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STRONTIUM

History Uses Production Hazard
STRONTIUM
STRONTIUM structure
CAS No.
7440-24-6
Chemical Name:
STRONTIUM
Synonyms
STRONTIUM;Aids072432;Aids-072432;strontium(2+);strontium atom;STRONTIUM METAL;Strontium pieces;Strontium, Chunks;STRONTIUM STANDARD;Strontium (ii) ion
CBNumber:
CB2350213
Molecular Formula:
Sr
Formula Weight:
87.62
MOL File:
7440-24-6.mol

STRONTIUM Properties

Melting point:
757 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
1384 °C(lit.)
Density 
2.6 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
storage temp. 
2-8°C
solubility 
H2O: soluble
form 
random pieces
color 
White to pale yellow
Specific Gravity
2.54
Resistivity
23 μΩ-cm, 20°C
Water Solubility 
reacts quickly with H2O; soluble alcohol [HAW93]
Sensitive 
Air & Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
13,8915
CAS DataBase Reference
7440-24-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  F,Xi,T
Risk Statements  37/38-41-38-14-11-36/38-34-23/24/25-36-14/15
Safety Statements  26-45-36/37/39-27-23
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  WK8400000
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  4.3
PackingGroup  II
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously Substances And Mixtures Which, In Contact With Water,Emit Flammable Gases Category 1 Danger P223, P231+P232, P280, P335+ P334,P370+P378, P402+P404, P501
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas Substances And Mixtures Which, In Contact With Water,Emit Flammable Gases Category 2
Category 3
Danger
Warning
P231+P232, P280, P370+P378,P402+P404, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
Precautionary statements:
P223 Keep away from any possible contact with water, because of violent reaction and possible flash fire.
P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P422 Store contents under …
P402+P404 Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container.

STRONTIUM price More Price(11)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 343730 Strontium random pieces, 99% 7440-24-6 10g $59.2 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 343730 Strontium random pieces, 99% 7440-24-6 50g $420 2018-11-13 Buy
Strem Chemicals 38-0074 Strontium pieces, dendritic (99.9%) 7440-24-6 25g $2182 2018-11-13 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-3831 Strontium pieces (99%) 7440-24-6 25g $99 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 403326 Strontium granular, 99% trace metals basis 7440-24-6 25g $198 2018-11-13 Buy

STRONTIUM Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

History

William Cruickshank in 1787 and Adair Crawford in 1790 independently detected strontium in the mineral strontianite, small quantities of which are associated with calcium and barium minerals. They determined that the strontianite was an entirely new mineral and was different from baryta and other barium minerals known at the time. In 1808, Sir Humphry Davy isolated strontium by electrolysis of a mixture of moist strontium hydroxide or chloride with mercuric oxide, using a mercury cathode. The element was named after the town Strontian in Scotland where the mineral strontianite was found.

Uses

Strontium is found in small quantities in many rocks and soils, mostly associated with calcium and barium. Its abundance in the earth’s crust is about 370 mg/kg, about the same as barium. The average concentration of this metal in sea water is about 7.9 mg/L.
The two principal strontium minerals are its carbonate, strontianite, SrCO3, and the more abundant sulfate mineral celestite, SrSO4.
Elemental strontium has only minor uses, since most applications involve calcium and barium. Strontium alloys are used as “getters” for vacuum tubes. It is incorporated in glass for making picture tubes for color television. Strontium compounds are used in tracer bullets and in fireworks to produce red signal flares. Strontium titanate is a gemstone. The radioactive strontium- 90 with a half-life of 29 years is a high-energy beta emitter. It is a product of nuclear fission. This isotope is a lightweight nuclear-electric power source in space vehicles and remote weather stations.

Production

Strontium and its compounds are mostly derived from celestite, SrSO4. The mineral is converted to its carbonate by heating with sodium carbonate. Alternatively, the mineral may be reduced to sulfide by heating with coke. The carbonate or the sulfide is then converted to other strontium salts.
Metallic strontium is produced by electrolysis of a mixed melt of strontium chloride and potassium chloride in a graphite crucible using an iron rod as cathode. The upper cathodic space is cooled and the strontium metal collects over the cooled cathode and forms a stick.
Strontium metal also can be prepared by thermal reduction of its oxide with aluminum. Strontium oxide-aluminum mixture is heated at high temperature in vacuum. Strontium is collected by distillation in vacuum. Strontium also is obtained by reduction of its amalgam, hydride, and other salts. The amalgam is heated and the mercury is separated by distillation. If hydride is used, it is heated at 1,000°C in vacuum for decomposition and removal of hydrogen. Such thermal reductions yield high–purity metal.

Hazard

The finely-powdered metal is pyrophoric. Its radioactive isotopes Sr-89 and Sr-90 emit high-energy beta radiation. They are extremely hazardous because they deposit in bones replacing calcium. Their radiation can damage bone marrow and blood-forming organs, inducing cancer.

Chemical Properties

Pale-yellow, soft metal; chemically similar to calcium. Soluble in alcohol and acids, decomposes water on contact.

Physical properties

In its elemental state, strontium is a relatively soft, pale yellow metal somewhat similar toelemental calcium. When freshly cut, strontium has a silvery shine to its surface that soonturns grayish as it is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen (2Sr + O2 → 2SrO) and nitrogen (3Sr +N2 → Sr3N2), which prevents further oxidation. Strontium’s melting point is 769°C, its boiling point is 1348°C, and its density is 2.54 g/cm3.

Isotopes

There are 29 isotopes of strontium, ranging from Sr-75 to Sr-102. The fournatural forms of strontium are stable and not radioactive. These stable isotopes are Sr-84, which constitutes 0.56% of the element’s existence on Earth; Sr-86, which makesup 9.86%; Sr-87, which accounts for 7.00% of the total; and Sr-88, which makes up82.58% of strontium found on Earth. The remaining isotopes are radioactive with halflives ranging from a few microseconds to minutes, hours, days, or years. Most, but notall, are produced in nuclear reactors or nuclear explosions. Two important radioisotopesare Sr-89 and Sr-90.

Origin of Name

Strontium was named after the town Strontian, located in Scotland in the British Isles.

Occurrence

Strontium metal is not found in its elemental state in nature. Its salts and oxide compoundsconstitute only 0.025% of the Earth’s crust. Strontium is found in Mexico and Spain in the mineral ores of strontianite (SrCO3) and celestite (SrSO4). As these ores are treated with hydrochloricacid (HCl), they produce strontium chloride (SrCl2) that is then used, along with potassiumchloride (KCl), to form a eutectic mixture to reduce the melting point of the SrCl2, as a moltenelectrolyte in a graphite dish-shaped electrolysis apparatus. This process produces Sr cations collected at the cathode, where they acquire electrons to form strontium metal. At the same time,Cl- anions give up electrons at the anode and are released as chlorine gas Cl2↑.Two other methods of producing strontium are by thermal reduction of strontium oxideand by the distillation of strontium in a vacuum.

Characteristics

When strontium metal is exposed to water, it releases hydrogen, as do the other earth metals (Sr + 2H2O → Sr(OH)2 + H2↑). Strontium can ignite when heated above its melting point.When in a fine powder form, it will burn spontaneously in air. It must be stored in an inertatmosphere or in naphtha. Several of its salts burn with a bright red flame, making it usefulin signal flares and fireworks.

History

Isolated by Davey by electrolysis in 1808; however, Adair Crawford in 1790 recognized a new mineral (strontianite) as differing from other barium minerals (baryta). Strontium is found chiefly as celestite (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3). Celestite is found in Mexico, Turkey, Iran, Spain, Algeria, and in the U.K. The U.S. has no active celestite mines. The metal can be prepared by electrolysis of the fused chloride mixed with potassium chloride, or is made by reducing strontium oxide with aluminum in a vacuum at a temperature at which strontium distills off. Three allotropic forms of the metal exist, with transition points at 235 and 540°C. Strontium is softer than calcium and decomposes water more vigorously. It does not absorb nitrogen below 380°C. It should be kept under mineral oil to prevent oxidation. Freshly cut strontium has a silvery appearance, but rapidly turns a yellowish color with the formation of the oxide. The finely divided metal ignites spontaneously in air. Volatile strontium salts impart a beautiful crimson color to flames, and these salts are used in pyrotechnics and in the production of flares. Natural strontium is a mixture of four stable isotopes. Thirty-two other unstable isotopes and isomers are known to exist. Of greatest importance is 90Sr with a half-life of 29 years. It is a product of nuclear fallout and presents a health problem. This isotope is one of the best long-lived high-energy beta emitters known, and is used in SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) devices. These devices hold promise for use in space vehicles, remote weather stations, navigational buoys, etc., where a lightweight, long-lived, nuclear-electric power source is needed. The major use for strontium at present is in producing glass for color television picture tubes. All color TV and cathode ray tubes sold in the U.S. are required by law to contain strontium in the face plate glass to block X-ray emission. Strontium also improves the brilliance of the glass and the quality of the picture. It has also found use in producing ferrite magnets and in refining zinc. Strontium titanate is an interesting optical material as it has an extremely high refractive index and an optical dispersion greater than that of diamond. It has been used as a gemstone, but it is very soft. It does not occur naturally. Strontium metal (99% pure) costs about $220/kg.

Uses

This soft, yellowish, metallic element was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808. It was found in the minerals strontianite and celestine. The strontium halides were used in the making of collodion emulsions.

Uses

In fireworks, in red signal flares; on tracer bullets. Eutectic modifier in Al-Ag casting alloys to improve strength and ductility. Innoculant in ductile iron casting to control graphite formation.

Uses

Strontium does not have as many practical uses as do some of the other alkali earth metals.Strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2], when burned, produces a bright red flame, and it is usedin fireworks. During military combat, it is used to make “tracer bullets” so that their pathscan be tracked at night. Strontium is also used in making specialty metals when alloyed withother metals and in the manufacture of soaps, greases, and similar materials that are resistantto extreme high or low temperatures.

Definition

Metallic element of atomic number 38, group IIA of periodic table, aw 87.62, valence = 2, radioactive isotopes strontium-89 and strontium-90. There are four stable isotopes.

Definition

A soft low-melting reactive metal; the fourth member of group 2 of the periodic table and a typical alkaline-earth element. The electronic configuration is that of krypton with two additional outer 5s electrons. Strontium and barium are both of low abundance in the Earth’s crust, strontium occurring as strontianite (SrCO3) and celestine (SrSO4).
The element is produced industrially by roasting the carbonate to give the oxide (800°C) and then reducing with aluminum, 3SrO + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Sr
Strontium has a low ionization potential, is large, and is therefore very electropositive. The chemistry of strontium metal is therefore characterized by high reactivity of the metal. The properties of strontium fall into sequence with other alkaline earths. Thus it reacts directly with oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, the halogens, and hydrogen to form respectively the oxide SrO, nitride Sr3N2, sulfide SrS, halides SrX2, and hydride SrH2, all of which are largely ionic in character. The oxide SrO and the metal react readily with water to form the hydroxide Sr(OH)2, which is basic and mid-way between Ca(OH)2 and Ba(OH)2 in solubility. The carbonate and sulfate are both insoluble.
As the metal is very electropositive the salts are never much hydrolyzed in solution and the ions are largely solvated as [Sr(H2O)6]2+. Symbol: Sr; m.p. 769°C; b.p. 1384°C; r.d. 2.54 (20°C); p.n. 38; r.a.m. 87.62.

Definition

strontium: Symbol Sr. A soft yellowish metallic element belonging to group 2 (formerly IIA) of the periodic table (see alkaline-earth metals); a.n. 38; r.a.m. 87.62; r.d. 2.6; m.p. 769°C; b.p. 1384°C. The element is found in the minerals strontianite (SrCO3) and celestine (SrSO4). It can be obtained by roasting the ore to give the oxide, followed by reduction with aluminium (i.e. the Goldschmidt process). The element, which is highly reactive, is used in certain alloys and as a vacuum getter. The isotope strontium–90 is present in radioactive fallout (half-life 28 years), and can be metabolized with calcium so that it collects in bone. Strontium was discovered by Martin Klaproth (1743–1817) and Thomas Hope (1766–1844) in 1798 and isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808.

Hazard

Spontaneously flammable in powder form, igniteswhen heated above its mp. Reactswithwater to evolve hydrogen. Store under naphtha.

Hazard

As a powder, strontium metal may spontaneously burst into flames. Both its metal andsome of its compounds will explode when heated. Some of the compounds will explode ifstruck with a hammer.
Both the metal and some compounds will react with water to produce strontium hydroxide[Sr(OH)2] and release hydrogen gas. The heat from the exothermic reaction may cause thehydrogen to either burn or explode [Sr + 2H2O → Sr(OH)2 + H2↑].
Some compounds, such as strontium chromate and strontium fluoride, are carcinogensand toxic if ingested. Strontium-90 is particularly dangerous because it is a radioactivebone-seeker that replaces the calcium in bone tissue. Radiation poisoning and death mayoccur in people exposed to excessive doses of Sr-90. Strontium-90, as well as some otherradioisotopes that are produced by explosions of nuclear weapons and then transportedatmospherically, may be inhaled by plants and animals many miles from the source of thedetonation. This and other factors led to the ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear andthermonuclear weapons.

STRONTIUM Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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