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Sodium hydroxide

CAS No. 1310-73-2
Chemical Name: Sodium hydroxide
Synonyms: 1L;5L;NaOH;Pels;Plung;3%pure;25%pure;20%p.A.;20%pure;30%pure
CBNumber: CB8105015
Molecular Formula: HNaO
Formula Weight: 40
MOL File: 1310-73-2.mol
Sodium hydroxide Property
Melting point : 681 °C(lit.)
Boiling point : 145 °C
density : 1.515 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density : <1 (vs air)
vapor pressure : 1 mm Hg ( 745 °C)
refractive index : 1,473-1,475
Fp : 176-178°C
storage temp. : 2-8°C
solubility : H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form : beads
color : White
PH: >14 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility : SOLUBLE
Sensitive : Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Decomposition : 176-178 ºC
Merck : 14,8627
CAS DataBase Reference: 1310-73-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Sodium hydroxide(1310-73-2)
EPA Substance Registry System: Sodium hydroxide (Na(OH))(1310-73-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes : C,Xi
Risk Statements : 36/38-35-34
Safety Statements : 26-45-37/39-24/25-36/37/39
RIDADR : UN 1824 8/PG 2
WGK Germany : 1
RTECS : TT2975000
F : 8
TSCA : Yes
HazardClass : 8
PackingGroup : II
Hazardous Substances Data: 1310-73-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H290 May be corrosive to metals Corrosive to Metals Category 1 Warning P234, P390, P404
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.

Sodium hydroxide Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Description
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is a highly caustic substance that is used used in small amounts in cosmetics to establish and hold the pH of a product.Sodium Hydroxide is a extremely important compound in our lives because it has so many uses.  It is a very common base used in the chemical industry and is used for many things, many of which occur in our daily lives. One of the most well known uses of Sodium Hydroxide is its use in unclogging drains.  It comes in many different brands of drain cleaners, but one of the most common is Drano.  It also comes in the form of lye soap which can be used to wash practically anything, from the dishes to your face.
sodium hydroxide structure
sodium hydroxide structure
At room temperature, sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. It is a manufactured substance. Sodium Hydroxide is an inorganic compound used to control the pH levels or serve as a buffering agent in cosmetics and personal care products. It was historically used in the formulation of soaps, but is currently seen in a variety of formulas, including bath products, cleansing products, fragrances, foot powders, hair dyes and colors, makeup, nail products, personal cleanliness products, shampoos, shaving products, depilatories, skin care products, and suntan products, as well as chemical hair straighteners and hair wave sets. It is also a popular ingredient in industrial solvents as a chemical base for soaps, oven cleaners, detergents and drain cleaners because of its ability to dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein based deposits, according to Wikipedia. Less frequently, Sodium Hydroxide is seen as an ingredient in toothpastes.
Sodium Hydroxide is FDA approved, and has received the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) rating as a direct food additive. However, it is primarily used in the washing and chemical peeling of produce. It is approved for use in cosmetics and personal care products in varying concentrations: 5% by weight in nail cuticle solvents, 2% by weight in hair straighteners for general use, 4.5% by weight in hair straighteners for professional use, up to a pH 12.7 in depilatories, and up to pH 11 in other uses as a pH adjuster.
References
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/sodium_hydroxide
http://sodiumhydroxide.weebly.com/uses.html
Chemical Properties
White solid
Uses
Sodium hydroxide is one of the most important industrial chemicals. In volume, it is in the top ten chemicals produced in the United States. It is used in manufacturing a large number of compounds including several sodium salts, in treating cellulose for producing rayon and cellophane, and in manufacturing soaps, detergents, pulp, and paper. Sodium hydroxide is a common neutralizing agent for acids in acid-base titrations and petroleum refining. Another major application is extracting metals from their ores where alkali fusion, such as fusion with caustic soda, often is applied to open the ores. Additionally, sodium hydroxide is used to precipitate metals as hydroxides. Other uses are in reclaiming rubber, dissolving casein in plastics production, refining vegetable oils, processing textiles, as an eluant in ion chromatography, etching and electroplating, and as a laboratory reagent. Sodium hydroxide also is used as a strong base in many organic synthesis and base-catalyzed reactions.
Uses
basic and important chemical feed.used asm textiles industry,printing, detergent,paper-making, soap-mak inmetallurgy, glass enamel,medica mentoil-refining and making synthetic fiber,plastics,and many kinds of organic-mediacy,
Uses
Choline acetyltransferase substrate.
Uses
Used as alkalimetric titrant; buffers; pH modifiers.
Preparation
Sodium hydroxide is manufactured together with chlorine by electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Various types of electrolytic cells are used commercially. They include the mercury cell, the diaphragm cell, and the membrane cell.
A saturated solution of brine is electrolyzed. Chlorine gas is liberated at the anode and sodium ion at the cathode. Decomposition of water produces hydrogen and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ion combines with sodium ion forming NaOH. The overall electrolytic reactions may be represented as:
2Na+ + 2Cl_ + 2H2O → Cl2 (g) + H2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq)
The mercury cell proceeds in two stages that occur separately in two cells. The first is known as the brine cell or the primary electrolyzer in which sodium ion deposits on the mercury cathode forming amalgam, while chlorine gas is liberated at the anode:
Na+ + Cl–→ Na-Hg (cathode) + ½Cl2(g) (anode)
In the second cell, known as the decomposer cell, a graphite cathode is used while sodium amalgam serves as the anode. Water reacts with the sodium metal of the amalgam in the decomposer:
Na-Hg + H2O → Na+ + OH– + ½H2↑ + Hg
In chlor-alkali diaphragm cells, a diaphragm is employed to separate chlorine liberated at the anode from the sodium hydroxide and hydrogen generated at the cathode. Without a diaphragm, the sodium hydroxide formed will combine with chlorine to form sodium hypochlorite and chlorate. In many cells, asbestos diaphragms are used for such separation. Many types of diaphragm cells are available.
Sodium hydroxide is produced either as an anhydrous solid or as a 50% aqueous solution.
General Description
A white solid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, cleaning compounds, drain cleaners.
Air & Water Reactions
Soluble in water. Dissolution can liberate enough heat to cause steaming and spattering and ignite adjacent combustible material [Haz. Chem. Data 1966].
Reactivity Profile
CAUSTIC SODA (Sodium hydroxide) is a strong base. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with acids, both organic and inorganic. Readily absorbs moisture from the air to give caustic semi-solids that attack aluminum and zinc with the evolution of flammable hydrogen gas. Catalyzes the polymerization of acetaldehyde and other polymerizable compounds; these reactions can occur violently, for example, acrolein polymerizes with extreme violence when put in contact with alkaline materials such as sodium hydroxide [Chem. Safety Data Sheet SD-85 1961]. Reacts with great violence with phosphorus pentaoxide when initiated by local heating [Mellor 8 Supp.3:406 1971]. Contact (as a drying agent) with tetrahydrofuran, which often contains peroxides, may be hazardous---explosions have occurred in such a use of the chemically similar potassium hydroxide [NSC Newsletter Chem. Soc. 1967]. Mixing with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acrolein, chlorohydrin, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene cyanohydrin, glyoxal, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), nitric acid (70%), oleum, propiolactone, sulfuric acid (96%) [NFPA 1991]. Accidental contact between a caustic cleaning solution (probably containing sodium hydroxide) and Pentol caused a violent explosion. [MCA Case History 363(1964)]. Heating with a mixture of methyl alcohol and trichlorobenzene during an attempted synthesis led to a sudden increase in pressure and an explosion [MCA Guide for Safety Appendix 3 1972]. Hot and/or concentrated NaOH can cause hydroquinone to decompose exothermically at elevated temperature. (NFPA Pub. 491M, 1975, 385)
Health Hazard
Strong corrosive action on contacted tissues. INHALATION: dust may cause damage to upper respiratory tract and lung itself, producing from mild nose irritation to pneumonitis. INGESTION: severe damage to mucous membranes; severe scar formation or perforation may occur. EYE CONTACT: produces severe damage.
Fire Hazard
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Sodium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Caustic Soda(liquid)30%-48%  CALCIUM CARBONATE Calcium oxide Barium chloride dihydrate Calcium chloride Sodium chloride Boron tribromide Barium chloride Calcium chloride hexahydrate Sodium polyacrylate Sodium carbonate
Preparation Products
Sodium pyroantimonate Disodium tartrate dihydrate dibenzyl biphenyl polyoxyethylene ether additive AC1210 2-(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)acetic acid 2', 3'-ribonucleotide 3-(Acetylamino)thiophene-2-carboxylic acid 2-(1-Naphthalenyloxy)propanoic acid 3-Fluoro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde emulsifier C^{8~10^} OPE-10 thiourea-formaldehyde resin 2-THIOPHENECARBOXYLIC ACID SODIUM SALT 11-Oxahexadecan-16-olide 4-METHYL-2-PHENYL-1,3-THIAZOLE-5-CARBOXYLIC ACID calcium disodium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]-4-sulphonatobenzoate] DL-4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXYMANDELIC ACID emulsifier SOPE-20 dodecyl phenyl polyoxyethylene (12) ether 6-AMINO-5-BROMOPYRIMIDIN-2(1H)-ONE C^{12~18^} fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene (35) ether Alkaline Treated Starch castor oil poloxyethylene (30) ether 5,5-DIETHYLBARBITURIC ACID SODIUM SALT Tricobalt tetraoxide Sodium lactate Sodium isoamylxanthate SODIUM PHOSPHOTUNGSTATE 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHOIC ACID STRONTIUM HYDROXIDE OCTAHYDRATE C^{8~9^} alkyl phenyl polyoxyethylene (18) ether QUINUCLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE SODA LIME SAFFLOWER YELLOW SODIUM STANNATE TRIHYDRATE 2,3-DIPHENYLPROPIONIC ACID Sodium O-isobutyl dithiocarbonate Peregal O-25 1-[(Benzyloxy)carbonyl]piperidine-4-carboxylic acid 2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHOXY-1,3,5-TRIAZINE BENZYL 1-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE
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