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Zinc oxide

History Chemical properties Uses Application of Nanometer Zinc Oxide in Sunscreen Cosmetics Zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide Identification test Content analysis Toxicity Use the limit Food Additives Maximum allowable usage The maximum allowable residue level Production method

CAS No.1314-13-2
Chemical Name:Zinc oxide
Synonyms:ZnO;emar;ozlo;xx78;azo22;ozide;Rubox;xx203;xx601;Zinox
CBNumber:CB3853034
Molecular Formula:OZn
Formula Weight:81.39
MOL File:1314-13-2.mol
Zinc oxide Property
mp : 1975 °C
density : 5.6
refractive index : 2.008~2.029
form : nanopowder
Water Solubility : 1.6 mg/L (29 ºC)
Merck : 14,10147
Stability:: Stable. Incompatible with magnesium, strong acids.
CAS DataBase Reference: 1314-13-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Zinc oxide(1314-13-2)
EPA Substance Registry System: Zinc oxide (ZnO)(1314-13-2)
Safety
Hazard Codes : N,Xn,F
Risk Statements : 50/53-20-43-36/38-20/21/22-67-66-10-11
Safety Statements : 60-61-7/9-36/37-26-16
RIDADR : UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany : 2
RTECS : ZH4810000
PackingGroup : III
HS Code : 28170000
Hazardous Substances Data: 1314-13-2(Hazardous Substances Data)

Zinc oxide Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

History
Humans have long learned to use zinc oxide as a coating or topical medicine, but the history of human discovery of zinc oxide has been difficult to trace.
In the "Chakra" which is Ancient India medical literature recorded in a later identified as zinc oxide drugs, used to treat eye diseases and trauma. The first century AD, the Greek doctor Dioscorides also referred to use zinc oxide to do the ointment. Avicenna completed in 1025 the "Hui prescription" in Zinc Oxide described for the treatment of various skin diseases, including skin cancer drug of choice. Nowadays, people no longer use zinc oxide to treat skin cancer, but still widely used in the treatment of other common skin diseases.
As early as 200 BC, the Romans learned how to react with copper and zinc ore containing zinc oxide to make brass. Zinc oxide into zinc vapor in the shaft furnace, rolled into the flue reaction. Dioscorides also introduced this.
Since the 12th century, the Indians have known zinc and zinc ore, and began to make zinc using the original way. Zinc smelting technology introduced in China in seventeenth Century. 1743, Bristol, Britain established the first zinc smelting plant in Europe.
Another major use of zinc oxide is used as a coating, called zinc white. In 1834, zinc white became the Chinese watercolor paint for the first time, but insoluble in oil. But soon the problem was solved by the new zinc oxide production process. In 1845, Leclerc began to manufacture pigment of zinc white oil painting on a large scale in Paris, to 1850, zinc white popular throughout Europe. The purity of zinc white was so high that some artists painted zinc-white as a background at the end of the nineteenth century, but these paintings were cracked after a hundred years.
In the second half of the 20th century, zinc oxide used in the rubber industry. In the 1970s, the second major use of zinc oxide is the additives of copy paper, but in the 21st century, the approach of zinc oxide has been eliminated as a copy paper additive.
white zinc oxide powder
Figure 1 white zinc oxide powder
Chemical properties
White hexagonal crystal or powder. Tasteless, fine quality. Dissolved in acid, sodium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, do not dissolve in water, ethanol and ammonia.
Uses
(1) Zinc oxide Mainly used in rubber or cable industry as reinforcing agent and active agent, as coloring agents and fillers of white glue, chloroprene rubber used as a curing agent.
(2) In the chemical fertilizer industry, the raw material gas is used for fine desulfurization.
(3) Mainly used as white pigments, rubber vulcanization activator, reinforcing agent, organic synthesis catalyst, desulfurizer, used in electrostatic copying, pharmaceutical, etc.For the synthesis of ammonia, petroleum, natural gas chemical feed gas desulfurization.
(4) Used as a substrate for analytical reagents, reference reagents, fluorescent agents and photosensitive materials.
(5) Used for electrostatic wet copying, dry transfer printing, laser facsimile communication, electrostatic recording of electronic computer and electrostatic plate making files.For the plastics industry, sunscreen cosmetics products, special ceramic products, special functional coatings and textile health processing.
(6) Widely used in synthetic ammonia, methanol and hydrogen production and other industrial raw material gas, oil depth desulfurization purification process.
(7) Used as an astringent for ointment or plaster.
(8) Used as a white pigment for printing and dyeing, paper making, matches and pharmaceutical industries. In the rubber industry as a curing active agent, reinforcing agent and coloring agent for natural rubber, synthetic rubber and latex. Also used in the manufacture of pigments for zinc chromium yellow, zinc acetate, zinc carbonate, zinc chloride and the like.In addition, also used for electronic laser materials, phosphors, feed additives, catalysts, magnetic materials, feed additives, for zinc supplements in the feed processing.
(9) Inorganic white pigment. Coloring power is less than titanium dioxide and lithopone. Widely used in coloring for ABS resin, polystyrene, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, amino resin and polyvinyl chloride and paint and ink. In addition, the rubber industry can also be used as rubber vulcanization activator, reinforcing agent and coloring agent. Also used in the production of cloth, cosmetics, enamel, paper, leather, matches, cables and so on. Can also be used for printing and dyeing, glass industry, pharmaceutical industry. Also used as a desulfurization agent for the synthesis of ammonia. Also used as electronic laser materials, phosphors, feed additives, magnetic materials manufacturing.Nutritional supplements (zinc fortifier).Zinc oxide is a feed nutrition enhancer.
(10) Mainly used as rubber or cable reinforcing agent, so that the rubber has good corrosion resistance, tear resistance and elasticity. Also used as vulcanization activator of natural rubber, coloring agents and fillers for white rubber, Curing agent for chloroprene rubber. Small particles (particle size of about 0.1μm) can be used as light stabilizer for plastics such as polyolefin and polyvinyl chloride.
(11) Used as a pigment and rubber filler, medicine for the system ointment, zinc paste, plaster and so on. Applicable to the supplement for zinc in feed processing. 
(12) Mainly used in rubber or cable industry as reinforcing agent and active agent, as coloring agents and fillers of white glue, chloroprene rubber used as a curing agent. In the chemical fertilizer industry, the raw material gas is used for fine desulfurization. Use: Mainly used as white pigments, rubber vulcanization activator, reinforcing agent, organic synthesis catalyst, desulfurizer, used in electrostatic copying, pharmaceutical, etc. Use: For the synthesis of ammonia, petroleum, natural gas chemical feed gas desulfurization. Use: Used as a substrate for analytical reagents, reference reagents, fluorescent agents and photosensitive materials. Use: Used for electrostatic wet copying, dry transfer printing, laser facsimile communication, electrostatic recording of electronic computer and electrostatic plate making files.
(13) Used as elements of precipitating salt easy digestion in the determination of redox volumetric method of manganese. Such as iron, chromium, vanadium, titanium and zirconium, used as hydrogen sulphide absorbents. Standard reference for disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.Desulfurization for the synthesis of ammonia gas.
Application of Nanometer Zinc Oxide in Sunscreen Cosmetics
Due to the destruction of the earth's ozone layer, resulting in an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation on the earth's biosphere, too much ultraviolet radiation on human health hazards are increasing. A variety of sunscreens have been developed to protect the skin from the effects of excessive UV radiation on human skin. Because most of the organic sunscreen has higher activity, irritating to the skin, easy to break down after ultraviolet radiation, sunscreen effect is not long, so people have developed inorganic sunscreen agents, such as nano-titanium dioxide, zinc oxide nano. The study found that nano-zinc oxide had better protective effect on UV-A and UV-B than the traditional nano-titanium dioxide, so the application of nano-zinc oxide in cosmetic field was developing rapidly. Zinc oxide, with average particle size of less than 50 nm, is most effective against UV-A and UV-B. It is a broad-spectrum anti-UV agent, non-toxic and harmless. It is truly a new generation of physical sunscreen.
Zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide
Add the right amount of alkali in Zn2+ soluble salts solution,can precipitate white zinc hydroxide:Zn2+ + 2NaOH=Zn(OH)2+2Na+
Zn (OH) 2 is the amphoteric hydroxide, can be dissolved in acid to form zinc salt, and soluble in strong alkali to form a complex ion, or zincate:Zn(OH)2+2H+=Zn2++2H2O
Zn(OH)2+2OH-=[Zn(OH)4]2-
Zn (OH) 2 can also be dissolved in NH3 water to form tetramine zincate ion, while Al (OH) 3 is insoluble in NH3 water:Zn(OH)2+4NH3=[Zn(NH3)4]2++2OH- This is one of the methods to distinguish Al (OH) 3 and Zn (OH) 2.
Zn (OH) 2 is easy to dehydration when heated to generate a white Zinc Oxide (ZnO):Zn(OH)2== heating ==ZnO+H2O
[Zn(OH)4]2- and [Zn(NH3)4]2+ In the heating or acid conditions, the ion disintegration, and the formation of Zn (OH) 2:[Zn(NH3)4]2++2OH-== heating ==Zn(OH)2+4NH3Zn(OH)2 and ZnO are covalent compound.。Zn (OH) 2 is often used as filler in papermaking.
ZnO is a well-known white pigment, common name is zinc white. It has the advantage is that the mixture of H2S gas does not change black, because ZnS is also white. When heated, ZnO gradually changed from white, pale yellow to lemon yellow, and yellow will recede when cooled, the use of this feature, it added to paint or join a thermometer, made of color paint or color thermometer.
Due to the convergence of ZnO and a certain degree of bactericidal ability, in medicine often modulated into ointment, ZnO can also be used as a catalyst.
The Na2CO3 solution was added to the Zn2 + salt to give a white precipitate of basic zinc carbonate, instead of Zn (OH) 2:2Zn2++2CO32-+2H2O===Zn2(OH)2CO3+2HCO3-
Identification test
When the heat appears yellow, cooling disappeared。
The sample solution prepared with 3 mol / L hydrochloric acid was positive for the zinc test (IT-33).
Content analysis
Accurately weighed just burned sample residue about 1.5g, with ammonium chloride 2.5G, dissolved in 50.0Ml0.1mol / L sulfuric acid (a small fire heating). To be completely dissolved, add a few drops methyl orange test solution (TS-148), with 1mol / L sodium hydroxide solution titration of excess sulfuric acid. Ml 1mol / L sulfuric acid equivalent to zinc oxide (ZnO) 40.69mg.
Toxicity
toxicity 1
GRAS(FDA,§182.8991,2000).
LD50240ragkg(Rats,Abdominal injection)。

toxicity 2
Poisoning will appear poor appetite, polydipsia, fatigue, chest tightness and tenderness, drowsiness, dry cough, and there will be elevated body temperature, pupil dilatation, conjunctiva and pharynx, facial congestion, diabetes, also sometimes hepatomegaly. In severe cases pulmonary interstitial edema, alveolar epithelial damage.
Poisoning can be inhaled alkaline substances, intravenous injection of glucose (40% solution 20ml) and 300mg ascorbic acid. According to symptoms taking tonic. The maximum allowable concentration in the air 0.5 mg / m3.
In the operation should wear protective masks, protective glasses, wear overalls. Hot water bath after work. Attention should be paid to prevent the formation of vapor and aerosols and discharge to the air in the workplace. Should pay attention to dust ventilation.
Use the limit
GMP Limited (FDA,§182.5991,2000).
GB 2760—2001:eat breakfast cereal food,37.5~
Food Additives Maximum allowable usage The maximum allowable residue level
Additive Chinese name: Zinc oxide
Food Chinese name allowed to use this kind of additive: Western-style pastries,Biscuits
Additive function: Nutrition Enhancer
Maximum allowable amount (g / kg): 4.5-8mg/100g(Calculated as zinc)
Maximum allowable residue (g / kg):
Production method
(1) Basic zinc carbonate calcination method: production methods of active zinc oxide are more, Most of the low-grade zinc oxide or zinc ore as raw materials, and reaction with dilute sulfuric acid solution, made of zinc sulfate solution, the solution heated to 80 ~ 90 ℃, removing iron and manganese with joining Potassium Permanganate oxide, and then heated to 80℃, adding zinc, replacing the liquid copper, nickel, cadmium, after replacement, for second oxidation removal of impurities with Potassium Permanganate in 80 to 90℃, refined zinc sulfate solution, use soda ash and, until the pH value is 6.8, the formation of basic zinc carbonate, filtered, rinsed to remove the sulfate and excess alkali, and then dried and calcined at 500 ~ 550 ℃ to get active zinc oxide.
ZnO+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2O
3ZrSO4+3Na2CO3+3H2O→ZnCO3.2Zn(OH)2.H2O+3Na2SO4+2CO2↑
ZnCO3.2Zn(OH)2.H2O→3ZnO+C02++3H2O

(2) Calcined by the zinc carbonate derived.
By zinc hydroxide calcination and decomposition derived.
From the rough zinc oxide into zinc, and then by high temperature air oxidation.
By molten zinc oxidation derived.

(3) At present, used methods are the indirect method for zinc ingots as raw materials (also known as the French law), zinc ore as raw material direct method (also known as the United States) and wet. Indirect method. Reaction equation:2ZnO+O2→2ZnO
Operation method: The zinc ingots produced by the electrolysis method are heated to 600-700 ° C and melted, placed in a high temperature crucible, melted and vaporized at a temperature of 1250-1300 ° C, introduced into hot air for oxidation, and the resulting zinc oxide is cooled, cyclone separation, the fine particles with a bag to collect, that is, zinc oxide products.
Direct method. Reaction equation:
C+O2→CO2
CO2+C→CO
ZnO+CO→Zn(Steam)+CO2
Zn(Steam)+CO+O2→ZnO+CO2
Operation method: Roasted zinc ore powder (or zinc material) and anthracite (or coke quietly), limestone formulated into a ball in the ratio of 1: 0.5: 0.05. After reduction and smelting at 1300 ℃, the zinc oxide in the ore powder is reduced to zinc vapor, then oxidized by air, and the produced zinc oxide is collected to obtain the zinc oxide product.
Wet method. Zinc sulfate and sulfuric acid reaction to get zinc sulfate, and then reaction with sodium carbonate and ammonia respectively, the obtained zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide were used as raw materials to produce zinc oxide.The reaction equation is as follows:
Zn+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2↑
ZnSO4+Na2CO3→ZnCO3+Na2SO4
ZnSO4+2NH3•H2O→Zn(OH)2+(NH4)2SO4
Using zinc carbonate as raw material, after washing, drying, calcining and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
ZnCO2→ZnO+CO2↑
With zinc hydroxide as raw material, after washing, drying, calcination, precipitation, cooling and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
Zn(OH)2→ZnO+H2O

(4) At present, used methods are the indirect method for zinc ingots as raw materials (also known as the French law), zinc ore as raw material direct method (also known as the United States) and wet.
Indirect method: zinc ingot heated to 1000 ° C, melt gasification, introduced into hot air for oxidation, and the resulting zinc oxide is cooled, cyclone separation, the fine particles with a bag to collect, that is, zinc oxide products.
2Zn+O2→2ZnO
Direct method:Roasted zinc ore powder and anthracite limestone formulated into a ball. After reduction and smelting, the zinc oxide in the ore powder is reduced to zinc vapor, then oxidized by air, and the produced zinc oxide is collected to obtain the zinc oxide product.
2ZnO+C→2Zn+CO2↑
2Zn+O2→2ZnO
Wet method: Zinc sulfate and sulfuric acid reaction to get zinc sulfate, and then reaction with sodium carbonate and ammonia respectively, the obtained zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide were used as raw materials to produce zinc oxide
Zn+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2↑
ZnSO4+Na2CO3→ZnCO3+Na2SO4
Using zinc carbonate as raw material, after washing, drying, calcining and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
ZnCO3[△]→ZnO+CO2↑
With zinc hydroxide as raw material, after washing, drying, calcination, precipitation, cooling and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
Zn(OH)2[△]→ZnO+H2O
Chemical Properties
white powder
Usage
Antibiotic
General Description
Crude zinc oxide is a yellow-gray granular solid with no odor. Zinc oxide has a specific gravity of 4.4. Zinc oxide is insoluble in water. The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Prolonged inhalation of the dust may result in metal fume fever with symptoms of chills, fever, muscular pain, nausea and vomiting.
Air & Water Reactions
Slowly decomposed(hydrolyzed) in water. Insoluble in water.
Reactivity Profile
ZINC OXIDE is insoluble in water. What little solubility Zinc oxide has yields aqueous solutions that are neutral in pH. Intimate mixtures of zinc oxide and chlorinated rubber with or without hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvent react violently, even explosively upon heating [Chem. Trade J., 1962, 151, 672]. Slow addition of zinc oxide to cover the surface of linseed oil varnish caused generation of heat and ignition, [Chem. Trade J., 1933, 92, 278].
Fire Hazard
Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot.
Zinc oxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
SULFURIC ACID ZINC ZINC SULFIDE HEAVY CUT RESIDUE OIL Bifenthrin Guaifenesin CALCIUM CARBONATE Zinc sulphate Zinc calcine Zinc hypoxide ZINC CARBONATE BASIC ZINC HYDROXIDE Zinc carbonate hydroxide Coke (coal) Zinc carbonate
Preparation Products
Phosphatizing agent ZINC DIHYDROGEN PHOSPHATE Zinc tetrafluoroborate Zinc glycinate Zinc sulfate monohydrate diboron trizinc hexaoxide Pigment yellow 37 (C.I. 77199) ZINC BORATE 3.5 HYDRATE 2-BROMO-6-METHYL-4-NITROANILINE Zinc lactate 2-Aminophenol-4-sulfonic acid ZINC PHOSPHATE, MONOBASIC Zinc borate Desulfurizer neoprene latex LDR-501-YZ Barium hydroxide monohydrate Zinc nitrate hexahydrate Asphalt ship bottom antifouling paint Zinc acetate dihydrate 3'-Acetamidoacetophenone ZINC CARBONATE BASIC Phosphatizing liquid cadmium metallic GD visible light curing composite resin Zinc phosphate ZINC CHROMATE Zinc citrate Zinc gluconate Zinc acetate ZINC MOLYBDATE low temperature CO shift catalysts Butyl butyrate ZINC NITRATE Bacitracin ZINC SILICOFLUORIDE Antioxidant and antiseptic agent T202 Zinc stearate Zinc bromide Zinc carbonate pentazinc chromate octahydroxide
Zinc oxide Suppliers      Global( 361)Suppliers     
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