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Product Name:Chlorine
Synonyms:Chloride in Water;chlorine cyl. with 20 L (net ~25 kg);chlorine cyl. with 5 L (net ~6 kg);CHLORINE, 99.5+%;CHLORINE, ELECTRONIC GRADE;dichlorine;CHLORINEGAS;Chlor8
Mol File:7782-50-5.mol


Chlorine (Cl) is a halogen, classified in Group 17 (formerly VII), Period 3 of the Periodic Table of elements. It is a greenish yellow gas and has an atomic weight of 35.5 Chlorine is one of the essential elements for plants, although it is not always listed as a micronutrient. It is absorbed in soil almost entirely as chloride ions ((Cl-) which are very mobile, soluble and mostly non-reactive in soil. The role of chlorine in plants is believed to be biochemical, osmotic and in balancing cell cationic charges.Plants responding to chloride are tomato, pea, lettuce, cabbage, carrot, sugar beet, barley, corn, berries, vine crops, potato, cotton, woody ornamental plants and fruit trees like coconut. Chlorine is involved in the splitting of water molecules in photoreactionⅡ of photosynthesis. Several enzymes such as ATPase, alpha-amylase and asparagine synthetase require the chloride ion for activation. As the chloride ion is very mobile and is tolerated at high concentrations, it is ideal for maintaining the charge balance when cations (such as potassium) move across cell membranes. The chloride requirement of plants for biochemical functions is hardly more than 100mg/kg of dry plant matter. However, chloride is usually present at much higher concentrations (2000to 20,000mg/kg), suggesting its involvement in functions other than those of a biochemical nature. The chloride content in plants ranges from 0.2 to 2.0% but in some salt tolerant plants it can be as high as 10%. Excessive chloride accumulation is harmful to plants, causing the leaves to thicken and roll, lowering the quality of potato tubers and the smoking quality of tobacco. If plants sensitive to chloride receive more than 1 to 2 % chloride ions (Cl') , yields are often reduced. The environment entertains the chlorine cycle. Air, water and soil are at the receiving end of the cycle. For instance, air gets chloride from volcanoes and sea spray, whereas water receives chloride from sewage, food, water-softener wastes, industrial effluents and de-icing salts used on roads. Soil gets its chloride supply from animal manure, rainfall, irrigation waters and potassium chloride fertilizers.Chlorine in soil follows water movements and is taken up by plants as the chloride (CT) anion. The greater the chloride concentration in a soil solution, the higher the plant uptake. It may also be taken up aerially as Cl- anion or chlorine gas. Chloride, highly mobile in plants, is required in the splitting of water (Hill reaction) during photosynthesis. It enhances oxygen synthesis and photophosphorylation. The accumulation of excessive chloride ions can be toxic. Foliar sprays with chloride- containing irrigation water, if left to dry on the leaves, may cause salt bum. Since field plots do not display any chloride deficiency and most fertilizers have some chloride (as contaminant), not much is done for chloride rectification. More studies are required to find out the effect of large additions of chloride ions (30to 50kg/ha).The symptoms of chloride deficiency are not easily identifiable. In nutrient cultures, it was shown that chlorine deficiency is associated with a reduced root growth. Chlorosis in younger leaves and an overall wilting of the plants are the two most common symptoms of chlorine deficiency. Necrosis in some plant parts and leaf bronzing may also be wimessed. Excessive chlorine can be harmful but crops vary widely in their tolerance. The principal effect of too much chlorine is to increase the osmotic pressure of soil water and thereby lower the availability of water to plants. Chlorine in fertilizers suppresses many diseases. Adequate quantities of chloride-containing fertilizers can mitigate diseases like 'take all root rot', 'stripe rusts', 'leaf rust', 'tan spot of wheat', etc. A moderately excess quantity of chloride is employed to fight such diseases (many times above the nutritional needs). For example, chloride banding of 40kg/ha is recommended to reduce 'take all root rot' on winter wheat in western countries. Potassium chloride, which contains large quantities of chloride, is a widely used fertilizer. Ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium chloride are other sources of chlorine.

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