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ベンゼン [アミノ酸配列分析用] 製品概要
化学名:ベンゼン [アミノ酸配列分析用]
英語化学名:Benzene
别名:Benzene, OMniSolv(R);Benzene, PestiSolv(R);Benzol,HPLC Grade;Benzene, for spectroscopy;Benzene, SuperDry, J&KSeal;Benzene, 99%, SpcDry, Water≤50 ppM (by K.F.), SpcSeal;Benzene in dimethyl sulfoxide;Residual Solvent Class 1 - Benzene
CAS番号:71-43-2
分子式:C6H6
分子量:78.11
EINECS:200-753-7
カテゴリ情報:Industrial/Fine Chemicals;Organics;Analytical Chemistry;Solvents for HPLC & Spectrophotometry;Solvents for Spectrophotometry;Standard Solution of Volatile Organic Compounds for Water & Soil Analysis;Standard Solutions (VOC);Chemistry;Aluminum Bottles;Solvent Bottles;A-BAnalytical Standards;BA - BHChemical Class;Alpha Sort;AromaticsAlphabetic;B;Chemical Class;Hydrocarbons;NeatsAnalytical Standards;Solvents;Volatiles/ Semivolatiles;ACS Grade Solvents;ACS GradeSemi-Bulk Solvents;ACS GradeSolvents;Amber Glass Bottles;Carbon Steel Cans with NPT Threads;A-BAlphabetic;BA - BH;Anhydrous Grade SolventsSolvents;AnhydrousSolvents;Returnable Container Solvents;Sure/Seal? Bottles;A-B, Puriss p.a. ACS;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Puriss p.a. ACS;Spectrophotometric Grade Solvents;Spectrophotometric GradeSolvents;CarcinogensSolvent Bottles;Cancer Research;CHROMASOLV PlusCHROMASOLV Solvents (HPLC, LC-MS);CHROMASOLV(R) Plus;LC-MS Plus and Gradient;Aluminum Bottles;Benzene and Benzene Solutions;Solvent Bottles;Solvent by Type;Solvent Packaging Options;A-B;ACS Grade;Amber Glass Bottles;Analytical Reagents;Analytical Reagents for General Use;Analytical/Chromatography;Multi-Compendial;Puriss p.a.;Puriss p.a. ACS;NMR;Solvent by Application;Spectrophotometric Solvents;Spectroscopy Solvents (IR;UV/Vis);Residue Analysis (Japan only);Solvents by Special Grades (Japan Customers Only);Spectrophotometric Grade;Analytical Standard;Processing/Packaging Contaminants;Alpha Sort;Alphabetic;Analytical Standards;Applications;Aromatics;BA - BH;Benzene;Beverage Analysis;Chemical Class;Chromatography;Environmental Standards;Food &;Neats;Volatiles/ Semivolatiles;Anhydrous;Anhydrous Solvents;Products;Returnable Containers;Sure/Seal Bottles
Mol File:71-43-2.mol
ベンゼン [アミノ酸配列分析用]
ベンゼン [アミノ酸配列分析用] 物理性質
融点 5.5 °C(lit.)
沸点 80 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) 0.874 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
蒸気密度2.77 (vs air)
蒸気圧166 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C)
屈折率 n20/D 1.501(lit.)
闪点 12 °F
貯蔵温度 0-6°C
溶解性Miscible with alcohol, chloroform, dichloromethane, diethyl ether, acetone and acetic acid.
酸解離定数(Pka)43(at 25℃)
外見 Liquid
APHA: ≤10
Relative polarity0.111
爆発限界(explosive limit)1.4-8.0%(V)
水溶解度 0.18 g/100 mL
Merck 14,1066
BRN 969212
安定性:Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, halogens. Highly flammable.
CAS データベース71-43-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報Benzene(71-43-2)
EPAの化学物質情報Benzene(71-43-2)
安全性情報
主な危険性 F,T
Rフレーズ 45-46-11-36/38-48/23/24/25-65-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
Sフレーズ 53-45-36/37-16-7
RIDADR UN 1114 3/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
RTECS 番号CY1400000
3-10
TSCA Yes
国連危険物分類 3
容器等級 II
有毒物質データの71-43-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性LD50 orally in young adult rats: 3.8 ml/kg (Kimura)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ALFA English
ベンゼン [アミノ酸配列分析用] Usage And Synthesis
化学的特性Benzene,C6H6, also known as benzol, phenyl hydride, phene, cyclohexatriene and coal naptha,is a colorless,flammable liquid. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that boils at 80.1 DC. It is used as a solvent and an intermediate in manufacturing organic compounds such as styrene and phenol.
定義ChEBI: A six-carbon aromatic annulene in which each carbon atom donates one of its two 2p electrons into a delocalised pi system. A toxic, flammable liquid byproduct of coal distillation, it is used as an industrial solvent. Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages bone marrow and the central nervous system.
一般的な説明A clear colorless liquid with a petroleum-like odor. Flash point less than 0°F. Less dense than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors are heavier than air.
空気と水の反応Highly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
反応プロフィールBenzene reacts vigorously with allyl chloride or other alkyl halides even at minus 70°C in the presence of ethyl aluminum dichloride or ethyl aluminum sesquichloride. Explosions have been reported [NFPA 491M 1991]. Ignites in contact with powdered chromic anhydride [Mellor 11:235 1946-47]. Incompatible with oxidizing agents such as nitric acid. Mixtures with bromine trifluoride, bromine pentafluoride, iodine pentafluoride, iodine heptafluoride and other interhalogens can ignite upon heating [Bretherick 5th ed. 1995]. Benzene and cyanogen halides yield HCl as a byproduct (Hagedorn, F. H. Gelbke, and Federal Republic of Germany. 2002. Nitriles. In Ullman Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.). The reaction of Benzene and trichloroacetonitrile evolves toxic chloroform and HCl gasses. (Hagedorn, F., H.-P. Gelbke, and Federal Republic of Germany. 2002. Nitriles. In Ullman Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.).
健康ハザードDizziness, excitation, pallor, followed by flushing, weakness, headache, breathlessness, chest constriction, nausea, and vomiting. Coma and possible death.
火災危険Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
安全性プロファイルConfirmed human carcinogen producing myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's dsease, and lymphomas by inhalation. Experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. A human poison by inhalation. An experimental poison by skin contact, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and possibly other routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. A severe eye and moderate sktn irritant. Human systemic effects by inhalation and ingestion: blood changes, increased body temperature. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A narcotic. In industry, inhalation is the primary route of chronic benzene poisoning. Poisoning by skin contact has been reported. Recent (1 987) research indicates that effects are seen at less than 1 ppm. Exposures needed to be reduced to 0.1 ppm before no toxic effects were observed. Elimination is chiefly through the lungs. A common air contaminant. heat or flame. Explodes on contact with diborane, bromine pentafluoride, permanganic acid, peroxornonosulfuric acid, and peroxodisulfuric acid. Forms sensitive, explosive mixtures with iodine pentafluoride, silver perchlorate, nitryl perchlorate, nitric acid, liquid oxygen, ozone, and arsenic pentafluoride + potassium methoxide (explodes above 30℃). Ignites on contact with sodium peroxide + water, dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate, iodine heptafluoride, and dioxygen difluoride. Vigorous or incandescent reaction with hydrogen + Raney nickel (above 210℃), uranium hexafluoride, and bromine trifluoride. Can react vigorously with oxidzing materials, such as Cla, Cr03,02, NClO4,03, perchlorates, (ACl3 + FClO4), (H2SO4 + permanganates), K2O2(, NH4OH + acetic acid), Na2O2. Moderate explosion hazard A dangerous fire hazard when when exposed to heat or flame. Use with adequate venulation. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. Poisoning occurs most commonly via inhalation of the vapor, although benzene can penetrate the skin and cause poisoning. Locally, benzene has a comparatively strong irritating effect, producing erythema and burning, and, in more severe cases, edema and even blistering. Exposure to high concentrations of the vapor (3000 ppm or higher) may result from failure of equipment or spillage. Such exposure, while rare in industry, may cause acute poisoning, characterized by the narcotic action of benzene on the central nervous system. The anesthetic action of benzene is sirmlar to that of other anesthetic gases, consisting of a preluninary stage of excitation followed by depression and, if exposure is continued, death through respiratory failure. The chronic, rather than the acute, form of benzene poisoning is important in industry. It is a recognized leukemogen. There is no specific blood picture occurring in cases of chronic benzol poisoning. The bone marrow may be hypoplastic, normal, or hyperplastic, the changes reflected in the peripheral blood. Anemia, leucopenia, macrocytosis, reticulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hgh color index, and prolonged bleeding time may be present. Cases of myeloid leukemia have been reported. For the worker, repeated blood examinations are necessary, inclulng hemoglobin determinations, white and red cell counts, and dlfferential smears. Where a worker shows a progressive drop in either red or white cells, or where the white count remains below <5000/mm3 or the red count remains below 4.0 d o n / m m 3 , on two successive monthly examinations, the worker should be immediately removed from benzene exposure. Elimination is chefly through the lungs, when fresh air is breathed. The portion that is absorbed is oxidized, and the oxidation products are combined with sulfuric and glycuronic acids and eliminated in the urine. This may be used as a lagnostic sign. Benzene has a definite cumulative action, and exposure to a relatively hgh concentration is not serious from the point of view of causing damage to the blood-forming system, provided the exposure is not repeated. In acute poisoning, the worker becomes confused and dizzy, complains of tightening of the leg muscles and of pressure over the forehead, then passes into a stage of excitement. If allowed to remain exposed, he quickly becomes stupefied and lapses into coma. In nonfatal cases, recovery is usually complete with no permanent disabhty. In chronic poisoning the onset is slow, with the symptoms vague; fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea and loss of appetite, loss of weight, and weakness are common complaints in early cases. Later, pallor, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, menorrhagia, petechiae, and purpura may develop. There is great inlvidual variation in the signs and symptoms of chronic benzene poisoning.
純化方法For most purposes, *benzene can be purified sufficiently by shaking with conc H2SO4 until free from thiophene, then with H2O, dilute NaOH and water, followed by drying (with P2O5, sodium, LiAlH4, CaH2, 4X Linde molecular sieve, or CaSO4, or by passage through a column of silica gel, and for a preliminary drying, CaCl2 is suitable), and distillation. A further purification step to remove thiophene, acetic acid and propionic acid, is crystallisation by partial freezing. The usual contaminants in dry thiophene-free *benzene are non-benzenoid hydrocarbons such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and heptanes, together with naphthenic hydrocarbons and traces of toluene. Carbonyl-containing impurities can be removed by percolation through a Celite column impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, phosphoric acid and H2O. (Prepared by dissolving 0.5g DNPH in 6mL of 85% H3PO4 by grinding together, then adding and mixing 4mL of distilled H2O and 10g Celite.) [Schwartz & Parker Anal Chem 33 1396 1961.] *Benzene has been freed from thiophene by refluxing with 10% (w/v) of Raney nickel for 15minutes, after which the nickel is removed by filtration or centrifugation. Dry *benzene is obtained by doubly distilling high purity *benzene from a solution containing the blue ketyl formed by the reaction of sodium-potassium alloy with a small amount of benzophenone. Thiophene has been removed from *benzene (absence of bluish-green coloration when 3mL of *benzene is shaken with a solution of 10mg of isatin in 10mL of conc H2SO4) by refluxing the *benzene (1.25L) for several hours with 40g HgO (freshly precipitated) dissolved in 40mL glacial acetic acid and 300mL of water. The precipitate is filtered off, the aqueous phase is removed and the *benzene is washed twice with H2O, dried and distilled. Alternatively, *benzene dried with CaCl2 has been shaken vigorously for 0.5hour with anhydrous AlCl3 (12g/L) at 25-35o, then decanted, washed with 10% NaOH, and water, dried and distilled. The process is repeated, giving thiophene-free *benzene. [Holmes & Beeman Ind Eng Chem 26 172 1934.] After shaking successively for about an hour with conc H2SO4, distilled water (twice), 6M NaOH, and distilled water (twice), *benzene is distilled through a 3-ft glass column to remove most of the water. Absolute EtOH is added and the *benzene-alcohol azeotrope is distilled. (This low-boiling distillation leaves any non-azeotrope-forming impurities behind.) The middle fraction is shaken with distilled water to remove EtOH, and again redistilled. Final slow and very careful fractional distillation from sodium, then LiAlH4 under N2, removed traces of water and peroxides. [Peebles et al. J Am Chem Soc 82 2780 1960.] *Benzene liquid and vapour are very TOXIC and HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, and all operations should be carried out in an efficient fume cupboard and in the absence of naked flames in the vicinity. [Beilstein 5 H 175, 5 I 95, 5 II 119, 5 III 469.] Rapid purification: To dry benzene, alumina, CaH2 or 4A molecular sieves (3% w/v) may be used (dry for 6hours). Then benzene is distilled, discarding the first 5% of distillate, and stored over molecular sieves (3A, 4A) or Na wire.
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