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BUTYRONITRILE

BUTYRONITRILE Basic information
Product Name:BUTYRONITRILE
Synonyms:1-CYANOPROPANE;BUTYRIC ACID NITRILE;BUTYRONITRILE;BUTANENITRILE;BUTANOIC ACID NITRILE;N-BUTANENITRILE;N-BUTYRONITRILE;PROPYL CYANIDE
CAS:109-74-0
MF:C4H7N
MW:69.11
EINECS:203-700-6
Product Categories:Organics
Mol File:109-74-0.mol
BUTYRONITRILE Structure
BUTYRONITRILE Chemical Properties
Melting point −112 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 115-117 °C(lit.)
density 0.794 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 2.4 (vs air)
vapor pressure 23 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.384(lit.)
Fp 62 °F
storage temp. Flammables area
form Liquid
color Clear
Water Solubility Miscible with benzene, alcohol, ether and dimethylformamide. Slightly soluble in water.
Merck 14,1597
BRN 1361452
Stability:Stable. Combustible. Substances to be avoided include strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and strong reducing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference109-74-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T,F
Risk Statements 10-23/24/25-11
Safety Statements 45-63-36/37-16
RIDADR UN 2411 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 1
RTECS ET8750000
Hazard Note Toxic
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 3
PackingGroup II
HS Code 29269095
ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 0.14 g/kg (Smyth)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
BUTYRONITRILE Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid
DefinitionChEBI: A nitrile that is hydrogen cyanide in which the hydrogen has been replaced by a propyl group.
General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid. Flash point 76°F. Less dense than water. Vapors heavier than air. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion. Used in the manufacture of other chemicals.
Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity ProfileBUTYRONITRILE can react vigorously with oxidizing reagents, when heated to decomposition, BUTYRONITRILE emits highly toxic fumes of cyanides and oxides of nitrogen [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 609]. Nitriles may polymerize in the presence of metals and some metal compounds. They are incompatible with acids; mixing nitriles with strong oxidizing acids can lead to extremely violent reactions. Nitriles are generally incompatible with other oxidizing agents such as peroxides and epoxides. The combination of bases and nitriles can produce hydrogen cyanide. Nitriles are hydrolyzed in both aqueous acid and base to give carboxylic acids (or salts of carboxylic acids). These reactions generate heat. Peroxides convert nitriles to amides. Nitriles can react vigorously with reducing agents. Acetonitrile and propionitrile are soluble in water, but nitriles higher than propionitrile have low aqueous solubility. They are also insoluble in aqueous acids.
Health HazardDizziness, rapid respirations, headache, drowsiness, drop in blood pressure and pulse, delayed symptoms. May cause cyanosis (blue-grey coloring of skin and lips due to lack of oxygen)
Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic cyanide fumes
Purification MethodsTreat it with conc HCl until the smell of the isonitrile had gone, then dry with K2CO3 and fractionally distil [Turner J Chem Soc 1681 1956]. Alternatively it is twice heated at 75o and stirred for several hours with a mixture of 7.7g Na2CO3 and 11.5g KMnO4 per L of butyronitrile. The mixture is cooled, then distilled. The middle fraction is dried over activated alumina. [Schoeller & Wiemann J Am Chem Soc 108 22 1986, Beilstein 2 IV 806.]
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