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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid Basic information
History Uses Production Reference
Product Name:Hydrochloric acid
Synonyms:varley’soceanbluescentedtoiletbowlcleaner;varleypoly-pakbowlcreme;whiteemulsionbowlcleaner;wuestbowlcleanersuperconcentrated;10 MOL HYDROCHLORIC ACID FIXANAL;0,2 MOL HYDROCHLORIC ACID FIXANAL;Hydrochloric acid 1 mol/L *VOLPAC*;CLP AA/ICP HYDROCHLORIC ACID REAG/MATRIX BLANK SOLN., 5% IN ASTM TYPE I H2O
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Mol File:7647-01-0.mol
Hydrochloric acid Structure
Hydrochloric acid Chemical Properties
Melting point -35 °C
Boiling point 57 °C
density 1.2 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 1.3 (vs air)
vapor pressure 613 psi ( 21.1 °C)
refractive index 1.3535
storage temp. 2-8°C
solubility H2O: soluble
form liquid
pka-7(at 25℃)
color Light Yellow
OdorSharp, irritating odor detectable at 0.25 to 10 ppm
PH1.2 (H2O, 20°C)
Water Solubility miscible
Sensitive Air & Light Sensitive
Merck 14,4780
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with alkalies, most metals. Avoid contact with water.
CAS DataBase Reference7647-01-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceHydrogen chloride(7647-01-0)
EPA Substance Registry SystemHydrochloric acid(7647-01-0)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T,C,F,Xi,F+,Xn
Risk Statements 36/37/38-37-34-35-23-20-11-67-66-22-19-12-10-40-20/22-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-41-37/38
Safety Statements 26-45-36/37/39-9-33-29-16-46-36/37-39
RIDADR UN 2924 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 2
RTECS MW4025000
HS Code 2806 10 00
HazardClass 3
PackingGroup I
Hazardous Substances Data7647-01-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLC50 (30 min) in mice, rats: 2142, 5666 ppm (Darmer)
MSDS Information
Hydrochloric acid English
Hydrochloric acid Usage And Synthesis
HistoryBasilus Valentinus of Italy was first to isolate the acid and reported it under the name spiritus salis in the fifteenth century. Glauber prepared this acid by the reaction of sulfuric acid with common salt in 1648. Lavoisier proposed the name muriatic acid in 1789 after muriate, the term referring to a chlorine-containing inorganic substance. Sir Humphrey Davy proved the gas was composed of only hydrogen and chlorine in 1810. Subsequently, the gas was named hydrogen chloride.
Dilute hydrochloric acid occurs in the stomachs of mammals. Gaseous hydrogen chloride occurs in trace concentrations in the atmosphere.
UsesHydrochloric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals and has numerous applications. Both anhydrous hydrogen chloride and aqueous acid are used to produce a large number of chloride salts. The acid also is a common laboratory reagent. Some major applications of hydrochloric acid include processing of ores and extraction of metals from their minerals; in metal cleaning, particularly in steel pickling to dissolve oxide impurities; production of alumina, titanium dioxide, and other metal oxides by various hydrometallurgical processes; production of hydrogen; synthesis of chlorine dioxide; removal of heavy metal impurities from carbon black; activation of bentonite clays; etching of concrete surfaces for finishing operations; and as a catalyst in several organic reactions such as inversion of sugar, hydrolysis of starch to obtain sugar syrup, and esterification of aromatic acids.
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas is used to produce phosphonium chloride, PH4Cl, which is a flame retardant for cotton textiles. Other major applications include manufacture of a number of high purity metal chlorides, ammonium chloride, chlorosulfuric acid; recovery of waste metals; preparation of alkyl chlorides and chloroacetic acids; and as a chlorinating agent in organic syntheses.
ProductionHydrochloric acid can be produced by several methods. It is obtained from the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in a cast iron retort at elevated temperature. Although reaction starts at 150°C, the complete reaction occurs at about 600°C:
2NaCl + H2SO4→ Na2SO4 + 2HCl
Hydrochloric acid also is made by the Hargreaves process in which a mixture of salt, sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water are heated at elevated temperatures, between 430 to 540°C. The reaction is exothermic and becomes selfsustaining:
4NaCl + SO2 + O2 + 2H2O→ 2Na2SO4 + 4HCl
Hydrochloric acid may be produced by hydrolysis of metal chlorides such as titanium(IV) chloride:
TiCl4 + 2H2O →TiO2 + 4HCl
High purity HCl for commerce is made directly from hydrogen and chlorine:
H2 + Cl2→ 2HCl
The above reaction is highly exothermic. The stoichiometric proportion of gaseous mixture at equilibrium flame temperature is cooled to 200°C, whereupon the elements combine rapidly to form HCl with over 99% yield.
HCl also may be prepared by several other methods including thermal dissociation of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, AlCl3•6H2O, and as a by-product of manufacturing many organic compounds.
Crude HCl gas mixture may be purified by cooling and drying over concentrated sulfuric acid, which also removes organic unsaturated contaminants.
Organic contaminants may be removed further by adsorption over molecular sieves, polystyrene foam, active carbon, or scrubbing with a high-boiling point organic liquid.
Commercial grade, concentrated hydrochloric acid is about 37.5% HCl by weight and has a normality of 12 and specific gravity 1.19.
Hydrogen chloride gas may be stored in steel cylinders free of contaminants. Monel, pure nickel, or its alloy, inconel, may also be used for storage and transportation up to 500°C. Hydrochloric acid may be stored in glass bottles or in containers made up of tantalum or tantalum-molybdenum alloys, or other alloys of zirconium, molybdenum, and tungsten.
ReferenceHandbook of Inorganic Chemicals
Chemical PropertiesHydrogen chloride, HCl, is a colorless, fuming, highly toxic gas that is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It is used in polymerization, isomerization, and the synthesis of vinyl chloride and alkyl chloride.
Chemical PropertiesHydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride, is either a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, or a colorless to slightly yellow gas that can be shipped as a liquefi ed compressed gas. The acid is used in the production of fertilizers, dyes, dyestuffs, artifi cial silk, and paint pig- ments, and in refi ning edible oils and fats. Hydrochloric acid is also used in electroplating, leather tanning, ore refi ning, soap refi ning, petroleum extraction, and pickling of metals, and is used in the photographic, textile, and rubber industries. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used as an antiseptic in toilet bowls against animal pathogenic bacteria, and in food processing as a starch modifi er.
UsesHydrochloric Acid is an acid that is the aqueous solution of hydro- gen chloride of varying concentrations. it is miscible with water and with alcohol. it is used as an acidulant and neutralizing agent.
DefinitionChEBI: A mononuclear parent hydride consisting of covalently bonded hydrogen and chlorine atoms.
UsesIn the production of chlorides; refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum; for the neutralization of basic systems; as laboratory reagent; hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in the preparation of various food products; pickling and cleaning of metal products; as catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses. Also used for oil- and gas-well treament and in removing scale from boilers and heat-exchange equipment. Pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).
Air & Water ReactionsFumes strongly in moist air. Soluble in water with evolution of heat.
Reactivity ProfileANHYDROUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Undergoes a very energetic reaction with calcium phosphide [Mellor 8:841(1946-1947)]. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Corrodes galvanized or copper-alloy metals (brass, bronze); fittings of stainless steel or mild or cast steel must therefore be used. Reacts with calcium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862(1946-1947]. Absorption on mercuric sulfate becomes violent at 125°C. [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:462(1956)].
HazardToxic by inhalation, strong irritant to eyes and skin. Questionable carcinogen.
Health HazardHydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride gas are highly corrosive substances that may cause severe burns upon contact with any body tissue. The aqueous acid and gas are strong eye irritants and lacrimators. Contact of conc hydrochloric acid or concentrated HCl vapor with the eyes may cause severe injury, resulting in permanent impairment of vision and possible blindness, and skin contact results in severe burns. Ingestion can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal system and can be fatal. Inhalation of hydrogen chloride gas can cause severe irritation and injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs, and exposure to high concentrations may cause death. HCl gas is regarded as having adequate warning properties
Hydrogen chloride has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans
Health HazardGas concentrations of 50 to 100 ppm are tolerable for 1 hour. Concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm are dangerous, even for brief exposures. More severe exposures will result in serious respiratory distress and prolonged exposures will result in death. Mists of hydrochloric acid are considered less harmful than anhydrous hydrochloric acid, because droplets have no dehydrating action. Individuals with respiratory problems and digestive diseases may be adversely affected by low level exposures to the gas or mist.
Health HazardExposures to hydrochloric acid cause severe health effects and corrosive reactions. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (fuming hydrochloric acid) forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage the respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. Inhalation of vapors can cause coughing, choking, infl ammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory failure, and death. Accidental ingestion and/or swallow- ing of hydrochloric acid at workplaces causes immediate pain and burns of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. It also causes nausea, vomiting, and diar- rhea, and in severe cases, death. Any kind of contact of the skin surfaces to hydrochloric acid causes redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid cause deep ulcers and discolor the skin. Vapors of hydrochloric acid cause irritat- ing effects to the eyes and eye damage, leading to severe burns and permanent eye dam- age. Long-term exposures to concentrated vapors of hydrochloric acid cause erosion of the teeth. Occupational workers and persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye disease are more susceptible to the effects of hydrochloric acid.
Fire HazardNoncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.
Fire HazardFire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Containers may explode in heat of fire. At high temperatures, Hydrochloric acid decomposes into hydrogen and chlorine. The following materials should be avoided: Mercuric sulfate -- violent reaction with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 250F. Sodium -- reacts vigorously with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, propiolactone, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and vinyl acetate -- increase in temperature and pressure when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Calcium phosphide -- energetic reaction with hydrochloric acid. Silver perchlorate and carbon tetrachloride -- when mixed in combination with hydrochloric acid forms a compound that detonates at 105F. Formaldehyde -- when mixed with hydrochloric acid forms a human carcinogen. Material reacts violently with bases and is corrosive with the generation of heat. Reacts with base metals, forming combustible gas (hydrogen). Reacts violently with strong oxidants forming toxic gas (chlorine). Avoid heat; at high temperatures Hydrochloric acid will decompose into hydrogen and chlorine.
storageSplash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of HCl should be stored in a wellventilated location separated from incompatible metals. Water should never be added to HCl because splattering may result; always add acid to water. Containers of hydrochloric acid should be stored in secondary plastic trays to avoid corrosion of metal storage shelves due to drips or spills.
Cylinders of hydrogen chloride should be stored in cool, dry locations separated from alkali metals and other incompatible substances.
Purification MethodsPass it through conc H2SO4, then over activated charcoal and silica gel. It fumes in moist air. Hydrogen chloride in gas cylinders contains ethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane and ethyl chloride. The latter two may be removed by fractionating the HCl through a trap cooled to -112o. Ethylene is difficult to remove. HCl fumes in moist air. HARMFUL VAPOURS. Its solubility in H2O is 82% at 0o. A constant boiling aqueous solution (azeotrope) has b 108.6o/760mm with an HCl concentration of ~20%, and is called Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) (see above). [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 280-282 1963.]
IncompatibilitiesHydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride react violently with many metals, with the generation of highly flammable hydrogen gas, which may explode. Reaction with oxidizers such as permanganates, chlorates, chlorites, and hypochlorites may produce chlorine or bromine.
Flammability and ExplosibilityNoncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.
Waste DisposalIn many localities, hydrochloric acid or the residue from a spill may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate dilution and neutralization. Otherwise, hydrochloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Excess hydrogen chloride in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.
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