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불소

불소
불소 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
16984-48-8
한글명:
불소
동의어(한글):
불소
상품명:
FLUORIDE STANDARD
동의어(영문):
FLUORIDE;FluorionF-;Perfluoride;FLUORIDEGEL;Chebi:17051;FLUORIDE ION;Fluoride(1-);Fluorine, ion;fluoride fume;Fluorine anion
CBNumber:
CB8310763
분자식:
F-
포뮬러 무게:
19
MOL 파일:
16984-48-8.mol

불소 속성

녹는점
135℃
밀도
1.000 g/cm3 (20 °C)
굴절률
1.3358 (589.3 nm 20℃)
저장 조건
2-8°C
물리적 상태
Liquid
수소이온지수(pH)
6 (H2O, 20°C)
CAS 데이터베이스
16984-48-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC
3 (Vol. 27, Sup 7) 1987
EPA
Fluoride (16984-48-8)

안전

WGK 독일 NWG not water endangering
HS 번호 2826 19 10

불소 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Of the general formula FyMx or MxFy, appear ance, odor and properties vary with specific compounds.

정의

Any inorganic salt of hydrofluoric acid in which fluorine has a valence of ?1. Fluorides are major environmental pollutants released into the atmosphere from aluminum reduction, steel manufacturing, and coal-fired power plants. Fluoride pollution is assoc

위험도

Highly toxic; poison; mutagen; can cause convulsions, changes in the respiratory system, liver and kidneys.

건강위험

Small amounts of fluoride appear to be an essential nutrient. People in the United States ingest about 2 mg/day in water and food. A concentration of about 1 mg/L in drinking water effectively reduces dental caries without harmful effects on health. Dental fluorosis can result from exposure to concentrations above 2 mg/L in children up to about 8 years of age. In its mild form, fluorosis is characterized by white opaque mottled areas on tooth surfaces. Severe fluorosis causes brown to black stains and pitting. Although the matter is controversial, the EPA has determined that dental fluorosis is a cosmetic and not a toxic or an adverse health effect. Water hardness limits fluoride toxicity to humans and fish. The severity of fluorosis decreases in harder drinking water. Crippling skeletal fluorosis in adults requires the consumption of about 20 mg or more of fluoride per day over a 20-year period. No cases of crippling skeletal fluorosis have been observed in the United States from the longterm consumption of 2 L/day of water containing 4 mg/L of fluoride. The EPA has concluded that 0.12 mg/kg/day of fluoride is protective of crippling skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride therapy, where 20 mg/day is ingested for medical purposes, is sometimes used to strengthen bone, particularly spinal bones.

잠재적 노출

Fluorides are used as an electrolyte in aluminum manufacture; a flux in smelting nickel, copper, gold, and silver; as a catalyst for organic reactions, a wood preservative; fluoridation agent for drinking water; a bleaching agent for cane seats; in pesticides, rodenticides, and as a fermentation inhibitor. They are utilized in the manufacture of steel, iron, glass, ceramics, pottery, enam els, in the coagulation of latex; in coatings for welding rods; and in cleaning graphite, metals, windows, and glass ware. Exposure to fluorides may also occur during prepara tion of fertilizer from phosphate rock by addition of sulfuric acid. Air pollution by fluoride dusts and gases has done substantial damage to vegetation and to animals in the vicinity of industrial fluoride sources. However, the contri bution of ambient air to human fluoride intake is only a few hundredths of a milligram per day, an amount that is insignificant in comparison with other sources of fluoride. Operations that introduce fluoride dusts and gases into the atmosphere include: Grinding, drying, and calcining of fluoride-containing minerals; acidulation of the minerals; smelting; electrochemical reduction of metals with fluoride fluxes or melts, as in the aluminum and steel industry; kiln firing of brick and other clay products and the combustion of coal.

비 호환성

Fluorides form explosive gases on con tact with strong acids or acid fumes.

폐기물 처리

Reaction of aqueous waste with an excess of lime, followed by lagooning; and either recovery or land disposal of the separated calcium fluoride.

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