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YTTRIUM Suppliers list
Company Name: Mainchem Co., Ltd.
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Products Intro: Product Name:YTTRIUM
Company Name: J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD.  
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Products Intro: Product Name:Yttrium powder (99.9% REO)
Purity:(99.9% REO) Package:25g;5g
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Products Intro: Product Name:YttriuM, ingot
Purity:99.9% Remarks:31805
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Products Intro: Product Name:YTTRIUM
Purity:99% HPLC Package:1Mg ; 5Mg;10Mg ;100Mg;250Mg ;500Mg ;1g;2.5g ;5g ;10g
Company Name: Alfa Aesar  
Tel: 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
Products Intro: Product Name:YttriuM ingot/button, ^=50.8MM (2.0in) dia x 11MM (0.43in) thick, 99% (REO)
Package:1pc Remarks:045114
YTTRIUM Basic information
Description Uses Preparation
Product Name:YTTRIUM
Product Categories:Inorganics;Metal and Ceramic Science;Metals;Yttrium;Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry;Chemical Synthesis;Matrix Selection;NitrateSpectroscopy;Reference/Calibration Standards;YttriumMetal and Ceramic Science;Single SolutionAnalytical Standards;AA Standard SolutionsSpectroscopy;AAS;Alphabetic;Standard Solutions;Y;metal or element
Mol File:7440-65-5.mol
YTTRIUM Structure
YTTRIUM Chemical Properties
Melting point 1522 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 3338 °C(lit.)
density 4.469 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
storage temp. Flammables area
form powder
color Gray
resistivity57 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility Insoluble in water
Sensitive air sensitive, moisture sensitive
Merck 13,10161
CAS DataBase Reference7440-65-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,Xi,Xn,F
Risk Statements 34-36/38-20/21/22
Safety Statements 26-36/37/39-45-33-27-16
RIDADR UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
RTECS ZG2980000
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup III
HS Code 28053090
MSDS Information
ACROS English
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
YTTRIUM Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionThe element was discovered in 1794 by the Swedish chemist Gadolin. He named it after the small town Ytterby in Sweden where the mineral containing yttria was found. Mosander in 1843 determined that the yttria consisted of three oxides: yttria, erbia, and terbia. Yttrium occurs in all rare earths. It is recovered commercially from monazite sand, which contains about 3% yttrium. It also is found in bastnasite in smaller amounts of about 0.2%. Abundance of yttrium in earth’s crust is estimated to be 33 mg/kg. The metal has been detected in moon rocks.
Yttrium alloys have many applications. The metal doped with rare earths such as europium is used as phosphor for color television receivers. When added to iron, chromium, vanadium, niobium, and other metals it enhances resistance of these metals and their alloys to high temperature oxidation and recrystallization. It is a deoxidizer for vanadium and other nonferrous metals. Yttrium-aluminum garnets are used in lasers and in jewelery gemstones. Yttrium-iron garnets are used as transmitters and as transducers of acoustic energy.
UsesYttrium has the highest thermo-dynamic affinity for oxygen of any element, this characteristic is the basis for many of its applications. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the Yttrics for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. Some of the many applications of Yttrium include in ceramics for crucibles for molten reactive metals, in florescent lighting phosphors, computer displays and automotive fuel consumption sensors. Yttria stabilized Zirconium Oxide are used in high temperature applications, such as in thermal plasma sprays to protect aerospace high temperature surfaces.
Yttrium is also used for producing a variety of synthetic garnets with different applications such as microwave filters, acoustic energy transmitters and transducers. Yttrium can be used to produce powerful pulsed lasers and superconductors. In biomedical field, yttrium is used in cancer treatment drugs, rheumatoid arthritis medicines and surgical supplies.
Yttrium Metal is widely applied in making speciality alloys, it increase the strengths of alloys of metals such as Chromium, Aluminium, and Magnesium. Yttrium is one of the elements used to make the red color in CRT televisions. As a metal, it is used on the electrodes of some high-performance spark plugs. Yttrium is also used in the manufacturing of gas mantles for propane lanterns as a replacement for Thorium. It is also used to increase the strength of Aluminium and Magnesium alloys. The addition of Yttrium to alloys generally improves workability, adds resistance to high-temperature recrystallization and significantly enhances resistance to high-temperature oxidation. Yttrium Metal can be further processed to various shapes of ingots, pieces, wires, foils, slabs, rods, discs and powder.
PreparationYttrium is recovered commercially from its two principal sources, xenotime and monazite. Ore is opened by digestion with hot sulfuric acid. Insoluble residues are filtered out and leachate solution containing yttrium and other rare-earths is loaded onto cation exchange resin beds for separation. Fractions are eluted with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffered with ammonia at varying temperatures. Also, many other chelates are highly effective in eluting rare earths. Such temperature adjustments of resin beds enhance separation efficiency, particularly for separating yttrium. Separated rate earths including yttrium are converted into insoluble oxalates that precipitate when treated with oxalic acid or sodium oxalate.
Yttrium oxalate is then ignited to its oxide, Y2O3. The oxide is heated at 750°C in a stream of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to yield yttrium fluoride, YF3. Alternatively, the oxide is mixed with ammonium hydrogen fluoride NH4HF2 and heated at 400°C in a stream of dry air or helium. Yttrium metal may be produced from its fluoride either by metallothermic reduction or electrolysis. The more common metallothermic reduction involves reducing the fluoride with redistilled calcium in 10% excess over the stoichiometric amounts at elevated temperatures:
2YF3 + 3Ca → 2Y + 3CaF2
In the electrolytic process, a fused bath of yttrium fluoride and lithium fluoride is heated to nearly 1,700°C and electrolyzed. The electrolysis is done in a graphite crucible using molybdenum cathodes at which yttrium is produced as molten metal.
Yttrium is purified by distillation at high temperatures under vacuum.
Chemical PropertiesDark-gray metal. Soluble in dilute acids and potassium hydroxide solution; decomposeswater. Known only in the tripositive state. Low neutron capture cross section.
Chemical PropertiesYttrium is a silvery-white to dark-gray, or black solid or gray powder. Odorless. An element in Group III-B of the Periodic Table. It is very similar to the rare earth metals.
HistoryYttria, which is an earth containing yttrium, was discovered by Gadolin in 1794. Ytterby is the site of a quarry which yielded many unusually minerals containing rare earths and other elements. This small town, near Stockholm, bears the honor of giving names to erbium, terbium, and ytterbium as well as yttrium. In 1843 Mosander showed that yttria could be resolved into the oxides (or earths) of three elements. The name yttria was reserved for the most basic one; the others were named erbia and terbia. Yttrium occurs in nearly all of the rare-earth minerals. Analysis of lunar rock samples obtained during the Apollo missions show a relatively high yttrium content. It is recovered commercially from monazite sand, which contains about 3%, and from bastnasite, which contains about 0.2%. Wohler obtained the impure element in 1828 by reduction of the anhydrous chloride with potassium. The metal is now produced commercially by reduction of the fluoride with calcium metal. It can also be prepared by other techniques. Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400°C, and finely divided yttrium is very unstable in air. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes. Many hundreds of thousands of pounds are now used in this application. Yttrium oxide also is used to produce yttrium iron garnets, which are very effective microwave filters. Yttrium iron, aluminum, and gadolinium garnets, with formulas such as Y3Fe5O12 and Y3Al5O12, have interesting magnetic properties. Yttrium iron garnet is also exceptionally efficient as both a transmitter and transducer of acoustic energy. Yttrium aluminum garnet, with a hardness of 8.5, is also finding use as a gemstone (simulated diamond). Small amounts of yttrium (0.1 to 0.2%) can be used to reduce the grain size in chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, and titanium, and to increase strength of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Alloys with other useful properties can be obtained by using yttrium as an additive. The metal can be used as a deoxidizer for vanadium and other nonferrous metals. The metal has a low cross section for nuclear capture. Y, one of the isotopes of yttrium, exists in equilibrium with its parent Sr, a product of atomic explosions. Yttrium has been considered for use as a nodulizer for producing nodular cast iron, in which the graphite forms compact nodules instead of the usual flakes. Such iron has increased ductility. Yttrium is also finding application in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization. It also has potential use in ceramic and glass formulas, as the oxide has a high melting point and imparts shock resistance and low expansion characteristics to glass. Natural yttrium contains but one isotope, Y. Forty-three other unstable isotopes and isomers have been characterized. Yttrium metal of 99.9% purity is commercially available at a cost of about $5/g.
General DescriptionSoft silvery-white metal in bulk. Dark-gray to black odorless powder. Mp: 1509°C; bp 2927°C. Density: 4.47 g cm-3 at 20°C. May irritate the respiratory tract if inhaled as a powder. May irritate the digestive tract if swallowed. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation.
Reactivity ProfileYTTRIUM in bulk is stable in air due to the formation of oxide films. Powder or dust is light-sensitive and air-sensitive and flammable in the air and (Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, p. 861(1987)). Reacts with water to form gaseous hydrogen (H2). Reacts with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, and halogens. The products of these reactions are irritating and toxic.
Safety ProfileIt may have an anticoagulant effect on the blood. Flammable in the form of dust when reacted with air, halogens.
Potential ExposureYttrium is used in iron and other alloys, in incandescent gas mantles, and as a deoxidizer for metals. Yttrium metal has a low cross section for neutron capture and is very stable at high temperatures. Further, it is very inert toward liquid uranium and many liquid uranium alloys. Thus, it may well have applications in nuclear power generation. The metal is usually prepared by reduction of the halide with an active metal, such as calcium. To identify and analyze this element, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is commonly employed.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
ShippingUN3089 Metal powders, flammable, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid. UN3178 Flammable solids, inorganic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.1; Labels: 4.1-Flammable solid.
IncompatibilitiesFlammable in the form of dust; may form explosive mixture with air. A strong reducing agent; reacts violently with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, halogens. Yttrium nitrate is a combustible material.
Waste DisposalRecovery is indicated wherever possible. Specifically, processes are available for yttrium oxysulfide recovery from color television tube manufacture.
YTTRIUM Preparation Products And Raw materials
Preparation Productsbenzene alkylation catalyst
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