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Outline resin solvent reaction solvent Method of purification and removing water Toxicology Chemical Properties Uses Production method Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Hazardous characteristics of explosive Flammability and hazard characteristics Storage characteristics Extinguishing agent Professional standards

CAS No. 109-99-9
Chemical Name: Tetrahydrofuran
Synonyms: THF;PTHF;oxolan;Oxolane;PTMEG 250;NCI-C60560;Hydrofuran;PTMEG 1800;PTMEG 1400;PTMEG 1000
CBNumber: CB6852795
Molecular Formula: C4H8O
Formula Weight: 72.11
MOL File: 109-99-9.mol
Tetrahydrofuran Property
Melting point : 33-36 °C
Boiling point : 66 °C
density : 0.887 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density : 2.5 (vs air)
vapor pressure : <0.01 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
refractive index : n20/D 1.465
Fp : >230 °F
storage temp. : 2-8°C
solubility : water: soluble
form : Liquid
color : <10(APHA)
Relative polarity: 0.207
PH: 7-8 (200g/l, H2O, 20℃)
explosive limit: 1.5-12.4%(V)
Water Solubility : miscible
FreezingPoint : -108℃
Sensitive : Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
Merck : 14,9211
BRN : 102391
Stability:: Stable. Incompatible with halogens, strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, strong bases, oxygen. May generate explosive peroxides in storage if in contact with air. Highly flammable. Store at room temperature under nitrogen. Hazardous polymerisation may occur. Light sensitive. May contain 2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) as a s
CAS DataBase Reference: 109-99-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Furan, tetrahydro-(109-99-9)
EPA Substance Registry System: Furan, tetrahydro-(109-99-9)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes : Xi,F,Xn
Risk Statements : 36/37/38-36/37-19-11-40
Safety Statements : 26-36-33-29-16-46-37-13
RIDADR : UN 2924 3/PG 2
WGK Germany : 1
RTECS : MD0916000
F : 3-10-23
TSCA : Yes
HazardClass : 3
PackingGroup : II
HS Code : 29321100
Hazardous Substances Data: 109-99-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H333 May be harmful if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 5 P304+P312
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
Precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.

Tetrahydrofuran Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Tetrahydrofuran, the abbreviation of THF, is a heterocyclic organic compound. It belongs to ethers and is the fully hydrogenated product of the aromatic compound furan.
It can be used as an aprotic solvent with moderate polarity in chemical reaction and solvent extraction. Tetrahydrofuran is a colorless, low viscosity liquid with a similar smell as ether. At room temperature, tetrahydrofuran is partially miscible with water. This is exploited by some of the illegal businessmen for mixing water with tetrahydrofuran reagent to earn huge profits. Upon storage, tetrahydrofuran can easily become peroxide, and therefore, the commercialized tetrahydrofuran often used BHT, i.e., 2,6-tert butyl p-cresol for preventing oxidation. Tetrahydrofuran can be placed into sealed bottle through sodium hydroxide for being stored in a dark place.
resin solvent
flexographic inks for plastics
coating deposition for audio and video tapes
PVC and CPVC pipe cements
polyurethane coatings
PVC film casting (food packaging)
reaction solvent
Grignard Reagent formation processes
pharmaceutical steroids
preparation of organometallic reagents
Method of purification and removing water
Tetrahydrofuran is miscible with water and often contains a small amount of water and peroxide. For making dry tetrahydrofuran, you can make it through flux with lithium aluminium hydride insulting the moisture (typically 1000 mL takes about 2~4 lithium aluminum hydride for removing the water and peroxide inside it, then further go through distillation; when collect the distilling fraction at 66 ℃, don’t totally dry it without the remaining small amount of residue being poured). Add the sodium wire to the refined liquid and further store it in a nitrogen atmosphere. Upon processing of tetrahydrofuran, we should first apply a small amount of it for being subject to testing to make sure that it only contains a small amount of water and peroxide with a relative mild reaction before we can purify it. The peroxide contained in tetrahydrofuran can be determined by the acidified potassium iodide solution. If the peroxides are in relative large amount, it is recommended that it is processed separately.
Oral-rat; LD50: 1650 mg/kg; inhalation LC50: 21000 ppm/3H. Inhalation-mice LCLo: 24000 mg/m3/2H.
It has low toxicity. This product has irritation effect on the skin and mucous membranes. At high concentrations it has an anesthetic effect with the anesthetic concentration being similar as lethal concentrations. High dose also has certain liver toxicity.
Rats, when being inhaled of 590mg/m^ 3, after 3 hours, has their eyelids and nasal become redness; inhalation> 147750mg/m^ 3, corneal edema and opacity, salivation, runny nose and nasal bleeding can occur.
Rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and cats, when being placed in a concentration of 50mg/L concentration for 3 hours, some animals can get side down; deepened anesthesia can appear under a dose of 100mg/L; some animals can directly die after exposure of 1 to 4.5 hours; a dose of 200 mg/ L can cause anesthesia within 1 hour with long term action being able to cause death. Rats, when get the inhaled concentrations> 14000mg/m ^ 3, can sleep, get stiffness, enter into deep coma, get convulsions, and also have epileptic brain waves. For the anesthesia effect, the animals can development certain resistance after repeated inhalation. Animals, when exposed to high doses once or repeated exposure, can get liver fatty infiltration and cell lysis. The oral administration can cause stomach bleeding and ulcers.
Applying 20% aqueous solution directly to the skin of rabbits can cause moderate skin irritation while 50% aqueous solution can cause severe corrosive damage.
Applying 20% aqueous solution to the rabbit eyes can cause severe keratitis.
THF, when touched with air, can form explosive peroxides which can increase the stimulating effect of THF.
According the foreign report, the concentration for causing anesthesia of human is 73800mg/m ^ 3. The threshold of human olfactory is 88.5mg/m ^ 3.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Chemical Properties
It is colorless, transparent liquid with ether odor. It is miscible with water, alcohols, ketones, benzene, esters, ethers, and hydrocarbons.
1. It can be used as the solvent and the raw material of organic synthesis.
2. It can also be used as the chromatography analysis reagents, organic solvents and the intermediate of nylon 66.
3. Tetrahydrofuran is the intermediate for synthetic pesticides fenbutatin. In addition, it can be directly used for synthetic fibers, synthetic resins, synthetic rubber as well as the solvent of many polymeric materials, precision tape and electroplating industry. Moreover, it is also used for preparation of adiponitrile, adipic acid, hexamethylene diamine, succinic acid, butanediol, and γ-butyrolactone. In the pharmaceutical industry, it can be used for the production of carbetapentane, progesterone, rifamycin and pharmaceutical solvents.
4. THF is an important raw material for organic synthesis as well as a solvent with excellent performance, which is especially suitable for dissolution of PVC, polyvinylidene chloride and butyl aniline. It is widely used as surface coating, anti-corrosion coatings, printing inks, the solvent of tapes and films paint, and also being used as the reaction solvent. When being used as the electroplate aluminum solution, it can randomly control the thickness as well as brightness of aluminum layer. THF itself can be subject to condensation (caused by the ring-open reaction induced by cation and further polymerization) to generate poly-tetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG). PTMEG, together with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) can generate special rubber of wear-resistant, oil resistance, excellent performance at low temperature as well as high strength; it can also generate block polyether/polyester elastic material with dimethyl terephthalate and 1, 4-butanediol. PTMGE of Molecular weight being 2000, together with methylene bis (4-phenyl) diisocyanate (MDI) can generate polyurethane elastic fiber (SPANDEX fiber), special rubber and the raw material of some kinds of coatings of special purpose. In the field of organic synthesis, it can be used for producing tetrahydrothiophene, 1, 4-dichloroethane, 2, 3-dichloro-tetrahydrofuran, valerolactone, butyrolactone and pyrrolidone. In the pharmaceutical industry, THF can be used for the synthesis of carbetapentane, rifamycin, progesterone, and some kinds of hormone drugs. THF, after being subject to hydrogen sulfide treatment, can generate tetrahydrothiophene. It can be used as the odor agent (identification additive) in fuel gas. THF can also be used as the surface treatment agent for synthetic leather.
5. It can also be applied to the paper chromatography of amino acids and peptides. It can be used as solvent; for organic synthesis as well as being applied to HPLC and UV spectrophotometry assay.
Production method
The earliest industrial production use uronic as raw material and put the mixture of uronic and steam into the reactor containing zinc-chromium-manganese metal oxide (or palladium) catalyst for stripping the carbonyl group at 400-420 ℃ to obtain furan; then take the raney nickel as the catalyst, perform furan hydrogenation reaction at 80-120 ℃ to obtain tetrahydrofuran. Applying this method for the production of one ton of tetrahydrofuran will cost about three tons of polysaccharide aldehyde. There are many kinds of production process developed later. Industrial methods include 1, 4-butanediol catalytic dehydration method; because butanediol is produced from acetylene and formaldehyde, this method is called as Reppe method; another method taking the byproduct of neoprene monomer chloroprene, 1, 4-dichloro-butene for production of tetrahydrofuran. This method is called dichloro butene method. In recent years, it was developed of the catalytic hydrogenation using maleic anhydride as the raw material.
There are mainly five kinds of approaches for production of tetrahydrofuran, as below:
1. Furfural method
It can be made through the decarbonylation of furfural can generate furan, and then have hydrogenation to obtain it.
This is one of the earliest ways of production of tetrahydrofuran on industrial process. Furfural is mainly produced through the hydrolysis of corn cob and other agricultural products. The pollution is serious and is not suitable for large-scale production and has been gradually eliminated.
2. Catalytic hydrogenation of maleic anhydride
Maleic anhydride and hydrogen gas were put into the reactor containing nickel catalyst inside of it from the bottom; the ratio between tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in the product can be controlled by adjusting the operating parameters. The reaction product and the raw material hydrogen gas were cooled to about 50 ℃ and enter into the bottom of the scrubber to separate the unreacted hydrogen and gaseous product from liquid product; The unreacted hydrogen and the gaseous products were recycled to the reactor after washing while the liquid product was subject to distillation to obtain tetrahydrofuran.
This technology can randomly adjust the ratio of γ-butyrolactone and tetrahydrofuran at the range of 0 to (5:1) with the conversion rate of maleic anhydride in single round being 100%. The selectivity of tetrahydrofuran ranges from 85% to 95% with the product content being 99.97%. The process has good catalyst performance, simple process, and less investment.
3. 1, 4-butanediol dehydration cyclization
This process is that: ad 1087 kg of 22% aqueous sulfuric acid to the reactor, add 1,4-butanediol at 100 ℃ at a rate of 110kg/h with the overhead temperature being maintained at 80 °C. By doing this, we can obtain the 80% tetrahydrofuran anhydrous solution from the top of the tower at a speed of 110 kg/h speed. After adding 50 t of 1, 4-butanediol, you should further exclude approximately 70kg coke from the reactor. The coke was further filtered with the resulting aqueous sulfuric acid solution being able to be recycled. The tetrahydrofuran yield of this process can reach 99%.
Sulfuric acid is the earliest catalyst applied in the industrial production of tetrahydrofuran, and it also has a lot of applications in current production. This technology is mature with simple process, lower reaction temperatures, and high yield of tetrahydrofuran. However, the sulfuric acid is corrosive to equipment and can cause environmental pollution.
4. dichloro-butene method
This method takes 1, 4-dichloro-butene as raw material to produce butylene glycol through hydrolysis and further go through catalytic hydrogenation to obtain it.
1, 4-dichloro-butene can be hydrolyzed in sodium hydroxide solution with generating butylene glycol at 110°C. Centrifuge to remove the sodium chloride; the filtrate was concentrated in an evaporator crystallizer and the alkali metal carboxylate slat can be separated out; then remove the high-boiling matter in distillation column. Put the refined butenediol into the reactor; tae nickel as catalyst and have butenediol undergone hydrogenation reaction to generate butanediol at 80~120 ℃ and certain pressure. After distillation, the resulting product further entered into cyclization reactor to generate crude tetrahydrofuran in acidic medium at atmospheric pressure and at 120~140 ℃; Further conduct distillation and dehydration and remove high-boiling substance; finally distill again to obtain highly pure tetrahydrofuran.
This method is simple with mild conditions, high yield and less catalyst which can be used continuously.
5. Oxidation of butadiene
Use butadiene as raw material; it generate furan after oxidation; furan further generate the tetrahydrofuran through hydrogenation. This method has been industrialized in foreign countries.
Flammable liquid
Toxicity grading
Acute toxicity
oral-rat LD50: 1650 mg/kg; Inhalation-mouse LCL0: 24000 mg/m/2 hours
Hazardous characteristics of explosive
when mixed with air, it can be explosive; it can form explosive peroxides in the air
Flammability and hazard characteristics
it is combustible in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant with combustion generating irritated smoke
Storage characteristics
Treasury: ventilation, low-temperature and dry; store it separately from oxidants, acid and alkali
Extinguishing agent
Dry powder, dry sand, carbon dioxide, foam
Chemical Properties
Colorless liquid
Professional standards
TWA 590 mg/m3; STEL 640 mg/m
Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
ChEBI: A cyclic ether that is butane in which one hydrogen from each methyl group is substituted by an oxygen.
General Description
A clear colorless liquid with an ethereal odor. Less dense than water. Flash point 6°F. Vapors are heavier than air.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Oxidizes readily in air to form unstable peroxides that may explode spontaneously [Bretherick, 1979 p.151-154, 164]. Soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile
Tetrahydrofuran reacts violently with oxidizing agents leading to fires and explosions [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 891]. Subject to peroxidation in the air. Peroxides or their products react exothermically with lithium aluminum hydride [MCA Guide for Safety 1973]. Thus, use as a solvent for lithium aluminum hydride has led to fires. Using potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide to dry impure Tetrahydrofuran that contains peroxides has resulted in explosions. A violent explosion occurred during the preparation of sodium aluminum hydride from sodium and aluminum in a medium of Tetrahydrofuran [Chem. Eng. News 39(40):57. 1961]. THF forms explosive products with 2-aminophenol [Lewis 3227].
Health Hazard
Vapors cause nausea, dizziness, headache, and anesthesia. Liquid can de-fat the skin and cause irritation. Liquid also irritates eyes.
Tetrahydrofuran Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Polychloroprene 1,4-Butanediol Nickel 2-CHLORO-1,3-BUTADIENE IRISH MOSS PALLADIUM-CATALYSTS Hydrogen Metallic oxides cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene gamma-Butyrolactone
Preparation Products
Jiuma plate amino-acid surfactant SODIUM PHENOLATE TRIHYDRATE Norethindrone 4-TERT-BUTYLBENZYL ALCOHOL 1-(2-NAPHTHYL)METHANAMINE 9-Anthracenemethanol Chiral 2,2-Disubstituted thiaprolinol derivatives (R)-TERT-LEUCINOL 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)ethanol 1,4-Butane sultone Erythromycin ethylsuccinate 3-tert-butyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol N-methylaminoethanol sodium phosphate 4-Amino-5-bromo-2-chloropyrimidine 1,4-Diiodobutane L(+)-Leucinol 2-Chloroisonicotinaldehyde Benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (S)-(-)-4-tert-Butyloxazolidine-2,5-dione 7-Fluoroindole L-Tryptophanol 4-Chlorobutylbenzoate TERT-BUTYLMAGNESIUM CHLORIDE alpha,alpha-Diphenyl-L-prolinol BENZO[B]THIOPHENE-2-CARBOXALDEHYDE 2,5-Dimethylpiperazine Quinestrol Allylmagnesium chloride Levonorgestrel N-(2-Aminoethyl)piperidine 2,3,4-Tribromothiophene (4-AMINO-PYRIDIN-3-YL)-METHANOL 3-Cyanophenylboronic acid Dioctyl(maleate)tin Cyclopropylacetic acid 2,3-Difluorophenylboronic acid 2,2'-DIPYRIDYLAMINE Vinylferrocene Tetrahydrothiophene (1,5-DIMETHYL-1H-PYRAZOL-3-YL)METHANOL
Tetrahydrofuran Suppliers      Global( 354)Suppliers     
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