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Levodopa

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CAS:59-92-7
Purity:0.99 Package:1g;25g;1kg;25kg;106kg
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CAS:59-92-7
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Products Intro: Product Name:Levodopa(L-DOPA)
CAS:59-92-7
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Products Intro: Product Name:Levodopa
CAS:59-92-7
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Levodopa manufacturers

  • Levodopa
  • $0.00 / KG
  • 2021-12-03
  • CAS:59-92-7
  • Min. Order: 100g
  • Purity: 98%+
  • Supply Ability: 100kg
  • Levodopa
  • $210.00 / Kg/Bag
  • 2021-11-30
  • CAS:59-92-7
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  • Purity: 99
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  • Levodopa
  • $20.00-50.00 / KG
  • 2021-10-21
  • CAS:59-92-7
  • Min. Order: 0.5KG
  • Purity: >99%
  • Supply Ability: 20tons
Levodopa Basic information
Product Name:Levodopa
Synonyms:2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoicacid;3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine(form2);3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine;3,4-DIHYDROXY-L-PHENYLALANINE;3,4-L-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE;3-(3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-L-ALANINE;3-HYDROXY-L-TYROSINE;BETA-(3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-L-ALANINE
CAS:59-92-7
MF:C9H11NO4
MW:197.19
EINECS:200-445-2
Product Categories:Inhibitors;plant extract;Amino Acids;Biochemistry;Biological-modified Amino Acids;Dopamine receptor;Pharmaceutical;Nutritional Supplements;Natural Plant Extract;Amino Acids & Derivatives;Chiral Reagents;Intermediates & Fine Chemicals;Neurochemicals;Pharmaceuticals;Plant extracts;Herb extract;chemical reagent;pharmaceutical intermediate;phytochemical;reference standards from Chinese medicinal herbs (TCM).;standardized herbal extract;LARADOPA
Mol File:59-92-7.mol
Levodopa Structure
Levodopa Chemical Properties
Melting point 276-278 °C (lit.)
Boiling point 334.28°C (rough estimate)
alpha -11.7 º (c=5.3, 1N HCl)
density 1.3075 (rough estimate)
refractive index -12 ° (C=5, 1mol/L HCl)
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility Slightly soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol (96 per cent). It is freely soluble in 1 M hydrochloric acid and sparingly soluble in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid .
pka2.32(at 25℃)
form Crystalline Powder
color White to creamy
Water Solubility Slightly soluble in water, dilute hydrochloric acid and formic acid. Insoluble in ethanol.
Merck 14,5464
BRN 2215169
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Light and air sensitive.
InChIKeyWTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
CAS DataBase Reference59-92-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceLevodopa(59-92-7)
EPA Substance Registry SystemLevodopa (59-92-7)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes Xn
Risk Statements 22-36/37/38-20/21/22
Safety Statements 26-36-24/25
WGK Germany 3
RTECS AY5600000
10-23
TSCA Yes
HS Code 29225090
Hazardous Substances Data59-92-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 in mice (mg/kg): 3650 ±327 orally, 1140 ±66 i.p., 450 ±42 i.v., >400 s.c.; in male, female rats (mg/kg): >3000, >3000 orally; 624, 663 i.p.; >1500, >1500 s.c. (Clark)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
Levodopa English
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Levodopa Usage And Synthesis
Chemical PropertiesColorless Crystalline Powder
OriginatorLarodopa,Roche,US,1970
UsesNatural isomer of the immediate precursor of dopamine; product of tyrsine hydroxylase
Usesantiparkinsonian
UsesAn immediate precursor of dopamine and product of tyrosine hydroxylase.
DefinitionChEBI: An optically active form of dopa having L-configuration. Used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease
Manufacturing ProcessA charge of 1,000 g of ground velvet beans was extracted with 9 liters of 1% aqueous acetic acid at room temperature over a 20-hour period with occasional stirring during the first 4 hours. The liquor was decanted and thebean pulp slurry was vacuum filtered through a cake of acid-washed diatomaceous earth in a Buechner funnel. The decanted liquor was combined with the filtrate and concentrated under vacuum and a nitrogen atmosphere to a volume of 900 ml. After treating with acid-washed activated carbon, the concentrate was then filtered through acid-washed diatomaceous earth.
After concentrating the filtrate to approximately 400 ml, solids started crystallizing out at which time the filtrate was cooled by refrigerating at 5°C for several hours. Filtration gave 18.7 g of L-Dopa, MP 284° to 286°C (dec.); [α]D 8.81° (1% solution in aqueous 4% HCl). The infrared spectrum and paper chromatography indicated very good L-Dopa according to US Patent 3,253,023.
Various synthetic routes are also described by Kleeman and Engel.
Brand nameBendopa (Valeant); Dopar (Shire); Larodopa (Roche).
Therapeutic FunctionAntiparkinsonian
Biological FunctionsLevodopa (L-DOPA), the most reliable and effective drug used in the treatment of parkinsonism, can be considered a form of replacement therapy. Levodopa is the biochemical precursor of dopamine. It is used to elevate dopamine levels in the neostriatum of parkinsonian patients. Dopamine itself does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore has no CNS effects. However, levodopa, as an amino acid, is transported into the brain by amino acid transport systems, where it is converted to dopamine by the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase.
If levodopa is administered alone, it is extensively metabolized by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. To prevent this peripheral metabolism, levodopa is coadministered with carbidopa (Sinemet), a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. The combination of levodopa with carbidopa lowers the necessary dose of levodopa and reduces peripheral side effects associated with its administration.
Levodopa is widely used for treatment of all types of parkinsonism except those associated with antipsychotic drug therapy. However, as parkinsonism progresses, the duration of benefit from each dose of levodopa may shorten (wearing-off effect). Patients can also develop sudden, unpredictable fluctuations between mobility and immobility (on-off effect). In a matter of minutes, a patient enjoying normal or nearly normal mobility may suddenly develop a severe degree of parkinsonism. These symptoms are likely due to the progression of the disease and the loss of striatal dopamine nerve terminals.
General DescriptionThe first significant breakthrough in the treatment of PDcame about with the introduction of high-dose levodopa.Fahn referred to this as a revolutionary development intreating parkinsonian patients. The rationale for the use oflevodopa for the treatment of PD was established in theearly 1960s. Parkinsonian patients were shown to have decreasedstriatal levels of DA and reduced urinary excretionof DA. Since then, levodopa has shown to be remarkablyeffective for treating the symptoms of PD.Because ofenzymatic action of MAO-A in the gastrointestinal (GI)tract and AADC in the periphery, only a small percentage(1%–2%) of levodopa is delivered into the CNS.Coadministration of levodopa with the AADC inhibitor,carbidopa, prevents decarboxylation of levodopa outside ofthe CNS. The combination of levodopa and carbidopa resultsin a substantial increase in DA delivery to the CNSwith a decrease in peripheral side effects. Long-term therapywith levodopa leads to predictable motor complications.These include loss of efficacy before the next dose(“wearing off”), motor response fluctuations (“on/off”), andunwanted movements (dyskinesias).These effects arethought to be caused by the inability of levodopa therapyto restore normal DA levels in the CNS.As a result, theuse of longer-acting DA agonists may benefit parkinsonianpatients.
Biological ActivityImmediate precursor of dopamine, produced by tyrosine hydroxylase. Displays antiParkinsonian activity.
PharmacologyIn a number of attempts to fix the deficit of dopamine in Parkinsonism, the introduction of a direct precursor of dopamine—levodopa—into the patient is considered a very logical therapy since levodopa diffuses across the blood–brain barrier, where it turns into dopamine and normalizes the level of dopamine. In this manner, levodopa stops or slows the development of Parkinsonism. Levodopa belongs to a group of the most effective drugs for treating the type of Parkinsonism not caused by medicinal agents.
Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: somnolence, hallucinations and distorted perceptions, toxic psychosis, motor activity changes, ataxia, dyspnea. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable human carcinogen producing skin tumors. Human mutation data reported. An anticholinergic agent used as an anti Parhnsonian drug. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx
Chemical SynthesisLevodopa, (-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (10.1.1), is a levorotatory isomer of dioxyphenylalanine used as a precursor of dopamine. There are a few ways of obtaining levodopa using a semisynthetic approach, which consists of the microbiological hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (10.1.1), as well as implementing a purely synthetic approach.
Oxidation of L-tyrosine, for selective introduction of a hydroxyl group at C3 of the tyrosine ring, can be accomplished in a purely synthetic manner by using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) sulfate mixture in water as an oxidant with permanent presence of oxygen.

The third method of levodopa synthesis consists of the acetylation of tyrosine using acetylchloride in the presence of aluminum chloride and the subsequent oxidative deacylation of the formed 3-acetyltyrosine (10.1.2) using hydrogen peroxide in sodium hydroxide solution.
Purification MethodsLikely impurities are vanillin, hippuric acid, 3-methoxytyrosine and 3-aminotyrosine. DOPA recrystallises from large volumes of H2O forming colourless white needles; its solubility in H2O is 0.165%, but it is insoluble in EtOH, *C6H6, CHCl3, and EtOAc. Also crystallise it by dissolving it in dilute HCl and adding dilute ammonia to give pH 5, under N2. Alternatively, crystallise it from dilute aqueous EtOH. It is rapidly oxidised in air when moist, and darkens, particularly in alkaline solution. Dry it in vacuo at 70o in the dark, and store it in a dark container preferably under N2. It has at 220.5nm (log 3.79) and 280nm (log 3.42) in 0.001N max HCl. [Yamada et al. Chem Pharm Bull Jpn 10 693 1962, Bretschneider et al. Helv Chim Acta 56 2857 1973, NMR: Jardetzky & Jardetzky J Biol Chem 233 383 1958, Beilstein 4 IV 2492, 2493.]
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