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Ammonium formate

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Related articles

  • Applications of Ammonium Formate
  • Ammonium formate, NH4HCO2, is the ammonium salt of formic acid. Ammonium formate is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline soli....
  • Nov 22,2019
Ammonium formate Basic information
Description References
Product Name:Ammonium formate
Product Categories:Fine Chemicals;AlphabeticalSynthetic Reagents;AmmoniumBiological Buffers;Biological Buffers;BioUltra Buffers;Buffer SolutionsProtein Structural Analysis;Industrial/Fine Chemicals;Inorganic Salts;Optimization Reagents;X-Ray Crystallography;Pyridines
Mol File:540-69-2.mol
Ammonium formate Structure
Ammonium formate Chemical Properties
Melting point 119-121 °C (lit.)
Boiling point 103.28°C (rough estimate)
density 1.26 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
refractive index 1.4164 (estimate)
Fp 104℃
storage temp. Inert atmosphere,Room Temperature
solubility H2O: 10 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form Solid
color White
OdorSlight formic acid odour
PH Range6 - 7
PH6.0-8.0 (25℃, 10M in H2O)
Water Solubility soluble
Sensitive Hygroscopic
λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.04
Merck 14,523
BRN 3625095
Stability:Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference540-69-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium formate (540-69-2)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes Xi
Risk Statements 36/37/38
Safety Statements 26-36-37/39
WGK Germany 2
RTECS BQ6650000
HS Code 29151200
Hazardous Substances Data540-69-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 orl-mus: 2250 mg/kg ZERNAL 9,332,69
MSDS Information
Ammonium formate English
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Ammonium formate Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionAmmonium formate is the ammonium salt of formic acid, and is a colorless, hydroscopic, crystalline solid. It can be synthesized through treating ammonium carbonate with 85% formic acid. It is widely used in many organic reactions such as Leuckart reaction which is the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones. It can also be used as a buffer in HPLC and LC/MS test. Moreover, it is also used in palladium on carbon (Pd/C) reduction of functional group. It can also be used for the preparation of formic acid in situ as well as being used to store formic acid.
DescriptionAmmonium formate, NH4HCO2, is the ammonium salt of formic acid. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline solid.
Chemical Propertiescolourless crystals
Physical propertiesWhite monoclinic deliquescent crystals or granules; density 1.280 g/cm3; melts at 116°C; highly soluble in water (102 g/100 g at 0°C), solubility rapidly increasing with temperature (i.e., 531 g/100 g at 80°C); soluble in liquid ammonia, alcohol and ether.
UsesAmmonium formate is widely used in various organic reactions like Leuckart reaction which involves the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones. It serves as a buffer in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). It finds application in palladium on carbon (Pd/C) reduction of functional groups. For example, reduction of alkenes to alkanes and formaldehyde to methanol. It is also used to prepare formic acid insitu as well as used to store formic acid by making it as an ammonium salt.
UsesIn chemical analysis, especially to ppt base metals from salts of the "noble" metals.
UsesPure ammonium formate decomposes into formamide and water when heated, and this is its primary use in industry. Formic acid can also be obtained by reacting ammonium formate with a dilute acid, and since ammonium formate is also produced from formic acid, it can serve as a way of storing formic acid.
Ammonium formate can also be used in palladium on carbon (Pd / C) reduction of functional groups. In the presence of Pd / C, ammonium formate decomposes to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia.
Ammonium formate can be used for reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones (Leuckart reaction)
Ammonium formate can be used as a buffer in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and is suitable for use with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). .
DefinitionChEBI: The ammonium salt of formic acid.
ReactionsWhen heated, ammonium formate eliminates water, forming formamide. Upon further heating it forms to HCN and H2O. A side reaction of this is the decomposition of formamide to CO and NH3.
General DescriptionWhite solid with a weak odor of ammonia. Sinks and mixes slowly with water.
Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
Reactivity ProfileSalts, basic, such as Ammonium formate, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.
Health HazardInhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.
Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating ammonia and formic acid gases may form in fire.
Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion andintravenous routes. When heated to decomposition itemits toxic fumes of NOx and NH3.
Purification MethodsHeat the solid in NH3 vapour and dry it in a vacuum till the NH3 odour is faint (note that it can evaporate completely in a vacuum). Recrystallise it from absolute EtOH and then keep it in a desiccator over 99% H2SO4 in vacuo. It is very hygroscopic. It exists in two forms, stable needles and less stable plates. It also forms acid salts, i.e. HCO2NH4.3HCO2H and HCO2NH4.HCO2H. [Kensall & Adler J Am Chem Soc 43 1473 1921, Beilstein 2 IV 18.]
Tag:Ammonium formate(540-69-2) Related Product Information
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