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Ammonium perchlorate

Ammonium perchlorate Basic information
Product Name:Ammonium perchlorate
Synonyms:Perchloricacidammoniumsalt;pkha;AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE 99.8%;AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE 99.999%;AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE SOLUTION, ~1 M IN W ATER;AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE FINE CRYST.;AmmoniumPerchlorate,>99%;Ammoniumperchlorate,ReagentGrade
CAS:7790-98-9
MF:ClH4NO4
MW:117.49
EINECS:232-235-1
Product Categories:Industrial/Fine Chemicals;metal perchlorate salt;Inorganics;Ammonium SaltsSynthetic Reagents;Metal and Ceramic Science;Synthetic Reagents;Oxidation;Perchlorates;Salts
Mol File:7790-98-9.mol
Ammonium perchlorate Structure
Ammonium perchlorate Chemical Properties
Melting point °Cd ec.)
density 1.95 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
refractive index 1.482
form Crystalline
Specific Gravity1.95
color White
Water Solubility Freely soluble in water. Soluble in methanol. Slightly soluble in ethanol, acetone. Insoluble in ether, ethyl acetate
Merck 14,540
Stability:Explosive when mixed with combustible material. Incompatible with organics, paper, wood shavings, etc. May explode if heated under confinement or as a result of friction. Incompatible with metals, reducing agents, strong acids.
CAS DataBase Reference7790-98-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium perchlorate (7790-98-9)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes O,Xi,Xn,E
Risk Statements 9-44-48/20/22-36-3
Safety Statements 17-36/37-27-16-14-35-26
RIDADR 1442
WGK Germany 1
RTECS SC7520000
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 5.1
PackingGroup II
Hazardous Substances Data7790-98-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 oral in rabbit: 1900mg/kg
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
Ammonium perchlorate Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionAmmonium perchlorate is also shock-sensitive and may explode when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction. This is the material that was involved in the explosion at the Pepcon plant in Henderson, Nevada. It is also used in the production of explosives, pyrotechnics, etching and engraving, and jet and rocket propellants.
Chemical PropertiesAmmonium perchlorate NH4CI04, is a white solid, soluble, formed by reaction of NH40H and perchlorate acid, and then evaporating. Used in explosives and pyrotechnics.
UsesPerchlorate is a soluble oxychloro anion most commonly used as a solid salt in the form of ammonium perchlorate, potassium perchlorate, lithium perchlorate, or sodium perchlorate, all of which are highly soluble. Ammonium perchlorate is the most widely used perchlorate compound. In their pure forms, these salts are white or colorless crystals or powders. Perchlorate salts dissolve in water and readily move from surface to groundwater. Perchlorate is known to originate from both natural and man-made sources.
The most common uses for ammonium perchlorate are in explosives, military munitions, and rocket propellants. In addition, perchlorate salts are used in a wide range of nonmilitary applications, including pyrotechnics and fireworks, blasting agents, solid rocket fuel, matches, lubricating oils, nuclear reactors, air bags, and certain types of fertilizers.
General DescriptionA white, crystalline solid or powder. Classified as a division 1.1 explosive if powdered into particles smaller than 15 microns in diameter or if powdered into larger particles but thoroughly dried. Does not readily burn, but will burn if contaminated by combustible material. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Used to make rocket propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics, as an etching and engraving agent, and in analytical chemistry.
Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
Reactivity ProfileAMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:608 1956]. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst. Although the cause was not been definitely established, AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE was most probably frictional heating from dragging a spatula through the mixture [ASESB Expl. Report 211 1966]. Can explode when mixed with sugar, charcoal or on contact with hot copper pipes. Becomes impact-sensitive when contaminated by powdered carbon, ferrocene, sulfur, or other reducing materials such as organic matter or powdered metals.
HazardStrong oxidizing agent; ignites violently with combustibles. Shock sensitive; may explode when exposed to heat or by spontaneous chemical reaction. Sensitive, high explosive when contaminated with reducing materials. Skin irritant.
Health HazardIrritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Safety Profilemoderately toxic by ingestion and parented routes. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame or by spontaneous chemical reaction with reducing materials. A very powerful oxidizer that has caused explosions in industry. Ignites violently with combustibles. Severe explosion hazard; decomposes at 130' and explodes at 380'. When contaminated by powdered carbon, ferrocene, S, organic matter, powdered metals, nitryl perchlorate, potassium periodate, potassium permanganate, it becomes impact sensitive. Potentially explosive reactions with carbon (above 240℃), dichromium trioxide (at 270℃), cadmium oxide (at 260℃), zinc oxide (at 200°C), copper chromite, copper oxide, iron oxide, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, mono-, di-, tri-, or tetra-methylammonium perchlorates, metal perchlorates (e.g., lithium perchlorate, zinc perchlorate), nitrophenol-formaldehyde polymer. Mixtures with aluminum or copper burn violently when ignited. Mixtures with ethylene dinitrate ignite when stored at 60℃. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NH3 and Cl-. See also PERCHLORATES and EXPLOSIVES, HIGH.
Purification MethodsIt is recrystallised twice from distilled water (2.5mL/g) between 80o and 0o, and dried in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5. Drying at 110o might lead to slow decomposition to the chloride. POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE.
Ammonium perchlorate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materialsBarium hydroxide-->NITROUS OXIDE-->Water-->PERCHLORIC ACID-->HYDRAZINE-->Ammonia
Preparation ProductsAmmonium chlorate
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