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Lamivudine is a new antiviral drug, belonging to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, having a strong inhibitory effect in vitro and animal experimental infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), can inhibit the synthesis of HIV virus; the drug produced by the GlaxoSmithKline Co. In the early 90s, they are used for the treatment of AIDS drugs in Europe and North American countries.
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Purity:90%+ Package:10mg, 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, Other scale please email Remarks:4-Amino-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

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  • Lamivudine
  • US $0.00 / KG
  • 2020-10-24
  • CAS:134678-17-4
  • Min. Order: 100g
  • Purity: 98%+
  • Supply Ability: 100kg
  • 134678-17-4 Lamivudine
  • US $10.00 / kg
  • 2020-05-15
  • CAS:134678-17-4
  • Min. Order: 1kg
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: 10 MT
  • Lamivudine
  • US $0.01-1.00 / KG
  • 2020-05-03
  • CAS:134678-17-4
  • Min. Order: 1KG
  • Purity: 99%
  • Supply Ability: 50 tons
Lamivudine Basic information
New antiviral drug Methods of production What kind of patients suitable for use Lamivudine Zidovudine Pharmacokinetics drug withdrawal Adverse reactions and side effects Disabling condition Chemical property Uses
Product Name:Lamivudine
Synonyms:LaMivudine(Epivir);4-AMino-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(hydroxyMethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]-2(1H)-pyriMidinone;3TC (-)-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(Hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine;LaMivudine-13C-d2;3TC/Epivir-HBV;4-AMino-1-((2R,5S)-2-(hydroxyMethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyriMidin-2(1H)-one;cis-Lamivudine;(-)-BCH-189
Product Categories:API's;HIV/AIDS/Related Products;Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients;Antivirals for Research and Experimental Use;Biochemistry;Chemical Reagents for Pharmacology Research;Nucleosides and their analogs;Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Related Reagents;Anti-virals;Intermediates & Fine Chemicals;Pharmaceuticals;API;DENDRID;Piperazines;Sulfur & Selenium Compounds
Mol File:134678-17-4.mol
Lamivudine Structure
Lamivudine Chemical Properties
Melting point 177 °C
alpha D21 -135° (c = 0.38 in methanol)
Boiling point 475.4±55.0 °C(Predicted)
density 1.73±0.1 g/cm3(Predicted)
refractive index -142 ° (C=1, MeOH)
Fp 9℃
storage temp. Freezer
solubility water: soluble10mg/mL, clear
form powder
color white to beige
Water Solubility 70g/L(temperature not stated)
Merck 14,5352
CAS DataBase Reference134678-17-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1-[(2R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]- (134678-17-4)
Safety Information
Risk Statements 63-36/37/38
Safety Statements 26-36
RIDADR UN1230 - class 3 - PG 2 - Methanol, solution
WGK Germany 3
RTECS UW7361333
HS Code 29349990
Hazardous Substances Data134678-17-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
Lamivudine Usage And Synthesis
New antiviral drugLamivudine is a new antiviral drug, belonging to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, having a strong inhibitory effect in vitro and animal experimental infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), can inhibit the synthesis of HIV virus; the drug produced by the GlaxoSmithKline Co. In the early 90s, they are used for the treatment of AIDS drugs in Europe and North American countries. In the middle of the 1990 medical experts found that they have inhibition to hepatitis B virus DNA, in 1998 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug for treatment of hepatitis B treatment. In China, the State Food and Drug Administration approved the drug import mainly used as medicine in the treatment of hepatitis B, Chinese product name as "He Puding". In 1999, officially began on the mainland. Chinese sold after 10 years of clinical verification, lamivudine is the only proven to delay Hepatitis cirrhosis progress, fewer side effects, less cost of medication, currently has 2 million of the country's hepatitis B patients are using.
Lamivudine can be metabolized to lamivudine three phosphate in HBV infection cells and normal cells, it is the active form of lamivudine, both inhibitors of HBV polymerase, and is polymerase substrate. Lamivudine three phosphate incorporation into viral DNA chain, can block the synthesis of viral DNA, and does not interfere with normal cell deoxynucleoside metabolism, having weak inhibition to mammalian DNA polymerase alpha and beta, almost no effect on mammalian cell DNA content, and without obvious toxicity to the structure of mitochondria, content and function of DNA. For Serum HBV-DNA detection results of most hepatitis B patients showed that lamivudine can rapidly inhibit the replication of HBV, its inhibitory effect lasted for the entire treatment process. At the same time the serum transaminase decreased to normal, long-term use can significantly improve the liver necrosis and inflammatory changes in relieve or prevent liver fibrosis.
Methods of productionSelect 6-o-sulfo acylation reaction to the compounds (I), then acetylated to obtaine compound (II), the yield was 96.7%. The compound (II) uses acetic acid as solvent, and 3 moL hydrogen bromide/L acid (45%, W/V) reaction, bromination to get compound (III), the yield was 99%. Bromide (III) and 3.3 moI ethyl potassium xanthate, refluxing in acetone, thio and cyclization; then in methanol with ammonia hydrolysis to obtain the compound (IV), the second step yield is 72%. Compounds (IV) is purified by column chromatography, is crystalline solid. Compound (IV) uses 1.4 mol sodium periodate treatment to make 2,3-CIS glycol open; followed by sodium borohydride reduction to aldehydes and shrinkage the keto form to protect the glycol, and obtain compound (V), the yield is 60%. The compound (V) silane to protect the rest of the primary alcohol, and then take off ketal to obtain compound (VI) and yield is 63%.Use lead tetraacetate to oxidize glycol of compounds (VI), and then to use dichromic acid pyridine salt to further oxidation, and obtain compound (VII), the oxidation method does not affect the sulfur. compounds (VII) is oxidized by using lead acetate to obtain compounds (VIII), the yield is 66%[ according to compounds (VI)]. Compounds (VIII) and (IX) are in the dichloroethane,and TMSOTf as a Lewis acid catalyst, condensated to compound (x), the yield is 64%. And the amount of isomers of compounds (x) is half of the compounds (x) and their available silica gel chromatography to isolate. Compounds (x) in ammonia-methanol and acetyl, the yield is 73% ; with Tetrabutylammonium fluoride solution to remove the silylation to obtain lamivudine and yield of 75%.
What kind of patients suitable for use LamivudineNot all patients with hepatitis B are suitable for the use of lamivudine. Lamivudine should be applied in the following cases according to the action characteristics of lamivudine and clinical summary of the experience in the application of lamivudine:
(1) HBVDNA quantitative detection of moderate positive; HBeAg positive; ALT increased 2~10 times.
(2) HBeAg negative, but HBVDNA was moderately positive (do not take the qualitative PCR results as the standard, to do quantitative measurement), ALT increased 2~10 times. The majority of this situation may be the virus gene mutations in the C region.
Not suitable for the use of lamivudine is the main:
(1) HBVDNA negative or quantitative determination of <105copies/ml;
(2)with normal ALT (mainly refers to the virus asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC); for the past elevated ALT, but now ALT and AST normal patients, can be temporary not treatment, elevated ALT and treated. The patient was not suitable for use, not because lamivudine is harmful to the people, but because of the low effective rate of these patients, does not meet the pharmaceutical economics principle.
Lamivudine, like any other drugs, can be used properly to benefit most patients, and inappropriate use will not produce the desired effect, and inappropriate withdrawal may even lead to exacerbations.
The above information is Chemicalbook Hanya edited.
ZidovudineZidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT) is a thymidine analogue. Within the virus-infected cell, the 3′-azido group is used by retroviral reverse transcriptase and incorporated into DNA transcription, preventing viral replication. The shared mechanism of action is inhibition of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase). This enzyme is responsible for conversion of the viral RNA genome into double-stranded DNA before it is integrated into the cell genome. Because these actions occur early in replication, the drugs tend to be effective for acute infections but are relatively ineffective for chronically infected cells. Cellular α-DNA polymerases are inhibited only at concentrations 100-fold greater than those necessary to inhibit reverse transcriptase, thus rendering this drug relatively safe to host cells. Cellular γ-DNA polymerase, however, is inhibited at lower concentrations. AZT is effective against a variety of retroviruses at low concentrations. Resistance to AZT is associated with point mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions in the reverse transcriptase. Prolonged use of AZT can facilitate viral resistance. The risk of resistance also appears to correlate with CD4 cell count and the state of infection. Viral susceptibility to AZT may return after the drug has been discontinued for a period of time.
PharmacokineticsAfter oral administration of lamivudine, it is well absorbed. And about 0.1 g of adult oral about 1hr reached peak plasma concentration Cmax 1.1-1.5 u g/ml, bioavailability is 80-85%. and at the same time of food taking, the Tmax delayed 0.25-2.5 HR and lower 10-40% of Cmax, but the bioavailability is unchanged. Intravenous administration research results table Ming lamivudine average distribution capacity is 1.3 L/Kg, system average clearance rate of 0.3 L/h/kg, seventy percent by organic cation transport system and renal clearance and elimination half-life is 5-7hr. within the therapeutic dose range and lamivudine pharmacokinetics showed a linear relationship, the plasma protein binding rate is low. In vitro studies have shown that with serum albumin binding rate is <16-36%. It can pass through the blood brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. Mainly the prototype drug excretion by the kidneys, renal excretion accounted for about total removal of 70% or so, only 5-10% is metabolized into Anti sulfur oxide derivatives. For patients with renal insufficiency can affect lamivudine excretion, and for creatinine clearance rate <30mL/ points in patients, does not recommend the use of this product. Liver damage does not affect the metabolism of drugs, due to increased age and decreased renal excretory function in elderly patients, lamivudine metabolism without significant changes, Only in creatinine clear except rate <30mL/ time-sharing, there is influence.
drug withdrawalLamivudine is not hepatitis b curative drugs, can only make it better, and easy to rebound after discontinuation of lamivudine treatment. So how long is more appropriate, should according to the therapeutic effect and It differs from man to man. The most accepted standard of withdrawal is: before treatment, HBVDNA positive, HBeAg positive, ALT increased more than 1 times; treatment after HBVDNA seroconversion, HBeAg seroconversion ("big Sanyang" to "small Sanyang"), ALT normalization, maintain the effect of the above 6 months can be stopped. Of course in this standard withdrawal is not only without recurrence, the recurrence rate is low. It is reported that this group of patients discontinued 21 months still maintain curative effect. The recurrence rate of 81%. Asians is slightly higher, but in a year when the recurrence rate is lower than that of 40%. For example not up to this effect and withdrawal, while the majority of cases in a short period of time to recurrence, even some patients because of inappropriate drug withdrawal and lead to illness. So stoping the drug is a great event, I hope the patients in the decision to stop the medicine to go to the hospital to consult an experienced specialist, and not to stop the medicine.
Adverse reactions and side effectsLamivudine is a kind of nucleoside drugs, by inhibiting or blocking synthesis of the hepatitis B virus DNA to restrain replication of hepatitis B virus, thus gradually clear hepatitis B virus, often are used by doctors to treat acute and chronic hepatitis B.
Common side effects are easy to produce drug resistance, side effects, withdrawal difficult, fever, upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, headache, abdominal pain, physical discomfort, diarrhea and other symptoms, but the symptoms are generally mild and in a short time the ego recede. At the same time the State Food and Drug Administration released Thirtieth phase drug adverse reaction information bulletin also alert our medical workers and drug producers wary of lamivudine and telbivudine may cause the risk of rhabdomyolysis, myalgia, weakness, elevated creatine kinase, blood creatinine rise higher.
Long-term use is easily virus mutates, more performance is after discontinuation of hepatitis B virus DNA positive rotation or is in a cycle of treatment occurs when the hepatitis B virus positive turn, this is the hallmark of virus mutates, indicating that more serious illness, more difficult to treat. Recent studies also suggest, the side effects of lamivudine is also reflected on the damage to the kidney, the majority of patients will have different degrees of renal toxicity, serious and even renal failure.
Disabling condition1.Chronic asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers were normal and no symptoms, whatever virus replication index or not (both "big Sanyang" and "small Sanyang"), are not taking lamivudine. But it is understood that at present this part of patients taking this medicine is a common phenomenon, which wasted drugs and money. At present the treatment of hepatitis B virus is not resolved, medical scientists is also exploring, the existing methods are not mature. The important reason of lamivudine in treatment of hepatitis B virus are invalid, someone after taking HBVDNA may drop to 103 copies/ml, once the withdrawal and we immediately rebound. We found that people taking more than half a year after discontinuation of HBVDNA negative, less than 1 months back, and HBeAg cannot be negative. Therefore, can't use this medicine to treat hepatitis B virus, unless the liver puncture biopsy confirmed chronic liver. The application can only be considered when the inflammatory pathological changes.
2. Acute severe hepatitis or acute liver failure are in critical condition, the ferocious. At this time the patient's main contradiction is not virus replication, some patients even without virus replication index, threatening the patient's life is liver failure, according to "the government ease the emergency treatment of the subject", then the most important is supportive therapy, such as the input of fresh plasma, albumin, artificial liver support therapy.
3. Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, if the transaminase is greater than the upper limit of the normal value of 10 times, there are obvious jaundice, or serum bilirubin than 85.5 mmol/L, temporarily not to take lamivudine and other antiviral drugs, and liver, jaundice and reducing enzyme treatment is given priority to, When remission can apply a small amount. Although lamivudine on immune function has strongly influenced not the same interferon but in the acute exacerbation of hepatitis, prevent damage on the immune system. No use is the best policy.
4. Chronic hepatitis B in pregnancy or pregnancy after HBV infection, do not use this product, the main reasons of the effect of lamivudine on the fetus are yet to be elucidated. As both at home and abroad, There are application reports and relatively safe, but experts in China has not yet reached a consensus, as a precaution, temporarily application is a wise choice.
Chemical propertyWhite solid obtained from methanol-ethyl acetate. [α]D21-132°(C=1.08, methanol). Or from the boiling ethanol crystallization, melting point is 160~162℃. [α]D21-135°(C=0.38, methanol).
Uses1. Antiviral drugs for hepatitis B.
2. Antiviral drugs for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases.
3. Medicine for liver and gallbladder diseases.
DescriptionLamivudine is a new generation orally active nucleoside analog launched in the U.S.A. for use in combination with zidovudine (AZT) as a first-line therapy for patients with HIV infection. Lamivudine is rapidly converted to phosphorylated metabolites in the body which act as inhibitors and chain terminators of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT), the enzyme required for the replication of the HIV genome. Lamivudine has similar inhibitory potency to RT as AZT but is 10 times less toxic and is active against AZT-resistant strains of HIV. Combination therapy of lamivudine and AZT produced a large decrease in blood-borne virus with an increase in CD4 cells, an effect that can be sustained for 2 years. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) also encodes a polymerase with a RT function necessary for the conversion of a RNA replicative intermediate to DNA, clinical efficacy has been reported for lamivudine in treating patients with HBV infection. It was reported that the enantiomer of lamivudine is equipotent against HIV but with considerably higher cytotoxicity.
Chemical PropertiesWhite Crystalline Powder
OriginatorBioChem Pharma (Canada)
UsesA reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Antiviral.
DefinitionChEBI: A monothioacetal that consists of cytosine having a (2R,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl moiety attached at position 1. An inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
IndicationsLamivudine is a synthetic cytidine analogue used in the treatment of HIV and HBV. Its activation requires phosphorylation by cellular enzymes. Lamivudine triphosphate competitively inhibits HBV DNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase and causes chain termination. It inhibits the activity of mammalian DNA polymerases with a much lower potency.
HIV-1 frequently acquires mutations in reverse transcriptase that result in resistance to lamivudine within 12 weeks of treatment. Mutations in the DNA polymerase of HBV are associated with decreased lamivudine efficacy and have been documented in patients treated with this agent for 6 months or more.
Manufacturing ProcessTo a solution of potassium t-butoxide (0.11 mol) in 100 ml DMF was added thiobenzoic acid (0.11 mol) and the solution partially evaporated in vacuo, benzene added in two consecutive portions and evaporated in vacuo each time. To the residual DMF solution was added bromoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal (0.1 mol) and the mixture stirred at 120°C for 15 h. After cooling, it was poured onto water (500 ml), the product extracted with ether, the extract washed with aqueous NaHCO3 followed by water, then dried and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was distilled in vacuo to give 17.2 g of pure 2- thiobenzoyl acetaldehyde diethyl acetal, boiling point 131-133°C/0.07 mm.
The 2-thiobenzoyl acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (17.2 g) was dissolved in 100 ml THF followed by the addition of 6 g NaOH in 20 ml H2O. The mixture was refluxed under N2 for 15 h, then cooled and diluted with water (200 ml) and the product extracted with ether (3 x 200 ml). The extract was dried, the solvent removed in vacuo and the residue distilled to yield 7.1 g of mercaptoacetaldehyde diethylacetal.
50 g of the 1-benzoyl glycerol in a mixture of 500 ml of CH2Cl2 and 25 ml of H2O was treated portionwise with 80 g of NaIO4 under vigorous stirring at room temperature. After addition, stirring was continued for 2 h after which time 100 g of MgSO4 was added and stirring continued for 30 min. The mixture was filtered, the filtrate evaporated in vacuo and the residue distilled to yield 26 g of pure benzoyloxyacetaldehyde, boiling point 92-94°C/0.25 mm.
The mercaptoacetaldehyde diethylacetal (7 g) was mixed in 100 ml of toluene with 7 g of the above benzoyloxyacetaldehyde, a few crystals of ptoluenesulfonic acid added and the mixture place in an oil-bath at 120°C under N2. The formed ethanol was allowed to distill over, the mixture kept at 120°C for 30 min longer than cooled and washed with aqueous NaHCO3, dried and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was distilled in vacuo to yield 9.8 g of 2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-ethoxy-1,3-oxathiolane as a mixture of cis- and transisomers, boiling point 140-143°C/0.1 mm.
Cis- and trans-2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-cytosin-1'-yl-1,3-oxathiolane:
A mixture of 2.7 g of cytosine, 30 ml of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and 0.3 ml of trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl) was heated under reflux under dry N2 untila clear solution resulted (3 L) and the excess reagents evaporated in vacuo. The remaining volatiles were removed under high vacuum, the solid residue taken up in 250 ml of dichlorethane and 5 g of the 2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-ethoxy-1,3-oxathiolane in 50 ml of dichloroethane added under dry argon followed by 4.7 ml of trimethylsilyl triflate. After 3 days of heating under reflux under argon, it was cooled and poured onto 300 ml of saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The organic layer was collected, the aqueous phase extracted with CH2Cl2and the combined extracts washed with water, dried and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel using CH2Cl2-CH3OH 9:1 as the eluant to give 2.5 g of a pure mixture of cis- and trans-2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-cytosin-1'-yl-1,3-oxathiolane in a 1:1 ratio. These were separated as the N-acetyl derivatives.
The preceding mixture of cis- and trans-2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-cytosin-1'-yl- 1,3-oxathiolane (2.5 g) in 100 ml of dry pyridine containing 0.1 g of 4- dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) was treated with acetic anhydride (7 ml) at room temperature and after 16 h, the mixture was poured onto cold water followed by extraction with CH2Cl2. The extract was washed with water, dried, and evaporated in vacuo. Toluene was added to the residue, then evaporated in vacuo and the residual oil purified by chromatography on silica gel using EtOAc-CH3OH 99:1 as the eluant to yield 1.35 g of pure trans-2- benzoyloxymethyl-5-(N4-acetyl-cytosin-1'-yl)-1,3-oxathiolaneas the fast moving product and 1.20 g of pure cis-2-benzoyloxymethyl-5-cytosin-1'-yl- 1,3-oxathiolan as the slow moving component, melting point 158-160°C.
Cis- and trans-isomers of 2-hydroxymethyl-5-(cytosin-1'-yl)-1,3-oxathiolane was obtained by action of methanolic ammonia at 24°C.
Brand nameEpivir (GlaxoSmithKline).
Therapeutic FunctionAntiviral
Acquired resistanceA single codon change at position 184 in the HIV reverse transcriptase gene confers high-level resistance. The K65R mutation is also associated with resistance. In-vitro data indicate that lamivudine resistance may restore HIV sensitivity to zidovudine- and tenofovir-resistant virus.
General DescriptionLamivudine is (-)-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, (-)-β-L-(2R,5S)-1,3-oxathiolanylcytosine, 3TC, or (-)-(S)-ddC.Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analog that differsfrom 2β,3β-dideoxycytidine (ddC) by the substitution of asulfur atom in place of a methylene group at the 3'-positionof the ribose ring. In early clinical trials, lamivudine exhibitedhighly promising antiretroviral activity against HIVand low toxicity in the dosages studied.Preliminarypharmacokinetic studies indicated that it exhibited goodoral bioavailability (F=~80%) and a plasma half-life of 2to 4 hours.
Pharmaceutical ApplicationsAn analog of cytidine available for oral administration.
Pharmaceutical ApplicationsAn antiretroviral agent that also exhibits activity against hepatitis B virus and duck hepatitis B virus. Its properties are described in Ch. 36 . Use is limited by the development of resistance within 1 year in up to 25% of treated patients. It is likely to be used with other drugs in the future.
PharmacokineticsOral absorption: 80–85%
Cmax, 300 mg once daily: 2.0 mg/L
Plasma half-life: 5–7 h
Volume of distribution: 1.3 L/kg
Plasma protein binding: <36%
It is rapidly absorbed and there is no significant difference in bioavailability when taken with food.
It penetrates moderately well into the CNS. The semen:plasma ratio is about 9.1 (2.3–16.1). It is secreted into breast milk.
Metabolism and excretion
Less than 10% of the administered dose undergoes hepatic metabolism. Over 70% of the dose is subject to renal clearance via active tubular secretion. Dosage adjustments are not routinely recommended in the presence of renal or hepatic impairment.
Clinical UseTherapy of chronic hepatitis B
Clinical UseLamivudine is indicated for the treatment of HIV when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents.A lower dose than that used to treat HIV is approved for the treatment of HBV. Although lamivudine initially improves histological and biochemical measures of hepatic function and reduces HBV DNA to below the limits of detection, withdrawal of the drug usually results in disease recurrence. Resistance appears in up to onethird of patients after 1 year of treatment.
Side effectsThe most common adverse effects of lamivudine seen at doses used to treat HBV are mild; they include headache, malaise, fatigue, fever, insomnia, diarrhea, and upper respiratory infections. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum lipase, and creatine kinase may also occur. The safety and efficacy of lamivudine in patients with decompensated liver disease have not been established. Dosage adjustment is required in individuals with renal impairment. Coadministration of trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole decreases the renal clearance of lamivudine.
Side effectsLamivudine is relatively safe and non-toxic. Animal studies of very high doses did not result in any organ toxicity. In patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, cessation of lamivudine therapy may result in clinical and/or laboratory evidence of recurrent hepatic disease that may be more severe in patients with hepatic decompensation. Tests of liver function and inflammation and markers of HBV replication should be periodically monitored.
Lamivudine competes with emtricitabine for the enzymes involved in intracellular phosphorylation and co-administration is contraindicated.
Tag:Lamivudine(134678-17-4) Related Product Information
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