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Description Uses Production Methods
Chemical Name:
sodio;Sodium;NA 1421;Nametal;Natrium;sodium-23;COCKTAIL NA;SODIUM LUMP;sodium atom;Na 1000μg/mL
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Sodium Properties

Melting point:
97.8 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
883 °C(lit.)
1.04 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor pressure 
1 mm Hg ( 440 °C)
Flash point:
128 °F
storage temp. 
water-free area
H2O: soluble
pieces (large)
White to off-white
Water Solubility 
Air & Moisture Sensitive
Reacts violently with water, liberating and possibly igniting hydrogen. Flammable solid. Incompatible with water, strong oxidizing agents. Do not store near oxidants. Store under oil, or dry inert gas. Air sensitive.
CAS DataBase Reference
7440-23-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
EPA Substance Registry System
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  C,F,T
Risk Statements  34-14/15-45-65
Safety Statements  26-8-6A-45-43D-43-36/37/39-22-7/8-62-5
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  VY0686000
HazardClass  4.3
PackingGroup  I
Hazardous Substances Data 7440-23-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously Substances And Mixtures Which, In Contact With Water,Emit Flammable Gases Category 1 Danger P223, P231+P232, P280, P335+ P334,P370+P378, P402+P404, P501
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Aspiration hazard Category 1 Danger
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 2
Precautionary statements:
P223 Keep away from any possible contact with water, because of violent reaction and possible flash fire.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P422 Store contents under …

Sodium price More Price(31)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 244686 Sodium 25-35wt % dispersion in paraffin 7440-23-5 100g $82.7 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.06260 Sodium 7440-23-5 1EA $228 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 10336 Sodium, 99.95% (metals basis) 7440-23-5 5g $166 2017-11-08 Buy
Alfa Aesar 10336 Sodium, 99.95% (metals basis) 7440-23-5 1g $82.7 2017-11-08 Buy
Strem Chemicals 10-1020 Sodium (99.95%) (breakseal ampoule) 7440-23-5 1g $80 2017-11-27 Buy

Sodium Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic soda. In the following year, Gay Lussac and Thenard obtained metallic sodium by chemical reduction of caustic soda with iron at elevated temperatures. Deville, in 1854, prepared the metal by reduction of sodium carbonate and lime with charcoal at a temperature above the boiling point of sodium. Castner, in 1886, improved the chemical reduction process preparing the metal by heating sodium hydroxide with iron carbide at high temperature. Five years later he patented a process based on electrolytic reduction of sodium hydroxide. The first major commercial plant was set up in 1921 with the introduction of Downs cell.
The element derived its name from the Latin word sodanum meaning “headache remedy.” Its symbol Na was derived from the Latin word, natrium.
Sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth. It comprises about 2.6% weight of the earth’s crust. Its salt, sodium chloride, is the major component of seawater. The concentration of sodium in seawater is 1.08%. As a very reactive element, sodium is never found in free elemental form. It occurs in nature in many minerals such as cryolite, amphibole, zeolite, sodalite, and soda niter. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common salt of sodium. Some other important salts are caustic soda (NaOH), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), Chile saltpeter (NaNO3), borax (Na2B4O7•10H2O), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and sodium phosphates.


Metallic sodium is a strong reducing agent, used in many organic syntheses. It is used in the manufacture of sodamide, sodium peroxide, and esters. Other uses are in purifying molten metals, to descale metal, to improve structure of certain alloys, and as a heat transfer agent, for example, in nuclear reactors. Sodium is useful in producing other metals, such as titanium. It is used in sodium vapor lamps in small amounts. Sodium wire is used to remove traces of water from organic solvents.

Production Methods

Sodium metal is produced by both electrolytic and chemical reduction processes. All commercial processes employed today are based on electrolytic methods. Such processes are in wide use since Davy prepared the metal the first time in 1807.
There are two electrolytic methods that are of major importance. One involves the electrolysis of fused sodium chloride using the Downs cell. This method currently is most prevalent. The Downs cell consists of a steel cell with brick lining containing the fused bath. The multiple electrode arrangement consists of four cylindrical graphite anodes that project upward from the base of the cell. Each anode is surrounded by a diaphragm of iron gauge and a steel cathode.
Fused sodium chloride is electrolyzed at bath temperature varying between 565 to 600°C at a cell voltage of 5.7 to 7 V and the cell current varying from 25 to 35 kA. The cathode current density is mostly about 9.8 kA/m2. Often calcium chloride is added to sodium chloride in the cell bath to lower its melting point. Calcium is largely removed from sodium by filtration at about 110°C. Other electrolyte compositions have been used in which calcium is partially or fully replaced. The cell feed must be free of sulfate and other impurities.
Electrolysis of fused sodium hydroxide has been achieved successfully with a Castner cell. The Castner cell was used in commercial production prior to introduction of Downs cell. The cell is operated at a bath temperature 320 ± 10°C, at 9.0 ± 0.5 amp current and a voltage of 4.3 to 5.0 V. The cathode current density is about 10.9 kA/m2. The cell consists of a copper cathode and a nickel anode and a cylindrical iron-gauge diaphragm placed between the electrodes. The cell reactions are as follows:
cathode: 4Na+ + 4e¯ → 4Na
SODIUM 847anode: 4OH¯ – 4e¯ → 2H2O + O2
Water generated at the anode diffuses through the diaphragm and goes to the cathode, reacting with sodium to form sodium hydroxide.
2H2O + 2Na → 2NaOH + H2
The overall change may be represented as:
2NaOH → 2Na + H2 + O2
Because water is reacting with sodium produced at the cathode, the yield of sodium is reduced almost by 50%. Lesser yield is the major disadvantage of the Castner process. At present, this process is not used commercially.
Thermal reduction processes are not being practiced anywhere in the world at present for large-scale production of sodium. Such methods, however, can be conveniently adapted for laboratory preparation of metallic sodium. Sodium can be prepared by thermal reduction of its hydroxide, carbonate, or chloride at elevated temperatures. These salts are heated with carbon, calcium carbide, iron carbide, ferrosilicon, or other reducing agents at temperatures above 800°C under vacuum:
6NaOH + 2C → 2Na + 2Na2CO3 + 3H2
Na2CO3 + 2C → 2Na + 3CO
2NaCl + CaC2 → 2Na + CaCl2 + 2C


manufacture of sodium Compounds, such as the cyanide, azide, peroxide, etc.; manufacture of tetraethyllead; manufacture of refractory metals; in org syntheses; for photoelectric cells; in sodium lamps; as catalyst for many polymerization reactions. Alloyed with potassium in heat transfer media.

General Description

A silvery soft metal that becomes grayish white upon exposure to air. Shipped as a solid or molten liquid. Burns violently with explosions that may spatter the material. Used for making gasoline additives, electric power cable, Sodium lamps, other chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions

May ignite spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with water to give Sodium hydroxide and hydrogen, which ignites spontaneously [Merck, 11th ed. 1989)]. The ignition temperature of Sodium in air depends on the area of surface exposed: vapor ignites at room temperature; droplets at about 250°F; an agitated pool at 400°F. In the absence of moisture and hydrogen, the reaction is insignificant [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:440 1961].

Reactivity Profile

Sodium is a powerful reducing agent. Reacts with incandescence with boron trifluoride [Merck 11th ed. 1989]. Reacts explosively with maleic anhydride [Chem Safety Data Sheet SD-88 1962; Chem. Haz. Info. Series C-71 1960]. Explodes on contact with bromoazide. Mixtures with any of the following produce a strong explosion on impact: aluminum bromide, aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, ammonium chloride, antimony(III) bromide, antimony(III) chloride, antimony(III) iodide, arsenic(III) chloride, arsenic(III) iodide, bismuth(III) bromide, bismuth(III) chloride, bismuth(III) iodide, boron tribromide, carbon tetrachloride, chromium(IV) chloride, cobalt(II) bromide, cobalt(II) chloride, copper(II) chloride, iron(II) chloride, iron(III) bromide, iron(II) iodide, iodine bromide, manganese(II) chloride, mercury(II) bromide, mercury(II) chloride, mercury(II) fluoride, mercury(II) iodide, mercury(I) chloride, silicon tetrachloride, silver fluoride, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) iodide (with sulfur), tin(II) chloride, sulfur dibromide, sulfur dichloride, thallium(I) bromide, vanadium pentachloride, phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus tribromide, and zinc bromide [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:497 1961]. Reacts with ammonium nitrate to form a yellow explosive substance, thought to be diSodium nitrite [Mellor 8: Supp. 1 546 1964]. Reduces heated bismuth(III) oxide to the metal; the reaction is accompanied by incandescence [Mellor 9:649 1946-47]. Reacts, if finely divided, with bromine with luminescence. Burns spontaneously in moist chlorine. Reacts at room temperature with iodine [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:848 1956]. Reacts explosively with Dry Ice if the two are brought together by impact [Mellor 2 Supp. 2:468 1961]. Forms explosive mixtures with chlorinated hydrocarbons [Chem. Eng. News 26:2604 1948]. Explodes on contact with hydrochloric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Explodes with aqueous hydrofluoric acid [Mellor 2:469 1946-47]. Ignites spontaneously in contact with dilute nitric acid [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Reacts with dilute sulfuric acid with explosive violence [Mellor 2:470 1946-47]. Sodium ignites on contact with hydroxylamine. (Mellor, 1940, Vol. 8, 292.)

Health Hazard

Severe burns caused by burning metal or by caustic soda formed by reaction with moisture on skin.

Fire Hazard

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Fumes of burning Na are highly irritating to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes.

Sodium Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Sodium Suppliers

Global( 153)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20810 55
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 China 25121 65
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96820 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40398 62
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 China 30309 84
Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd. 13651141086; 86(10)60275028、60275820
86 (10) 60270825 China 1443 62
Energy Chemical 021-58432009 / 400-005-6266
021-58436166-800 China 44192 61
Beijing Ouhe Technology Co., Ltd +86-10-4006331231;+86-10-51280831;+86-10-82967028
+86-10-82967029 China 10814 60
JinYan Chemicals(ShangHai) Co.,Ltd. 13817811078,021-50426030
86-021-50426522,50426273 China 10090 60
Shanghai Hanhong Scientific Co.,Ltd. 021-54306202,021-54302127,021-54308259,13764082696
+86-21-54291107 China 28712 64

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