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Silver nitrate

Effect Silver compound Chemical reaction Solubility in water (g / 100ml) Dosage Toxicity Chemical Properties Uses Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Data irritation Flammability and hazard characteristics Storage characteristics Extinguishing agent Professional Standards

CAS No.7761-88-8
Chemical Name:Silver nitrate
Synonyms:argerol;BETZ 0207;Silbernitrat;caswellno737;lunarcaustic;Silbernitrat8;Lunar caustic;Silver nitrat;nitratodeplata;ARGENTI NITRAS
Molecular Formula:AgNO3
Formula Weight:169.87
MOL File:7761-88-8.mol
Silver nitrate Property
Melting point : 212 °C (dec.)(lit.)
Boiling point : 444°C
density : 4.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density : 5.8 (vs air)
Fp : 40 °C
storage temp. : 2-8°C
solubility : H2O: soluble
Water Solubility : 219 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Sensitive : Light Sensitive
Merck : 14,8518
CAS DataBase Reference: 7761-88-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: silver(I) nitrate(7761-88-8)
EPA Substance Registry System: Nitric acid silver(1+) salt(7761-88-8)
Hazard Codes : C,O,N,Xi
Risk Statements : 34-50/53-8-36/38-51/53-52/53-35-10-40-20/22-22
Safety Statements : 26-45-60-61-36/37/39-27-57-37
RIDADR : UN 1493 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany : 3
RTECS : VW4725000
F : 8
HazardClass : 5.1
PackingGroup : II
Hazardous Substances Data: 7761-88-8(Hazardous Substances Data)

Silver nitrate Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Silver nitrate is the most important compounds of silver. At room temperature, it is colorless transparent crystal or white crystalline powder and is odorless with bitter taste and metallic taste. It is easily soluble in water, extremely easily soluble in aqueous ammonia to form a silver ammonia complex ion [Ag (NH3) 2] +. It can be gradually decomposed upon intense heating or in direct sunlight, so no matter whether AgNO3 is either solid or in solution, it should must be kept in a brown glass bottle. Both its solid or aqueous solution having oxidation property with many organic compounds being able to reduce it into black silver powder at room temperature. It can generate precipitate upon encountering protein as well as have damaging effect on the organic tissue. Silver nitrate is the raw material for preparing silver mirror and has been applied for the manufacture of silver halide photosensitive material in large scale. It is also an important kind of analytical reagent that can be used for analyzing ions such as Cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, and SCN-. After the addition of aqueous ammonia solution, it can also be used for detecting many kinds of organic reducing agents such as aldehydes, sugars and certain acids. It belongs to inorganic silver salt and can dissociate the silver ions in solution with sterilization, corrosion, erosion, and convergence effect. Dilute solution has antibacterial, astringent effect while the concentrated solution has a corrosive effect. In medicine, it can be used as etchant and disinfectant. 10% silver nitrate solution can be used for corrosion of oral ulcers, polyps, as well as for the treatment of suppurative necrotizing gingivitis and the granulation tissue of the internal wall of the periodontal pockets and necrotic tissue and so on. Recent studies have also shown that putting highly toxic arsine AsH3 air through a 5% nitric acid solution of silver nitrate will generate the gas free of arsine. It is also an important substance for purifying the air. Dissolving the silver in dilute nitric acid and further evaporation and crystallization can produce AgNO3.
Silver compound
Silver nitrate is the most important silver compound and is used extensively for the manufacture of silver halide photosensitive material. Pure silver nitrate crystal is stable to light and is easily to be reduced to black metallic silver in the presence of organic matter. Wet silver nitrate and silver nitrate solution can be easily subject to decomposition upon light. Silver nitrate is a kind of oxidizing agent and can cause protein coagulation with corrosive effect on the human body. It has a relative density of 4.35 (19/4 ℃) and a melting point of 212 ℃. Upon being heated to 444 ℃, it can be decomposed into metallic silver, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. It can be heated and melt into a light yellow liquid in a porcelain crucible and then condensed into white crystals after being cold. If you further increase the temperature, then it is gradually decomposed and can generate brown oxide vapor at the same time. When electric current passes through the silver nitrate solution, metallic silver is deposited on the negative electrode. Silver nitrate is easily soluble in ammonia and water, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in acetone, benzene, and almost insoluble in concentrated sulfuric acid. Its aqueous solution was acidic (pH = 5 ~ 6). Silver nitrate, in the aqueous solution of ammonia, meets glucose and formaldehyde can be reduced to generate "silver mirror." Zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, copper and other metals are easy to replace the metallic silver in the nitrate silver solution. Silver nitrate, when being mixed with sulfur, can lead to explosion upon being beaten by hammer.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic silver salt and can dissociate silver ions with sterilization, corrosion, erosion, and convergence effect. Its dilute solution has antibacterial and astringent effect while its concentrated solution has a corrosive effect. Topical application of silver ion can bind with bacterial protein to form silver protein precipitate with bactericidal effect. It can be used for treating dentin hypersensitivity, mucosal ulceration, early caries and cavity disinfection.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Chemical reaction
Silver nitrate can have precipitation reaction and coordination reaction with a series of reagents.
It can react with hydrogen sulfide to form a black silver sulfide Ag2S precipitate.
It can react with potassium chromate, to form a red-brown silver chromate Ag2CrO4 precipitate.
It can react with disodium hydrogen phosphate to form a yellow silver phosphate Ag3PO4 precipitate.
It can react with halogen ion to form silver halide AgX precipitate.
It can react with alkali to form a brown-black silver oxide Ag2O precipitate.
It can react with NH3, CN-, SCN-, S2O3, etc., to form a variety of complex ions, such as: Ag (NH3) 2OH, Ag [Ag (CN) 2], [Ag (SCN) 2] -, [Ag (S2O3) 2] 3- and so on.
It can react with oxalate ions to form white oxalate ion Ag2C2O4 precipitate.
Silver nitrate is a moderately strong oxidant that can be reduced by a number of moderately strong or strong reducing agent to become elemental silver.
Hydrazine (N2H4) and phosphorous acid and reduce Ag+ to metallic silver with the reaction equation: (1) N2H4 + 4AgNO3─ → 4Ag + N2 + 4HNO3; (2) H3PO3 + 2AgNO3 + H2O─ → 2Ag + H3PO4 + 2HNO3
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Solubility in water (g / 100ml)
Solubility (in grams) per 100 ml of water at different temperatures (℃):
122g / 0 ℃; 167g / 10 ℃; 216g / 20 ℃; 265g / 30 ℃; 311g / 40 ℃
440g / 60 ℃; 585g / 80 ℃; 652g / 90 ℃; 733g / 100 ℃
1, 0.5% to 1% eye drops can be used to prevent neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia and acute conjunctivitis; after drops, use sterile saline to wash. It has been seldom used.
2, 0.5% solution can be prepared into dressings for degree II and degree III large-scale burn after debridement to prevent the infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus and other kind of Gram-negative bacteria.
3, 5% to 10% solution can be applied to burning mouth ulcers.
4,20% solution can be used for the treatment of cervical erosion.
5, silver nitrate stick can be used for the over-grown granulation tissue and wart in the corrosion wound. Topical application of highly concentrated solutions and silver nitrate stick burning or corrosion, we should immediately wash with saline to remove the residue in order to avoid damage to adjacent tissue. For local purpose, a small amount of silver ions could be absorbed from the mucosa and burn site.
It is corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes and has convergence effect. Skin, upon contact with silver nitrate, will turn dark upon light and is prone to get inflammation. If the skin is contaminated by silver nitrate, you can use iodine remove graze; if skin get injured upon contact, you can soak in salt water for washing.
Upon working, the production staff should wear masks, cotton overalls, and latex gloves and other protective equipment. The production staff should also do laundry frequently. The production equipment should be sealed with the workshop being ventilated.
Silver nitrate can react with acetylene to generate silver acetylene. Under dry conditions, it will explode upon a slight friction. Therefore, upon equipment maintenance, we should prohibit to bring calcium carbide paste and acetylene gas into the workshop.
Chemical Properties
It is colorless transparent orthorhombic crystal flake. It is easily soluble in water and ammonia, soluble in ether and glycerin, slightly soluble in ethanol, but almost insoluble in concentrated nitric acid. Its aqueous solution exhibits weak acidity.
It can be used as the raw material of the silver salt, photographic materials, preservatives, and catalyst and also used for silvering, mirror production, etc.
It can be used for analysis reagents.
It can be used for the manufacture of movie film, X-ray photographic film and other photographic emulsions photosensitive material. In the field of electronics industry, it can be used for the manufacture of conductive adhesives, gas purification agents, as well as silvering of electronic components. It can also be used for the silvering material of mirror production and thermal glass liner, voltage-sharing coat and gloves for electronic work. It can also be used for the silvering of other crafts. Battery industry applied it for the production of silver-zinc battery. In the field of medicine, it can be used for sterilization, corrosive reagent. Daily chemical industry used it for the manufacturing of dyed hair shampoo. It can also be applied to the manufacture of other silver catalyst.
It can be used for the cyanide-free silver-plating such as being the major salt of thiosulfate silvering, hydrochloric acid silvering, imino ammonium di-sulphonate silvering and sulphosalicylic acid silvering. It is also the source of the silver ion. The content of the silver nitrate has certain effect on the conductivity, dispersion property and sedimentation speed of the silver-plating solution. The general usage amount is about 25 ~ 50 g / L.
Production method
Synthesis method: put the silver bar into the reactor, add distilled water first, followed by adding concentrated nitric acid to make the concentration of nitric acid be about 60% to 65%. Control the heating rate to make sure that the reaction was not too fierce. Heat to above 100 ℃, maintain the vapor pressure at 0.2 MPa and have the reaction for 2 ~ 3 h. Release the nitric oxide gas. The material liquid was pumped to a storage tank, diluted with distilled water to a relative density of 1.6 to 1.7. Cool and stand for 10 h and filter to remove impurities such as AgCl. Send the supernatant into an evaporator for being evaporated under reduced pressure at about pH = 1. Cool, crystallize and apply vacuum drying to obtain the products.
Ag + 2HNO3 → AgNO3 + H2O + NO2 ↑
Toxicity grading
highly toxic
Acute toxicity
oral- rat LD50: 1173 mg / kg; Oral - Mouse LD50: 50 mg / kg
Data irritation
eye- rabbit 1 milligram, severe
Flammability and hazard characteristics
it is combustible in case of organic matter
Chemical Properties
Colorless or white solid
Storage characteristics
Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and drying; store it separately from fuel and organic matter.
Extinguishing agent
Professional Standards
TLV-TWA 0.01 mg (silver) / cubic meter; STEL 0.03 mg (silver) / cubic meter.
General Description
A colorless or white crystalline solid becoming black on exposure to light or organic material.
Air & Water Reactions
Water soluble.
Reactivity Profile
Silver nitrate is noncombustible but, as an oxidizing agent, can accelerate the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in a fire or the combustible material is finely divided, an explosion may result. Prolonged exposure to fire or heat may result in an explosion. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Light sensitive. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride, or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108-109]. Reacts with acetylene in the presence of ammonia to form silver acetylide, a powerful detonator when dry [Bretherick 1979 p. 198]. Reaction with ethyl alcohol (or other alcohols) may produce silver fulminate, which can explode when disturbed [Bretherick 1979 p. 200]. An intimate mixture of Silver nitrate and magnesium may ignite spontaneously on contact with a drop of water [Bretherick 1979 p. 200]. An explosion occurred when purified phosphine was passed rapidly into a concentrated solution of Silver nitrate [Mellor 3:471 1946-47]. When a mixture of 28% ammonium hydroxide and Silver nitrate solution was treated with a small amount of sodium hydroxide. Black precipitate, silver nitride exploded on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968].
Health Hazard
Concentrated solutions will produce irritation, ulceration, and discoloration of the skin; also causes severe irritation of the eyes. Ingestion will produce violent abdominal pain and other gastroenteric symptoms.
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Increases flammability of combustibles.
Silver nitrate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Nitrogen BISMUTH SULFATE Silver sulfate Nitric acid Silver
Preparation Products
2-TERT-BUTYLPYRIDINE-4-CARBONITRILE PHTHALAMIC ACID Docetaxel 2-tert-Butylpyridine-4-carboxylic acid ,97% Oxaliplatin Acetylpyrazine Faropenem sodium hemipentahydrate 1-(BROMOMETHYL)ISOQUINOLINE HYDROBROMIDE 2-(Bromomethyl)benzoic acid UV-photoxidation degradation film containing FeDBC photosensitize 1-ETHYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM DICYANAMIDE Sodium edetate 2-Methyl-2-pentenoic acid Silver oxide 3-FLUOROQUINOLINE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID Potassium dicyanoargentate Silver sulfate Prostaglandin E1 1,3-Dihydroxyadamantane Silver cyanide tert-Butyl nitrite 5-Phenylthiophene-2-carboxylic acid
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