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NITROGEN DIOXIDE Basic information
Synonyms:nitrogentetraoxide;nitrogentetroxide,liquid;DINITROGEN TETROXIDE;NITROGEN DIOXIDE;NITROGEN PEROXIDE;NITROGEN TETROXIDE;Distickstofftetroxid;N2O4
Product Categories:
Mol File:10544-72-6.mol
NITROGEN DIOXIDE Chemical Properties
Melting point −11 °C(lit.)
Boiling point 21 °C(lit.)
density 2.62 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 1.58 (21 °C, vs air)
vapor pressure 14.33 psi ( 20 °C)
form gas
Water Solubility reac H2O [CRC10]
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T+
Risk Statements 26-34
Safety Statements 9-26-28-36/37/39-45
RIDADR UN 1067 2.3
WGK Germany 1
RTECS QX1575000
HS Code 28112900
MSDS Information
NITROGEN DIOXIDE Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Propertiescol liquid [CRC10]
General DescriptionRed-brown liquid with a sharp, unpleasant chemical odor. Low-boiling (boiling point 21.15°C) and held as a liquid by compression. Density 1.448 g / cm3. Consists of an equilibrium mixture of brown NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and colorless N2O4 (diNITROGEN DIOXIDE). Evolves poisonous brown vapors. Cylinders and ton containers may not be equipped with a safety relief device. Prolonged exposure of the containers to fire or heat may result in their violent rupturing and rocketing.
Air & Water ReactionsReacts with water to form nitric acid and nitric oxide.
Reactivity ProfileLiquid NITROGEN DIOXIDE is an oxidizing agent consisting of an equilibrium mixture of colorless dinitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4) and red-brown nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exact composition of the mixture depends on the temperature with higher temperature favoring conversion to NO2. Vaporizes readily to give NO2, also an oxidizing agent. Noncombustible but can accelerate the burning of combustible materials. Reacts with reducing agents to generate heat and products that may be gaseous (causing pressurization of closed containers). The products may themselves be capable of further reactions (such as combustion in the air). Reacts with alkalis to form nitrates and nitrites [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Corrodes steel if wet, but can be stored in steel cylinders if dry [Merck]. Reacts explosively with liquid ammonia even at very low temperatures (below its freezing point) [Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 54]. Reacts energetically with boron trichloride [Mellor, 1946, Vol. 5, 132]. Mixtures with metal carbonyls are hypergolic (enflame immediately). Mixtures with halocarbons, hydrazine derivatives, heterocyclic bases (pyridine), isopropyl nitrite/propyl nitrite, active metals (magnesium, calcium, etc.), nitroaromatics, nitrogen trichloride, phosphorus, triethylamine, unsaturated hydrocarbons may react explosively. Accidental mixing with hot cyclohexane caused an explosion [MCA Case History 128. 1962]. A mixture with acetonitrile and indium showed no evidence of change for a time and then detonated when shaken (ascribed to the catalyzed oxidation of acetonitrile) [Chem. & Ind., 1958, 1004]. Mixture with alcohols produced a violent explosion [Chem. Eng. News, 1955, 33, 2372]. Vapor reacts with barium oxide incandescently [Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 545]. A slow reaction between the vapor and formaldehyde became explosive near 180°C [Trans. Faraday Soc. 45:767-770. 1949]. Manganese and potassium both ignite in the vapor [Ann. Chem. et Phys.(2) 2:317]. The vapor and ozone react with the evolution of light and often explode when mixed [J. Chem. Phys. 18:366. 1920].
Health HazardVery concentrated fumes produce coughing, choking, headache, nausea, pain in chest and abdomen; otherwise, few symtoms appear at time of exposure. After symptom-free period of 5-72 hours, pulmonary edema gradually develops, causing fatigue, restlessness, coughing, difficulty in breathing, frothy expectoration, mental confusion, lethargy, bluish skin, and weak, rapid pulse. Since NOX interferes with gas exchange in lungs, unconscious- ness and death by asphyxiation can result, usually within a few hours after onset of pulmonary edema.
Safety ProfileA poison. Moderately toxic by inhalation. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITROGEN MONOXIDE.
Purification MethodsPurify it by oxidation at 0o in a stream of oxygen until the blue colour changes to red-brown. Alternatively distil it from P2O5, then solidify it by cooling in a deep-freeze (at –78o, giving nearly colourless crystals). Oxygen can be removed by alternate freezing and melting. TOXIC VAPOUR. [Schenk in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 488-489 1963.]
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