107007-99-8 Basic information More..
Product Name:Granisetron hydrochloride
Synonyms:1-methyl-n-(9-methyl-9-azabicyclo(3.3.1)non-3-yl)-1h-indazole-3-carboxamid;endo-1-methyl-n-(9-methyl-9-azabicyclo(3.3.1)non-3-yl)-1h-indazole-3-carboxa;endo-monohydrochlorid;midehydrochloride;1-METHYL-N-[(3-ENDO)-9-METHYL-9-AZABICYCLO[3.3.1]NON-3-YL]-1H-INDAZOLE-3-CARBOXAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE;1-Methyl-N-(9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-yl)-1H-isoindole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride;1-Methyl-N-[(1β,3α,5β)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3-yl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide·hydrochloride;1-Methyl-N-[(1β,5β)-9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3α-yl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide·hydrochloride
CAS:107007-99-8
MF:C18H25ClN4O
MW:348.87
EINECS:634-603-0
Mol File:107007-99-8.mol
107007-99-8

Use

Granisetron hydrochloride was originally developed by the British Beecham company in the mid-1980s. At 1991, the merged Smithkline-Beecham (SB) Company had pushed for the first time of 3 mg of injection Kytri1 to the market in South Africa. To date, including 1 mg of oral tablets, 1mg of injections, granisetron hydrochloride has already entered into market in United States, Britain, France, Japan, Germany, Italy and other more than forty countries and regions around the world. When the Smithkline-Beecham (SB) Company was merged with Glaxo Company, it transferred this product to the Roche Company. Foreign research data has shown that granisetron hydrochloride has a high selectivity to receptor. Its affinity to 5-HT3 receptor is 4000 to 10000 time as high as its affinity to other receptors, such as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, dopamine D1, D1, histamine H1, benzodiazepine and opioid receptor. For comparison, the difference for ondansetron is only about 1,000 times. For the test of its prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets, the antiemetic rates in the three dose groups of granisetron hydrochloride 2 × 0.005,2 × 0.05 and 2 × 0.5mg/kg (iv) were 93%, 96% and 100 %, respectively while for ondansetron in 2 × 2.5mg/kg, this value was 89%, demonstrating that granisetron hydrochloride exhibited a at least five times stronger efficacy of anti-emetic than ondansetron. Toxicity studies suggest that granisetron hydrochloride can achieve very excellent antiemetic effect even in small dose with only minor side effects. However, there may be sth abnormal occurring in cardiovascular system upon large doses. Since the recommended clinical dose of granisetron hydrochloride is small (3mg/d), which is only 1/25 (<1 mg/kg) of the lowest dose used in animal studies, therefore, clinical application of it is very safe. Pharmacokinetic study has shown that granisetron hydrochloride has a half-life (t1/2) of 9 h in the body of patient while this value is 4 h at healthy people, 7.7 h in elderly people and 4.9h in young people. Granisetron hydrochloride is mainly metabolized in the liver and can be excreted through the feces and urine in the form of 7-hydroxy granisetron hydrochloride and other forms of metabolic product. For patients of liver damage or liver metastases, they have reduced plasma clearance rate with the scavenging rate upon renal insufficiency being 1/4 of the normal case. It has been observed of high first pass metabolism upon oral administration with the absolute bioavailability being 60%.

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