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Cobalt

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Products Intro: Product Name:Cobalt
CAS:7440-48-4
Purity:99% Package:100g,500g,1kg,5kg,10kg
Company Name: Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
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Products Intro: CAS:7440-48-4
Purity:99% Package:500G;1KG;5KG;25KG
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Products Intro: Product Name:Cobalt
CAS:7440-48-4
Company Name: Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Products Intro: Product Name:cobalt atom
CAS:7440-48-4
Purity:99% Package:5KG;1KG Remarks:Co
Company Name: Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co,Ltd.  Gold
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Products Intro: CAS:7440-48-4
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Cobalt Basic information
History Uses Production Methods
Product Name:Cobalt
Synonyms:supercobalt;PLATING SOLUTION CO-100ES;PLATING SOLUTION CO-801;PLATING SOLUTION CO-701;c.i. 77320;CO STANDARD;COBALT AA STANDARD;COBALT, AAS STANDARD SOLUTION
CAS:7440-48-4
MF:Co
MW:58.93
EINECS:231-158-0
Product Categories:Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry;Chemical Synthesis;CobaltMetal and Ceramic Science;Cobalt;Metal and Ceramic Science;C-D, Puriss p.a.Chemical Synthesis;Metals;Inorganics;metal or element;nano structured metal;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Puriss p.a.
Mol File:7440-48-4.mol
Cobalt Structure
Cobalt Chemical Properties
Melting point 1495°C
Boiling point 2900 °C(lit.)
density 1.03 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. Storage temperature: no restrictions.
solubility H2O: soluble
form wire
color Pink to red to violet
Specific Gravity8.9
resistivity6.24 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility insoluble
Merck 13,2452
Stability:Stable, but pyrophoric in air when finely divided. Incompatible with acetylene, hydrazinium nitrate, oxidizing agents, acids.
CAS DataBase Reference7440-48-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceCobalt(7440-48-4)
EPA Substance Registry SystemCobalt(7440-48-4)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T,Xn,F
Risk Statements 45-23/24/25-34-53-42/43-40-36/37-36/38-17-11-15
Safety Statements 53-23-26-36/37/39-45-61-37-24-22-36/37-5-43
RIDADR UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
RTECS GF8750000
TSCA Yes
HS Code 8105 20 00
HazardClass 4.1
PackingGroup III
Hazardous Substances Data7440-48-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: 6170 mg/kg
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Cobalt Usage And Synthesis
HistoryThe metal was isolated by Brandt in 1735 and confirmed as an element by Bergman in 1780. Cobalt is widely distributed in nature, but in small concentrations. Its concentration in the earth’s crust is estimated to be about 0.0025% and in the sea water is about 0.02 µg/L. Most cobalt found on earth is diffused into the rocks. It also is found in coal and soils, and at trace concentations in animals and plants. It is an essential element for plants and animals (as vitamin B12). Its absence in animals can cause retarded growth, anemia and loss of apetite. The element has been detected in meteorites and in the atmospheres of the sun and other stars.
UsesCobalt has been in use as a coloring agent for glass since ancient times. The most imporant use of cobalt is in the manufacture of various wearresistant and superalloys. Its alloys have shown high resistance to corrosion and oxidation at high temperatures. They are used in machine components. Also, certain alloys are used in desulfurization and liquefaction of coal and hydrocracking of crude oil shale. Cobalt catalysts are used in many industrial processes. Several cobalt salts have wide commercial applications Cobalt oxide is used in glass to impart pink or blue color. Radioactive cobalt–60 is used in radiography and sterilization of food.
Production MethodsCobalt is obtained from its ores, which are mostly sulfide, arsenic sulfide or oxide in nature. The finely ground ore is subjected to multistep processing, depending on the chemical nature of the ore.
When the sulfide ore carrollite, CuS•Co2S3, is the starting material, first sulfides are separated by flotation with frothers. Various flotation processes are applied. The products are then treated with dilute sulfuric acid producing a solution known as copper-cobalt concentrate. This solution is then electrolyzed to remove copper. After the removal of copper, the solution is treated with calcium hydroxide to precipitate cobalt as hydroxide. Cobalt hydroxide is filtered out and separated from other impurities. Pure cobalt hydroxide then is dissolved in sulfuric acid and the solution is again electrolyzed. Electrolysis deposits metallic cobalt on the cathode.
Production of cobalt in general is based on various physical and chemical processes that include magnetic separation (for arsenic sufide ores), sulfatizing roasting (for sulfide ores), ammoniacal leaching, catalytic reduction, and electrolysis.
Finely divided cobalt particles can be prepared by reduction of cobalt(II) chloride by lithium naphthalenide in glyme.
Chemical PropertiesCobalt is a silver-gray to black, hard, brittle, magnetic metal. It is relatively rare; the important mineral sources are the arsenides, sulfides, and oxidized forms. It is generally obtained as a by-product of other metals, particularly copper.
Chemical PropertiesCobalt is a silvery, bluish-white, odorless, and magnetic metal. The fume and dust of cobalt metal is odorless and black. The appearance and odor of cobalt compounds and their dusts and fumes vary with the compound. Cobalt metal in powdered form is incompatible with fused ammonium nitrate, hydrozinium nitrate, and strong oxidizing agents and should be avoided. It ignites on contact with bromide pentafl uoride. Powdered cobalt ignites spontaneously in air. Exposure to cobalt metal fume and dust can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.
HistoryCobalt occurs in the mineral cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite, and is often associated with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores, from which it is most frequently obtained as a by-product. It is also present in meteorites. Important ore deposits are found in Congo-Kinshasa, Australia, Zambia, Russia, Canada, and elsewhere. The U.S. Geological Survey has announced that the bottom of the north central Pacific Ocean may have cobalt-rich deposits at relatively shallow depths in waters close to the Hawaiian Islands and other U.S. Pacific territories. Cobalt is a brittle, hard metal, closely resembling iron and nickel in appearance. It has a magnetic permeability of about two thirds that of iron. Cobalt tends to exist as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range; the β-form predominates below 400°C, and the α above that temperature. The transformation is sluggish and accounts in part for the wide variation in reported data on physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Stellite alloys, containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten, are used for high-speed, heavy-duty, high-temperature cutting tools, and for dies. Cobalt is also used in other magnet steels and stainless steels, and in alloys used in jet turbines and gas turbine generators. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. The salts have been used for centuries for the production of brilliant and permanent blue colors in porcelain, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. It is the principal ingredient in Sevre’s and Thenard’s blue. A solution of the chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) is used as sympathetic ink. The cobalt ammines are of interest; the oxide and the nitrate are important. Cobalt carefully used in the form of the chloride, sulfate, acetate, or nitrate has been found effective in correcting a certain mineral deficiency disease in animals. Soils should contain 0.13 to 0.30 ppm of cobalt for proper animal nutrition. Cobalt is found in Vitamin B-12, which is essential for human nutrition. Cobalt of 99.9+% purity is priced at about $250/kg. Cobalt-60, an artificial isotope, is an important gamma ray source, and is extensively used as a tracer and a radiotherapeutic agent. Single compact sources of Cobalt-60 vary from about $1 to $10/curie, depending on quantity and specific activity. Thirty isotopes and isomers of cobalt are known.
DefinitionChEBI: A cobalt group element atom that has atomic number 27.
UsesFor alloys; manufacture of cobalt salts; in nuclear technology. Since 60Co can be encapsulated compactly, it has replaced radium in experimental medicine and cancer research. Cobalt is also used in the cobalt bomb, a hydrogen bomb surrounded by a cobalt metal shell. When the nuclear explosion occurs 60Co is formed from 59Co by neutron capture. Considered a "dirty bomb" because of long half-life and intense b- and g radiation. Max permissible concentration of 60Co in air: 10-7mCi/cc, Natl. Bur. Stand. Handb. 69, 31 (1959).
Air & Water ReactionsBurns brilliantly when exposed to air [Mellor 14:453(1946-1947)]. Insoluble in water.
Reactivity ProfilePyrophoric Cobalt is a reducing agent. Decomposes acetylene in the cold as the metal becomes incandescent [Mellor 14:513(1946-1947]. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as ammonium nitrate, bromine pentafluoride, and nitryl fluoride.
HazardA possible carcinogen. Toxic by inhalation. Dust is flammable. Asthma, myocardial effects, and pulmonary function impairment.
Health HazardAcute exposure to cobalt metal, dust, and fume is characterized by irritation of the eyes and, to a lesser extent, irritation of the skin. In sensitized individuals, exposure causes an asthma-like attack, with wheezing, bronchospasm, and dyspnea. Ingestion of cobalt may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a sensation of heat. Human exposures to cobalt and cobalt compounds cause cough, tight chest, pain in chest on coughing, dyspnea, malaise, ache, chills, sweating, shivering, and aching pain in back and limbs. After further days of exposures to high concentrations of cadmium, the worker develops more severe pulmonary responses such as severe dyspnea, wheezing, chest pain and precordial constriction, persistent cough, weakness and malaise, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, nocturia, abdominal pain, diffuse nodular fi brosis, respiratory hypersensitivity, asthma, abdominal pain, cardiomyopathy, lung damage, hemoptysis, prostration, and death. Cobalt metal, dust, and fume are pulmonary toxins and respiratory and skin sensitizers. Inhalation of cobalt metal fume and dust may cause interstitial fi brosis, interstitial pneumonitis, myocardial and thyroid disorders, and sensitization of the respiratory tract and skin. Chronic cobalt poisoning may also produce polycythemia and hyperplasia of the bone marrow. Myocardial disorders have also been observed in cobalt production workers. Chronic exposure to cobalt metal, dust, or fume may cause respiratory or dermatologic signs and symptoms. Following skin sensitization, contact with cobalt causes eruptions of dermatitis in creases and on frictional surfaces of the arms, legs, and neck. Chronic cobalt poisoning may cause polycythemia, hyperplasia of the bone marrow and thyroid gland, pericardial effusion, and damage to the alpha cells of the pancreas.
Fire HazardLiterature sources indicate that the dust of Cobalt is flammable.
Agricultural UsesCobalt (Co), a metallic element with an atomic weight of 58.94, is one of the transition elements belonging to the Group 9 (formerly Group VIII ) of the Periodic Table. However, in extremely low concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10parts per billion (ppb), cobalt have been observed to improve growth, transpiration and photosynthesis of cotton, mustard and beans. Cobalt is required by symbiotic micro-organisms (e.g., rhizobia) for the fixation of elemental nitrogen through the formation of vitaminB12.
Cobalt forms a complex with nitrogen atoms of the porphyrin ring structure and provides a prosthetic group for association with nucleotides in vitamin B12 co-enzyme. This complex is called cobamide. Other cobalt functions include leghemoglobin metabolism and ribonucleotide reductase in Rhizobium, and activation of enolase, lecithinase and succinic kinase.
The concentration of cobalt in dry matter of plants ranges from 0.02 to 0.5 ppm. One ppb of cobalt in nutrient solution was found adequate for nitrogen fixation in alfalfa. The water content and catalase activity in leaves increased and the concentration of the cell sap decreased with cobalt application.
Cobalt content in soil is low and variable. In India, for instance, it ranges from 4 to 80ppm. The humus content of the soil influences the availability of cobalt in it. The nature of clay affects the absorption of cobalt from solutions, in the order muscovite > hematite > bentonite = kaolin. An increase in the pH of the soil decreases the availability of cobalt. Cobalt deficiency is more pronounced in coarse sandy soils and under high rainfall conditions. To overcome deficiency, cobalt fertilization with 100to 200g/ha as cobaltous sulphate (CoSO,) is recommended.
Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental neoplastigenic and tumorigenic data. Poison by intravenous, intratracheal, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Inhalation of the dust may cause pulmonary damage. The powder may cause dermatitis. Ingestion of soluble salts produces nausea and vomiting by local irritation. Powdered cobalt igmtes spontaneously in air. Flammable when exposed to heat or flame. Explosive reaction with hydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate + heat, and 1,3,4,7-tetramethylisoindole (at 39OOC). Ignites on contact with bromine pentafluoride. Incandescent reaction with acetylene or nitryl fluoride. See also COBALT COMPOUNDS.
Potential ExposurePossible risk of forming tumors, Suspected reprotoxic hazard. Nickel-aluminumcobalt alloys are used for permanent magnets. Alloys with nickel, aluminum, copper, beryllium, chromium, and molybdenum are used in the electrical, automobile, and aircraft industries. Cobalt is added to tool steels to improve their cutting qualities and is used as a binder in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools. Various cobalt compounds are used as pigments in enamels, glazes, and paints; as catalysts in afterburners; and in the glass, pottery, photographic, electroplating industries. Radioactive cobalt (60Co) is used in the treatment of cancer. Cobalt has been added to beer to promote formation of foam but cobalt acts with alcohol to produce severe cardiac effects at concentrations as low as 1.2-1.5 mg/L of beer. Cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule and as such is an essential nutrient. The requirement of humans for cobalt in the form of vitamin B12 is about 0.13 μg/day.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy
storageCobalt metal dust (powdered metal) should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA standards. Containers of cobalt metal dust should be protected from physical damage and ignition sources, and should be stored separately from strong oxidizers.
ShippingUN3189 Metal powder, self-heating, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 4.2; Labels: 4.2-Spontaneously combustible material
Waste DisposalCobalt metal may be recovered from scrap and cobalt compounds from spent catalysts as alternatives to disposal.
Tag:Cobalt(7440-48-4) Related Product Information
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