱鋼など特殊鋼用でフェロクロムまたはクロム鉱石の形で製鋼の際に添加される.Ni,Co,Moなどとのスーパーアロイ製造には金属クロムが使われ,原子炉材料,ジェットエンジン?タービンブレード,化学プラント?反応塔,磁性材料などに用いられる.ニクロムは,ニッケルとの合金で,電気抵抗が大きく,電熱器用としてよく知られている.クロムはインスリンのはたらきを増強する重要な栄養素であるが,金属クロムはPRTR法?第一種指定?経口クラス3(水質基準値0.1 mg L-1 以下),作業環境クラス3(10 mg m-3 以下(気体)),感作性クラス1.[CAS 7440-47-3]
森北出版「化学辞典(第2版)

用途

合金材料。

生殖毒性

クロムおよびクロム化合物は多様な形状で自然界に存 在しており,これらは毒性,発がん性の違いから,労働衛生分野では金属クロム,3 価クロム(Cr(III)),6 価クロム(Cr(VI))に分類されている.さらに Cr(VI) については日本産業衛生学会が許容濃度等提案理由書で Cr(VI)化合物とある種の Cr(VI)化合物(ヒトに対す る発がん物質)として分類しているのに対し,ACGIH では水溶性あるいは不溶性の Cr(VI)化合物として分類 し,個別に評価している.ヒトの症例や疫学研究,実験動物を用いた毒性試験では金属クロムの生殖毒性に関する報告は認められない. 動物実験においては,経口投与試験では Cr(VI)の飲水投与試験で生殖毒性が観察されるが,吸入曝露試験では生殖毒性の報告がなく,Cr(VI)の混餌投与試験で生殖毒性がみられなかったことから,動物実験における生殖毒性も明確な根拠があるとまでは言い難い.よってクロムを第 3 群と判断する.

生体とクロム

クロムはヒトの体内に2~10 mg含まれる。血液中では60~70%がアルブミンと結合し、残りの一部がトランスフェリンと結合して臓器に運ばれる。肺内含量が最も高く、90~720μg/gであるが、これは消化管からの吸収に加えて経気道吸収がかなりあることを示している。また、臓器中濃度は年齢、地域によってかなり差がある。肺、脂肪組織以外は新生児が高く加齢とともに減少するという、他の元素ではあまりみられない特徴がある。
クロムの生理作用としては、インシュリンが細胞膜でグルコースなどの摂取の際のCofactorとして働く糖代謝、ミトコンドリアヘの水摂取、アミノ酸代謝に関係があるとされている。また食品の精製化などで食品中のクロムが少ない文明国では、クロムの欠乏状態が出現することが懸念されているが、日本では欠乏症の報告はない。動物実験では低クロム食で耐糖能の低下がみられ、クロムは必須であるといえる。しかしヒトの場合は、食物のクロム添加実験によって糖尿病患者の耐糖能の改善はみられるものの、すべてに有効ではない。特殊な例ではあるが、経静脈高カロリー療法によるクロム欠乏で糖尿病状態がみられ、クロム投与で改善した報告がある。
クロム含有耐糖因子(GTF)は、クロム欠乏動物の耐糖能障害を改善する物質としてビール酵母から抽出され、命名された。クロム濃度の低下する老人では有効であるとの例が示されている。空腹時血糖低下、グルコース負荷時のインシュリン必要量の減少などの改善がみられた。またGTFが血清コレステロール低下など脂質代謝に影響することもよく知られている。クロムの多い食品は醸造酵母、牛のもも肉、小麦全粒パン等で、ヒトは食品で1日30~100μg、水から10μg位摂取している。GTFは、エビオス20g中に40~60μg含まれている。

説明

Chromium as a metallic element was first discovered over 200 years ago, in 1797. But the history of chromium really began several decades before this. In 1761, in the Beresof Mines of the Ural Mountains, Johann Gottlob Lehmann obtained samples of an orange-red mineral, which he called ‘Siberian red lead.’ He analyzed this mineral in 1766 and discovered that it contained lead “mineralized with a selenitic spar and iron particles.” The mineral he found was crocoite, a lead chromate (PbCrO4).

化学的特性

Chromium may exist in one of three valence states in compounds, , , and . The most stable oxidation state is trivalent chromium; Hexavalent chromium is a less stable state. Chromium (element) blue-white to steel-gray, lustrous, brittle, hard, odorless solid. Elemental:

物理的性質

Chromium is a silvery white/gray, hard, brittle noncorrosive metal that has chemical andphysical properties similar to the two preceding elements in period 4 (V and Ti). As one of thetransition elements, its uses its M shell rather than its outer N shell for valence electrons whencombining with other elements. Its melting point is 1,857°C, its boiling point is 2,672°C,and its density is 7.19 g/cm3.

同位体

There are 26 isotopes of the element chromium; four are stable and foundin nature, and the rest are artificially produced with half-lives from a few microsecondsto a few days. The four stable isotopes and their percentage of contribution to thetotal amount of chromium on Earth are as follows: 50Cr = 4.345%, 52Cr = 83.789%,53Cr = 9.501%, and 54Cr = 2.365%. Cr-50 is radioactive but has such a long halflife—1.8×10+17 years—that it is considered to contribute about 4% to the total amount ofchromium found on Earth.

名前の由来

From the Greek word chroma or chromos, meaning “color,” because of the many colors of its minerals and compounds.

天然物の起源

Chromium is the 21st most common element found in the Earth’s crust, and chromiumoxide (Cr2O3) is the 10th most abundant of the oxide compounds found on Earth. It is notfound in a free metallic state.The first source of chromium was found in the mineral crocoite. Today it is obtained fromthe mineral chromite (FeCr2O4), which is found in Cuba, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Turkey,Russia, and the Philippines. Chromite is an ordinary blackish substance that was ignored formany years. There are different grades and forms of chromium ores and compounds, based onthe classification of use of the element. Most oxides of chromium are found mixed with othermetals, such as iron, magnesium, or aluminum.Astronauts found that the moon’s basalt rocks contain several times more chromium thanis found in basalt rocks of Earth.

特性

Chromium is a hard, brittle metal that, with difficulty, can be forged, rolled, and drawn,unless it is in a very pure form, in which case the chromium is easier to work with. It is anexcellent alloying metal with iron. Its bright, silvery property makes it an appropriate metal toprovide a reflective, non-corrosive attractive finish for electroplating.Various compounds of chromium exhibit vivid colors, such as red, chrome green, andchromate yellow, all used as pigments.

来歴

Chromium was discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin, who prepared the metal the next year, chromium is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish. The principal ore is chromite (FeCr2O4), which is found in Zimbabwe, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, Iran, Albania, Finland, Democratic Republic of Madagascar, the Philippines, and elsewhere. The U.S. has no appreciable chromite ore reserves. Chromium is usually produced by reducing the oxide with aluminum. Chromium is used to harden steel, to manufacture stainless steel, and to form many useful alloys. Much is used in plating to produce a hard, beautiful surface and to prevent corrosion. Chromium is used to give glass an emerald green color. It finds wide use as a catalyst. All compounds of chromium are colored; the most important are the chromates of sodium and potassium (K2CrO4) and the dichromates (K2Cr2O7) and the potassium and ammonium chrome alums, as KCr(SO4)2·12H2O. The dichromates are used as oxidizing agents in quantitative analysis, also in tanning leather. Other compounds are of industrial value; lead chromate is chrome yellow, a valued pigment. Chromium compounds are used in the textile industry as mordants, and by the aircraft and other industries for anodizing aluminum. The refractory industry has found chromite useful for forming bricks and shapes, as it has a high melting point, moderate thermal expansion, and stability of crystalline structure. Chromium is an essential trace element for human health. Many chromium compounds, however, are acutely or chronically toxic, and some are carcinogenic. They should be handled with proper safeguards. Natural chromium contains four isotopes. Twenty other isotopes are known. Chromium metal (99.95%) costs about $1000/kg. Commercial grade chromium (99%) costs about $75/kg.

使用

In manufacture of chrome-steel or chrome-nickel-steel alloys (stainless steel), nonferrous alloys, heat resistant bricks for refractory furnaces. To greatly increase strength, hardness and resistance of metals to abrasion, corrosion and oxidation. For chrome plating of other metals; leather tanning; as pigment and mordant; wood preservative. Use of 51Cr as diagnostic aid see sodium chromate(VI).

使用

The best-known use of chromium is for the plating of metal and plastic parts to producea shiny, reflective finish on automobile trim, household appliances, and other items where abright finish is considered attractive. It also protects iron and steel from corrosion.It is used to make alloys, especially stainless steel for cookware, and items for whichstrength and protection from rusting and high heat are important.Its compounds are used for high-temperature electrical equipment, for tanning leather, asa mordant (fixes the dyes in textiles so that they will not run), and as an antichalking agentfor paints.Some research has shown that, even though most chromium compounds are toxic, a smalltrace of chromium is important for a healthy diet for humans. A deficiency produces diabeteslike symptoms, which can be treated with a diet of whole-grain cereal, liver, and brewer’s yeast.Chromium’s most important radioisotope is chromium-51, which has a half-life of about27 days. It is used as a radioisotope tracer to check the rate of blood flowing in constrictedarteries.Some chromium compounds (e.g., chromium chloride, chromic hydroxide, chromic phosphate) are used as catalysts for organic chemical reactions.In 1960 the first ruby laser was made from a ruby crystal of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Thesecrystals contain only a small amount of chromium, which stores the energy and is responsiblefor the laser action. A small amount of chromium found in the mineral corundum is responsible for the bright red color of the ruby gemstone.

使用

Chromium is used in the manufacture ofits alloys, such as chrome-steel or chromenickel-steel. It is also used for chromeplatingof other metals, for tanning leather,and in catalysts. It occurs in chromite ores(FeO·Cr2O3).

調製方法

Chromium metal is prepared by reducing the ore in a blast furnace with carbon (coke) or silicon to form an alloy of chromium and iron called ferrochrome, which is used as the starting material for the many iron-containing alloys that employ chromium. Chromium to be used in iron-free alloys is obtained by reduction or electrolysis of chromium compounds.Chromiumisdif?culttoworkinthepuremetalform; it is brittle at low temperatures, and its high melting point makes it dif?cult to cast.

定義

chromium: Symbol Cr. A hard silverytransition element; a.n. 24;r.a.m. 52.00; r.d. 7.19; m.p. 1857°C;b.p. 2672°C. The main ore ischromite (FeCr2O4). The metal has abody-centred-cubic structure. It is extractedby heating chromite withsodium chromate, from whichchromium can be obtained by electrolysis.Alternatively, chromite can be heated with carbon in an electricfurnace to give ferrochrome, whichis used in making alloy steels. Themetal is also used as a shiny decorativeelectroplated coating and in themanufacture of certain chromiumcompounds.
At normal temperatures the metalis corrosion-resistant. It reacts withdilute hydrochloric and sulphuricacids to give chromium(II) salts.These readily oxidize to the more stablechromium(III) salts. Chromiumalso forms compounds with the +6oxidation state, as in chromates,which contain the CrO42- ion. The elementwas discovered in 1797 byVauquelin.

一般的な説明

Very hard gray solid with a metallic luster.

空気と水の反応

May be pyrophoric, as dust. Insoluble in water.

反応プロフィール

Chromium reacts violently with NH4NO3, N2O2, Li, NO, KClO3, SO2 . Metal dusts when suspended in atmospheres of carbon dioxide may ignite and explode.

危険性

Hexavalent chromium compounds are questionable carcinogens and corrosive on tissue, resulting in ulcers and dermatitis on prolonged contact.

危険性

Even though chromium may be a necessary trace element in our diets, many of its compounds are very toxic when ingested. Some are very explosive when shocked or heated (e.g., chromium nitrate) or when in contact with organic chemicals. Dust from the mining of chromium ores, which is found in igneous rocks, is carcinogenic and can cause lung cancer, even when small amounts are inhaled. Workers in industries that produce and use chromium are subject to bronchogenic cancer if precautions are not taken.

健康ハザード

The toxicity of chromium alloys and compoundsvaries significantly. Chromium metaldoes not exhibit toxicity. Divalent and trivalentcompounds of chromium have a loworder of toxicity. Exposure to the dusts ofchromite or ferrochrome alloys may causelung diseases, including pneumoconiosis andpulmonary fibrosis.
Among all chromium compounds onlythe hexavalent salts are a prime health hazard.Cr6+ is more readily taken up bycells, than any other valence state of themetal. Occupational exposure to these compoundscan produce skin ulceration, dermatitis,perforation of the nasal septa, and kidneydamage. It can induce hypersensitivityreactions of the skin and renal tubular necrosis.Examples of hexavalent salts are thechromates and dichromates of sodium, potassium,and other metals. The water-solublehexavalent chromium salts are absorbed intothe bloodstream through inhalation. Manychromium(VI) compounds are carcinogenic,causing lung cancers in animals and humans.The carcinogenicity may be attributed tointracellular conversion of Cr6+ to Cr3+,which is biologically more active. The trivalentCr3+ ion can bind with nucleic acid andthus initiate carcinogenesis.
Paustenbach et al. (1996) reported a casestudy on the uptake and elimination ofCr(VI) in drinking water on a male volunteerwho ingested 2 L/day of water containing2 mg/L Cr(VI) for 17 consecutivedays. The total chromium was measured inurine, plasma and red blood cells. The eliminationhalf-life in plasma was 36 hoursand the bioavailability was estimated as 2%.The steady-state chromium concentrations inurine and blood were achieved after sevendays of Cr(VI) ingestion. This study furthermorerevealed that Cr(VI) in drinkingwater at concentrations below 10 mg/L couldbe completely reduced to Cr(III) prior tosystemic distribution. In a follow-up study,Kergen et al. (1997) examined the magnitudeof absorption, distribution and excretionof Cr(VI) in drinking water in human volunteersfollowing oral exposures to singleand repeated doses at 5 and 10 mg Cr(VI)/L.The data obtained from this study indicatedthat virtually all (> 99.7%) of the ingestedCr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) before enteringthe blood stream. No toxicity was observed.The endogenous reducing agents within theupper GI tract and the blood were attributedto reduce hexavalent chromium into its trivalentstate and, thus, prevented any systemicuptake of Cr(VI). Such reduction appearedto be effective even under the fasting conditions.
Wise et al. (2002) investigated the cytotoxicityand clastogenicity of both water-insolubleand water-soluble Cr(VI) compounds in primaryhuman bronchial fibroblasts and foundthat they were overall cytotoxic and genotoxicto human lung cells. Although the genotoxicmechanisms of both may be mediated bysoluble Cr(VI) ions the water-insoluble saltsapparently are the potent carcinogens comparedto the water-soluble salts (Wise et al.2004). Exposure to Cr(VI) enhanced the bindingof polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toDNA in human lung cells (Feng et al. 2003).Hexavalent chromium has been found to besynergistic to benzo a pyrene diol epoxide onmutagenesis and cell transformation.
The catalytic effect of iron on enhancingthe rate of reduction of Cr(VI) byhuman microsomes has been reported earlier(Myers and Myers 1998). Various formsof exogenous iron markedly enhanced bothliver and lung microsomal rates of Cr(VI)reduction. Small increases in intracellulariron have shown to cause large increases inin the rate and extent of Cr(VI) reduction.Thus, individuals exposed simultaneously toCr(VI) and agents that may increase intracellulariron could, therefore, be at potentiallygreater risk for toxicity and carcinogenicityof Cr(VI).

火災危険

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

工業用途

An elementary metal, chromium (symbol Cr)is used in stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys,high-strength alloy steels, electrical-resistancealloys, wear-resistant and decorative electroplating,and, in its compounds, for pigments,chemicals, and refractories. The specific gravityis 6.92, melting point 1510°C, and boiling point2200°C. The color is silvery white with a bluishtinge. It is an extremely hard metal; the electrodepositedplates have a hardness of 9 Mohs.It is resistant to oxidation, is inert to HNO3, butdissolves in HCl and slowly in H2SO4. At temperaturesabove 816°C, it is subject to intergranularcorrosion.
Chromium occurs in nature only in combination.Its chief ore is chromite, from which itis obtained by reduction and electrolysis. It ismarketed for use principally in the form of masteralloys with iron or copper.Most pure chromium is used for alloyingpurposes such as the production of Ni–Cr orother nonferrous alloys where the use of thecheaper ferrochrome grades of metal is not possible.In metallurgical operations such as theproduction of low-alloy and stainless steels, thechromium is added in the form of ferrochrome,an electric-arc furnace product that is the formin which most chromium is consumed.
Its bright color and resistance to corrosion makechromium highly desirable for plating plumbingfixtures, automobile radiators and bumpers,and other decorative pieces. Unfortunately,chrome plating is difficult and expensive. Itmust be done by electrolytic reduction ofdichromate in H2SO4 solution. It is customary,therefore, to first plate the object with copper,then with nickel, and finally, with chromium.

職業ばく露

Chromium metal is used in stainless and other alloy steels to impart resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and for greatly increasing the durability of metals; for chrome plating of other metals.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Chromium supplementation may be useful in the adjunctive treatment of diabetes mellitus or obesity, particularly in cats; there is controversy whether this treatment is beneficial. It does not appear to be useful in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Carcinogenicity

Exposure to chromium compounds over a prolonged period has been observed in manyepidemiologicalstudiestoenhancetheriskofcancerof the respiratory organs among the exposed. The relationshipbetweenemploymentinindustriesproducingchromium compounds from chromite ore and enhanced risk of lungcancer iswell established.There isagreement inseveral studies that long-term exposure to some chromium-based pigments enhance the risk of lung cancer. An association has alsobeenobservedbetweenexposuretochromicacidinhard plating and lung cancer, but that association is not strong. Somestudieshaveweaklyindicatedexcessesofcancerofthe GItract,buttheresultsareinconsistentandarenotcon?rmed inwell-designedstudies.Thereisnoindicationthatchromite ore does have an associated enhanced risk of cancer. Although it has not yet been identi?ed which chromium compound (or compounds) is (are) responsible for enhanced risk of cancer in respiratory organs, there is general agreementthatitisthechromium(6+)speciesthatareresponsible for the elevated cancer risks and that the chromium species are not.

環境運命予測

Chromium is distributed to the air, water, and soil from natural and anthropogenic sources. The environmental fate of chromium is dependent on the oxidation state and solubility of the compound and the environmental conditions affecting reduction or oxidation, such as pH. Oxidizing conditions favor the formation of Cr(VI) compounds, particularly at higher temperatures, while reducing conditions favor the formation of Cr(III) compounds. Chemical manufacturing and natural gas, oil, and gas combustion are the primary sources of chromium in the atmosphere.Most of the chromium in air eventually ends up in water or soil. Electroplating, textile manufacturing, cooling water, and leather tanning are major sources of chromium in wastewater discharges to surface waters.
Chromium(III) is the predominant oxidation state of chromium in many soils. Cr(III) binds to soil and has low mobility. A lower soil pH favors the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Runoff from soil and industrial processes may transport chromium to surface water.Cr(VI) compounds may leach into groundwater. The pH of the soil and aquatic environment is an important factor in chromium mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity. The chromate form predominates in most natural surface waters that are basic or neutral. The hydrochromate concentration increases in more acidic conditions.

輸送方法

UN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN1759 Corrosive solids, n.o.s., Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, Technical Name required

Toxicity evaluation

Chromium enters the air, water, and soil mostly in the chromium( III) and chromium(VI) forms. In air, chromium compounds are present mostly as fine dust particles, which eventually settle over land and water. Chromium can strongly attach to sediment and soil, and only a small amount is expected to dissolve in water and leach though the soil to groundwater. Fish do not accumulate much chromium in their bodies.
Most chromium exposure in the general population is through ingestion of the chemical in food containing chromium( II), although exposure is also possible as a result of drinking contaminated well water, or living near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites containing chromium or industries that use chromium. Inhalation of chromium dust and skin contact during use in the workplace are the main routes of occupational exposure.

不和合性

Dust may be pyrophoric in air. Chromium metal (especially in finely divided or powder form) and insoluble salts reacts violently with strong oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, causing fire and explosion hazard. Reacts with diluted hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. Incompatible with alkalis and alkali carbonates

廃棄物の処理

Recovery and recycling is a viable alternative to disposal for chromium in plating wastes; tannery wastes; cooling tower blowdown water and chemical plant wastes.

クロム 上流と下流の製品情報

原材料

準備製品


クロム 生産企業

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7440-47-3(クロム)キーワード:


  • 7440-47-3
  • ChroMiuM powder, APS <10 Micron, 99.2% (Metals basis)
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  • CR000070
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  • QUILON? L chromium complex solution
  • LANTHANUM 10,000PPM FOR ICP
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  • ROSE BENGAL CHLORAMP.
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  • クロム powder, -100 mesh, 99% (metals basis)
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  • クロム powder (99%)
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