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7440-04-2

7440-04-2 Structure

7440-04-2 Structure
IdentificationMore
[Name]

OSMIUM
[CAS]

7440-04-2
[Synonyms]

OSMIUM
OSMIUM, AAS STANDARD SOLUTION
OSMIUM ATOMIC ABSORPTION STANDARD
OSMIUM METAL
OSMIUM PLASMA EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STANDARD
OSMIUM PLASMA EMISSION STANDARD
OSMIUM, PLASMA STANDARD SOLUTION
OSMIUM STANDARD
Metallic osmium
metallicosmium
Os
Osmium powder
OsmiumpowderNmesh
OSMIUM POWDER 99.995%
OSMIUM, POWDER, 99.9%
OSMIUM, SPONGE, 99.8%
powder99.(metalsbasis)
Osmium, 99.9%
Osmiumpowder(99.8%)
OSMIUM POWDER: 99.8%, 2N8
[EINECS(EC#)]

231-114-0
[Molecular Formula]

Os
[MDL Number]

MFCD00011147
[Molecular Weight]

190.23
[MOL File]

7440-04-2.mol
Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[Appearance]

Black powder
[Appearance]

Osmium is a blue-white metal. It is found in platinum ores and in the naturally occurring alloy osmiridium. Osmium when heated in air or when the finely divided form is exposed to air at room temperature, oxidizes to form the tetroxide (OsO4), osmic acid. Osmium tetraoxide is a colorless, crystalline solid or pale-yellow mass. Unpleasant, acrid, chlorine-like odor. A liquid above 41°C.
[Melting point ]

3045 °C(lit.)
[mp ]

3045 °C(lit.)
[Boiling point ]

5027 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

5027 °C(lit.)
[density ]

22,48 g/cm3
[form ]

sponge
[color ]

Black
[Water Solubility ]

attacked by aqua regia; barely affected by HCl, H2SO4 [MER06]
[Merck ]

13,6960
[History]

Discovered in 1803 by Tennant in the residue left when crude platinum is dissolved by aqua regia. Osmium occurs in iridosmine and in platinum-bearing river sands of the Urals, North America, and South America. It is also found in the nickel-bearing ores of the Sudbury, Ontario, region along with other platinum metals. While the quantity of platinum metals in these ores is very small, the large tonnages of nickel ores processed make commercial recovery possible. The metal is lustrous, bluish white, extremely hard, and brittle even at high temperatures. It has the highest melting point and the lowest vapor pressure of the platinum group. The metal is very difficult to fabricate, but the powder can be sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature of 2000°C. The solid metal is not affected by air at room temperature, but the powdered or spongy metal slowly gives off osmium tetroxide, which is a powerful oxidizing agent and has a strong smell. The tetroxide is highly toxic, and boils at 130°C (760 mm). Concentrations in air as low as 10–7 g/m3 can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage. The tetroxide has been used to detect fingerprints and to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides. The metal is almost entirely used to produce very hard alloys, with other metals of the platinum group, for fountain pen tips, instrument pivots, phonograph needles, and electrical contacts. The price of 99.9% pure osmium powder — the form usually supplied commercially — is about $100/g, depending on quantity and supplier. Natural osmium contains seven isotopes, one of which, 186Os, is radioactive with a very long half-life. Thirty-four other isotopes and isomers are known, all of which are radioactive. The measured densities of iridium and osmium seem to indicate that osmium is slightly more dense than iridium, so osmium has generally been credited with being the heaviest known element. Calculations of the density from the space lattice, which may be more reliable for these elements than actual measurements, however, give a density of 22.65 for iridium compared to 22.61 for osmium. At present, therefore, we know either iridium or osmium is the heaviest element, but the data do not allow selection between the two.
[CAS DataBase Reference]

7440-04-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Bluish-white lustrous metal; brittle and fairly hard; close-packed hexago- nal crystal system; density 22.48 g/cm3; Moh’s hardness 7.0; melts at about 3,050°C; vaporizes above 5,300°C; electrical resistivity 8.12 microhms-cm at 0°C; Young’s modulus 4.0x104 tons/in2; magnetic susceptibility 0.052x10–6 cm3/g; thermal neutron absorption coefficient 15 barns; insoluble in water; insoluble in HCl and H2SO4; slightly soluble in nitric acid and aqua regia; insoluble in ammonia; solubilized by fusion with caustic soda and sodium peroxide or caustic soda and potassium chlorate and the mass dissolved in water.
[Chemical Properties]

Osmium is a blue-white metal. It is found in platinum ores and in the naturally occurring alloy osmiridium. Osmium when heated in air or when the finely divided form is exposed to air at room temperature, oxidizes to form the tetroxide (OsO4), osmic acid. Osmium tetraoxide is a colorless, crystalline solid or pale-yellow mass. Unpleasant, acrid, chlorine-like odor. A liquid above 41°C.
[Potential Exposure]

Osmium may be alloyed with platinum metals, iron, cobalt, and nickel; and it forms compounds withtin and zinc. The alloy with iridium is used in the manufacture of fountain pen points, engraving tool; record player needles; electrical contacts; compass needles; fine machine bearings; and parts for watch and lock mechanisms. The metal is a catalyst in the synthesis of ammonia; and in the dehydrogenation of organic compounds. It is also used as a stain for histological examination of tissues. Osmium tetroxide is used as an oxidizing agent, catalyst, and as a fixative for tissues in electron microscopy. Other osmium compounds find use in photography. Osmium no longer is used in incandescent lights or in fingerprinting.
[First aid]

Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth methods if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device? Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In the case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 2448 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.
[Incompatibilities]

Osmium tetroxide is a strong oxidizer. Reacts with combustibles and reducing materials. Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form toxic chlorine gas. Forms unstable compounds with alkalis.
[Waste Disposal]

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

F,Xi
[Risk Statements ]

R11:Highly Flammable.
R37/38:Irritating to respiratory system and skin .
R41:Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R36/38:Irritating to eyes and skin .
[Safety Statements ]

S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
[RIDADR ]

UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
[WGK Germany ]

-
[RTECS ]

RN1100000
[TSCA ]

Yes
[HazardClass ]

4.1
[PackingGroup ]

II
[HS Code ]

71104100
[Safety Profile]

Poison by intravenous route. An irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. The principal effects of exposure are ocular disturbances and an asthmatic condition caused by inhalation. Furthermore, it causes dermatitis and ulceration of the skin upon contact. When osmium is heated, it gives off a pungent, poisonous fume of osmium tetroxide. One case of osmium poisoning reported in the literature resulted from the inhalation of osmium, which gave rise to a capillary bronchitis and dermatitis. The tetroxide vapor has a pronounced and nauseating odor that should be taken as a warning of a possibly toxic concentration in the atmosphere, and personnel should immedately move to an area of fresh air. The metal itself is not highly toxic. Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Slight explosion hazard in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame. Violent reaction or ignition with chlorine trichloride or oxygen dfluoride. Ignites when heated to l00℃ with fluorine. Incandescent reaction in phosphorus vapor. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of 0s04. See also OSMIUM TETROXIDE
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Preparation Products]

Osmium tetraoxide-->Iridium
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

osmium(7440-04-2).msds
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Description]

Osmium was discovered by English chemist Smithson Tennant in 1804. The element was named osmium after the Greek word, osme, which means a smell, because of the pungent and peculiar odor of its volatile oxide.
Osmium occurs in nature, always associated with other platinum group metals. It usually is found in lesser abundance than other noble metals. Its most important mineral is osmiridium (or iridosmine), a naturally occurring mineral alloyed with iridium.
The commercial applications of osmium are limited and considerably fewer than other platinum group metals. Its alloys are very hard and are used to make tips of fountain-pen nibs, phonograph needles, and pivots. The metal also exhibits effective catalytic properties in hydrogenation and other organic reactions. Such catalytic applications, however, are limited and osmium fails to replace other noble metals, particularly palladium and platinum, which are more effective as catalysts and cost less.
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Osmium, 99.9%(7440-04-2)
[Alfa Aesar]

Osmium powder,-200 mesh, 99.8% (metals basis)(7440-04-2)
[Sigma Aldrich]

7440-04-2(sigmaaldrich)
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