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ZIRCONIUM

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Products Intro: Product Name:ZIRCONIUM
CAS:7440-67-7
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Products Intro: Product Name:Zirconium powder
CAS:7440-67-7
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Products Intro: Product Name:Zirkonium Wire/Φ1.00mm/ 99.2%(incl. Hf)
CAS:7440-67-7
Purity:99.20% Package:4600RMB/10m Remarks:Zr103
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Products Intro: Product Name:ZirconiuM
CAS:7440-67-7
Purity:1000 μg/ML in 2-5% Nitric acid Package:100ML
ZIRCONIUM Basic information
History Uses Reactions
Product Name:ZIRCONIUM
Synonyms:un2008);Zircat;Zirconium, borings;Zirconium, clippings;Zirconium, scrap;Zirconium, suspended in fammable liquid;ZIRCONIUM;ZIRCONIUM AA SINGLE ELEMENT STANDARD
CAS:7440-67-7
MF:Zr
MW:91.22
EINECS:231-176-9
Product Categories:Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;Inorganics;Zirconium;Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry;Chemical Synthesis;metal or element;Pure metal
Mol File:7440-67-7.mol
ZIRCONIUM Structure
ZIRCONIUM Chemical Properties
Melting point 1852 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 4377 °C(lit.)
density 1.01 g/mL at 25 °C
form wire
color Gray to silver
Specific Gravity6.506
resistivity40 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility Soluble in water.
Sensitive air sensitive
Merck 13,10226
InChIKeyQCWXUUIWCKQGHC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference7440-67-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes F,Xi,Xn,C
Risk Statements 36/38-17-15-36/37/38-20/21/22-40-34
Safety Statements 26-43-7/8-36-36/37/39-35-27-16-36/37-45
RIDADR UN 2858 4.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 2
RTECS ZH7070000
10
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 4.2
PackingGroup III
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
ACROS English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
ZIRCONIUM Usage And Synthesis
HistoryKlaproth discovered zirconium oxide in 1789 while investigating a semiprecious gemstone mined in Sri Lanka. The gemstone was a modification of the mineral zircon. Klaproth named the element zirconium from the Arabic word zargun, meaning gold color. The element was first prepared in an impure form by Berzelius in 1824 by reduction of potassium zirconium fluoride, K2ZrF6 with potassium. Lely and Hamburger in Germany produced high purity zirconium in 1914 by reducing resublimed zirconium tetrachloride, ZrCl4, with highly pure sodium. Very pure metal was produced by van Arkel and de Boer in 1925 by decomposition of zirconium iodide, ZrI4.
Zirconium is found in small amounts widely spread throughout nature, occurring in many alluvial deposits of lake and stream beds and ocean beaches. The most important mineral is zircon, or zircon orthosilicate, ZrSiO4. Other zirconium minerals are eudialite, (Na, Ca, Fe)6ZrSi6O18(OH, Cl), and baddeleyite, ZrO2. It also occurs in monazite sand. The abundance of zirconium in the earth’s crust is estimated as 165 mg/kg.
UsesThe most important applications of zirconium involve its alloys, Zircaloy. The alloy offers excellent mechanical and heat-transfer properties and great resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. This, in conjunction with the fact that zirconium has a low neutron absorption cross section, makes this alloy a suitable choice as a construction material for thermal nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. Other uses are as an ingredient of explosive mixtures, as “getter” in vacuum tubes, and in making flash bulb, flash powder (historical), and lamp filaments, in rayon spinnerets, and in surgical appliances.
ReactionsZirconium exhibits quadrivalency in most of its compounds although divalent and trivalent compounds also exist. Zirconium reacts with oxygen to form zirconium oxide, ZrO2. In powder form, Zr metal ignites spontaneously forming oxide. Solid metal, however, is stable in air at ordinary temperatures, but reacts slowly at 200°C. Reaction is rapid at high temperatures.
Reaction with hydrogen occurs at temperatures of 300 to 1,000°C forming a brittle dihydride, ZrH2. Zirconium combines with halogens at high temperatures forming tetrahalides. Reactions occur in the range 200 to 400°C. Solid tetrahalides sublime above 300°C.
Zirconium combines with nitrogen at 400°C. The reaction becomes rapid above 800°C. The product is zirconium nitride, ZrN. Some nitrogen also dissolves in the metal forming a solid state solution. Zirconium at elevated temperatures combines with most other nonmetals forming binary compounds, including sulfur, phosphorus, and carbon. Although stable to most acids, the metal is attacked by concentrated hydrochloric and sulfuric acids under boiling conditions, aqua regia, and hydrofluoric acid. The metal is stable in organic acids under all conditions. Also, the metal is stable to caustic alkalies.
The metal reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide above 1,000°C forming zirconium oxide and zirconium carbide:
2Zr + CO2 → ZrO2 + ZrC
A similar reaction occurs with carbon monoxide above 800°C forming zirconium oxide and carbide.
Chemical PropertiesZirconium is a grayish-white, lustrous metal in the form of platelets, flakes, or a bluish-black, amorphous powder.
Chemical PropertiesHard, lustrous, grayish, crystalline scales or gray amorphous powder. Soluble in hot, very concentrated acids; insoluble in water and cold acids. Corrosion resistant, low neutron absorption.
HistoryThe name zircon may have originated from the Syriac word zargono, which describes the color of certain gemstones now known as zircon, jargon, hyacinth, jacinth, or ligure. This mineral, or its variations, is mentioned in biblical writings. These minerals were not known to contain this element until Klaproth, in 1789, analyzed a jargon from Sri Lanka and found a new earth, which Werner named zircon (silex circonius), and Klaproth called Zirkonerde (zirconia). The impure metal was first isolated by Berzelius in 1824 by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in a small iron tube. Pure zirconium was first prepared in 1914. Very pure zirconium was first produced in 1925 by van Arkel and de Boer by an iodide decomposition process they developed. Zirconium is found in abundance in S-type stars, and has been identified in the sun and meteorites. Analyses of lunar rock samples obtained during the various Apollo missions to the moon show a surprisingly high zirconium oxide content, compared with terrestrial rocks. Naturally occurring zirconium contains five isotopes. Thirty-one other radioactive isotopes and isomers are known to exist. Zircon, ZrSiO4, the principal ore, is found in deposits in Florida, South Carolina, Australia, South Africa, and elsewhere. Baddeleyite, found in Brazil, is an important zirconium mineral. It is principally pure ZrO2 in crystalline form having a hafnium content of about 1%. Zirconium also occurs in some 30 other recognized mineral species. Zirconium is produced commercially by reduction of the chloride with magnesium (the Kroll Process), and by other methods. It is a grayish-white lustrous metal. When finely divided, the metal may ignite spontaneously in air, especially at elevated temperatures. The solid metal is much more difficult to ignite. The inherent toxicity of zirconium compounds is low. Hafnium is invariably found in zirconium ores, and the separation is difficult. Commercial-grade zirconium contains from 1 to 3% hafnium. Zirconium has a low absorption cross section for neutrons, and is therefore used for nuclear energy applications, such as for cladding fuel elements. Commercial nuclear power generation now takes more than 90% of zirconium metal production. Reactors of the size now being made may use as much as a half-million lineal feet of zirconium alloy tubing. Reactor-grade zirconium is essentially free of hafnium. Zircaloy? is an important alloy developed specifically for nuclear applications. Zirconium is exceptionally resistant to corrosion by many common acids and alkalis, by sea water, and by other agents. It is used extensively by the chemical industry where corrosive agents are employed. Zirconium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, as an alloying agent in steel, in surgical appliances, photoflash bulbs, explosive primers, rayon spinnerets, lamp filaments, etc. It is used in poison ivy lotions in the form of the carbonate as it combines with urushiol. With niobium, zirconium is superconductive at low temperatures and is used to make superconductive magnets. Alloyed with zinc, zirconium becomes magnetic at temperatures below 35 K. Zirconium oxide (zircon) has a high index of refraction and is used as a gem material. The impure oxide, zirconia, is used for laboratory crucibles that will withstand heat shock, for linings of metallurgical furnaces, and by the glass and ceramic industries as a refractory material. Its use as a refractory material accounts for a large share of all zirconium consumed. Zirconium tungstate is an unusual material that shrinks, rather than expands, when heated. A few other compounds are known to possess this property, but they tend to shrink in one direction, while they stretch out in others in order to maintain an overall volume. Zirconium tungstate shrinks in all directions over a wide temperature range of from near absolute zero to +777°C. It is being considered for use in composite materials where thermal expansion may be a problem. Zirconium of about 99.5% purity is available at a cost of about $2000/kg or about $4/g.
UsesPure zirconium (hafnium-free) is a valuable structural material for atomic reactors because of its low nuclear cross-section and high corrosion and heat resistance. Because of hafnium's high neutron absorption characteristics, it must be removed from zirconium which is to be used in nuclear reactors; removal unnecessary for other commercial purposes. As an ingredient of priming or explosive mixtures; flashlight powders; as deoxidizer in metallurgy; as "getter" in vacuum tubes; in constructing rayon spinnerets in lamp filaments, flash bulbs.
DefinitionMetallic element of atomic number 40, group IVB of the periodic table, aw 91.22, valences of 2, 3 (halogens only) 4; five stable isotopes.
General DescriptionA gray amorphous sludge with not less than 20% water.
Air & Water ReactionsMay ignite on contact with air or moist air. May burn rapidly with flare-burning effect. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. The severity of the pyrophoric reaction depends a great deal on zirconium particle size, with the finely divided material reacting with the most vigor. The initiation of the explosion has been spark and by electrostatic ignition. Zirconium dusts have been known to explode, [NFPA 482M, 1974], covers all aspects of storage and handling of zirconium, there are 43 abstracts of unusual zirconium fire and explosion incidents. Water Insoluble .
Reactivity ProfileWhen a mixture of alkali hydroxides and zirconium is heated, the liberated oxygen reacts explosively with zirconium [Mellor 7:116 1946-47]. Chromates, dichromates, sulfates, molybdates, and tungstates of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubdium, and cesium will react violently, even explosively, with an excess of zirconium powder [Ellern 1968. p. 249]. A mixture of hydrated borax and zirconium explodes when heated [Mellor 7:116 1946-47]. An explosion occurred when zirconium sponge was placed in a beaker of carbon tetrachloride [Allison 1969]. Zirconium explodes violently with cupric oxide or lead oxide [Mellor 7:116 1946-47]. A mixture of powdered zirconium and potassium nitrate explodes when heated above the melting point [Mellor 7:116 1946-47].
Fire HazardMay react violently or explosively on contact with water. Some are transported in flammable liquids. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some of these materials will burn with intense heat. Dusts or fumes may form explosive mixtures in air. Containers may explode when heated. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Safety ProfileA very dangerous fire hazard in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction with oxidizers. May ignite spontaneously. A dangerous explosion hazard in the form of dust by chemical reaction with air, alkali hydroxides, alkali metal chromates, dichromates, molybdates, sulfates, tungstates, borax, CCl4, CuO, Pb, PbO, P, KClO3, KNO3, nitrylfluoride. Explosive range: 0.16 g/L in air. To fight fire, use special mixtures, dry chemical, salt, or dry sand. See also ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS.
Potential ExposureZirconium is never found in the free state; the most common sources are the ores zircon and baddeleyite. It is generally produced by reduction of the chloride or iodide. The metal is highly reactive; the process is usually performed under an inert gas blanket. Zirconium metal is used as a “getter” in vacuum tubes, a deoxidizer in metallurgy; a substitute for platinum; it is used in priming of explosive mixtures; flashlight powders; lamp filaments; flash bulbs; and construction of rayon spinnerets. Zirconium or its alloys (with nickel, cobalt, niobium, tantalum) are used as lining materials for pumps and pipes, for chemical processes, and for reaction vessels. Pure zirconium is a structural material for atomic reactor; and alloyed, particularly with aluminum, it is a cladding material for fuel rods in water-moderated nuclear reactors. A zirconium-columbium alloy is an excellent superconductor. Zircon (ZrSiO4) is utilized as a foundry sand, an abrasive; a refractory in combination with zirconia; a coating for casting molds; a catalyst in alkyl and alkenyl hydrocarbon manufacture; a stabilizer in silicone rubbers; and as a gem stone; in ceramics it is used as an opacifier for glazes and enamels and in fritted glass filters. Both zircon and zirconia (zirconium oxide, ZrO2) bricks are used as linings for glass furnaces. Zirconia itself is used in die extrusion of metals and in spout linings for pouring metals, as a substitute for lime in oxyhydrogen flam; as a pigment; and an abrasive; it is used, too, in incandescent lights; as well as in the manufacture of enamels, white glass; and refractory crucibles. Other zirconium compounds are used in metal cutting tools, thermocouple jackets; waterproofing textiles; ceramics, and in treating dermatitis and poison ivy.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
ShippingUN2008 Zirconium powder, dry, Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material. UN1358 Zirconium suspended in a liquid, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid. UN1358 Zirconium powder, wetted with not <25% water (a visible excess of water must be present) (1) mechanically produced, particle size <53 μm; (2) chemically produced, particle size <840 μm, Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN 1932 Zirconium scrap, Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2- Spontaneously combustible material. UN 2009 Zirconium, dry, finished sheets, strip or coiled wire, Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material. UN2858 Zirconium, dry, coiled wire, finished metal sheets, strip (thinner than 254 μm but not thinner than 18 μm), Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
IncompatibilitiesDust may form explosive mixture with air. Violent reactions with oxidizers, air, alkali hydroxides; alkali metal compounds (such as chromates, dichromates, molybdates, salts; sulfates, and tungstates); borax, carbon tetrachloride; lead, lead oxide; phosphorus, potassium compound s. Incompatible with boron, carbon, nitrogen, halogens, lead, platinum, potassium nitrate. Powder may ignite spontaneously and can continue burning under water. Explodes if mixed with hydrated borax when heated. Fine powder may be stored completely immersed in water.
ZIRCONIUM Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation Products1-Triacontanol-->Titanium oxide-->Zirconium dioxide -->ZIRCONIUM BORIDE
Tag:ZIRCONIUM(7440-67-7) Related Product Information
Zirconium tetrachloride ZIRCONIUM(IV) ETHOXIDE COBALT ZIRCONATE ZIRCONIUM N-PROPOXIDE ZIRCONIUM TRIFLUOROACETYLACETONATE Calcium zirconate ZIRCONIUM OXIDE TETRAKIS(DIETHYLAMINO)ZIRCONIUM Bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride Zirconium oxychloride ZIRCONYL NITRATE Cyclopentadienylzirconium trichloride LITHIUM ZIRCONATE Zirconium fluoride SODIUM ZIRCONATE CADMIUM ZIRCONATE Barium zirconate ZIRCONIUM