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Zinc oxide

Description History Chemical properties Uses Reactions Identification test Content analysis Toxicity Production Methods
Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
Chemical Name:
Zinc oxide
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Zinc oxide Properties

Melting point:
1975 °C
refractive index 
Flash point:
storage temp. 
Store at +5°C to +30°C.
0.0016g/l insoluble
White to pale yellow
7 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)(slurry)
Water Solubility 
1.6 mg/L (29 ºC)
Stable. Incompatible with magnesium, strong acids.
CAS DataBase Reference
1314-13-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Zinc oxide(1314-13-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
Zinc oxide (ZnO)(1314-13-2)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  N,Xn,F
Risk Statements  50/53-20-43-36/38-20/21/22-67-66-10-11
Safety Statements  60-61-7/9-36/37-26-16
RIDADR  UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  ZH4810000
HazardClass  9
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28170000
Hazardous Substances Data 1314-13-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/…/equipment.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P337+P313 IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.
P403+P235 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Zinc oxide price More Price(40)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.08849 Zinc oxide 1314-13-2 1EA $119 2017-11-08 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1.08849 Zinc oxide 1314-13-2 2EA $198 2017-11-08 Buy
Strem Chemicals 30-1405 Zinc oxide nanopowder 1314-13-2 25g $32 2017-11-27 Buy
Strem Chemicals 30-1405 Zinc oxide nanopowder 1314-13-2 100g $66 2017-11-27 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 96492 Zinc oxide tested according to Ph.Eur. 1314-13-2 1kg $66.6 2017-11-08 Buy

Zinc oxide Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


Zinc oxide occurs in nature as mineral zincite. It is the most important zinc compound and has numerous industrial applications. Zinc oxide is the pigment in white paints. It is used to make enamels, white printing inks, white glue, opaque glasses, rubber products and floor tiles. It is used in cosmetics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, dental cements, storage batteries, electrical equipment, and piezoelectric devices. Other applications are as a flame retardant, as a UV absorber in plastics, and a reagent in analytical chemistry. A major application of zinc oxide is in the preparation of most zinc salts. In medicine, the compound is used as an antiseptic, an astringent and a topical protectant.


Humans have long learned to use zinc oxide as a coating or topical medicine, but the history of human discovery of zinc oxide has been difficult to trace.
In the "Chakra" which is Ancient India medical literature recorded in a later identified as zinc oxide drugs, used to treat eye diseases and trauma. The first century AD, the Greek doctor Dioscorides also referred to use zinc oxide to do the ointment. Avicenna completed in 1025 the "Hui prescription" in Zinc Oxide described for the treatment of various skin diseases, including skin cancer drug of choice. Nowadays, people no longer use zinc oxide to treat skin cancer, but still widely used in the treatment of other common skin diseases.
As early as 200 BC, the Romans learned how to react with copper and zinc ore containing zinc oxide to make brass. Zinc oxide into zinc vapor in the shaft furnace, rolled into the flue reaction. Dioscorides also introduced this.
Since the 12th century, the Indians have known zinc and zinc ore, and began to make zinc using the original way. Zinc smelting technology introduced in China in seventeenth Century. 1743, Bristol, Britain established the first zinc smelting plant in Europe.
Another major use of zinc oxide is used as a coating, called zinc white. In 1834, zinc white became the Chinese watercolor paint for the first time, but insoluble in oil. But soon the problem was solved by the new zinc oxide production process. In 1845, Leclerc began to manufacture pigment of zinc white oil painting on a large scale in Paris, to 1850, zinc white popular throughout Europe. The purity of zinc white was so high that some artists painted zinc-white as a background at the end of the nineteenth century, but these paintings were cracked after a hundred years.
In the second half of the 20th century, zinc oxide used in the rubber industry. In the 1970s, the second major use of zinc oxide is the additives of copy paper, but in the 21st century, the approach of zinc oxide has been eliminated as a copy paper additive.
white zinc oxide powder
Figure 1 white zinc oxide powder

Chemical properties

White hexagonal crystal or powder. Tasteless, fine quality. Dissolved in acid, sodium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, do not dissolve in water, ethanol and ammonia.


Industry Application Role/benefit
Rubber Manufacture of rubber Vulcanization accelerator/promotes the vulcanization rate and increases the vulcanization crosslinking degree
Anti-aging agent/ protects rubber from fungi and UV light
Reinforcing agent/promotes the intensity and thermal conductivity of rubber
Ceramic Manufacture of ceramic glaze Fluxing agent/declines the melting point and improves the elasticity of glazes
Pigment Paints,rubber,oil painting,paper coatings,ceramic,mineral makeup,etc. White pigment
Coatings Metal anti-corrosive coatings Paints additive/helps paints to retain their flexibility and adherence for many years
Plastic coatings Anti solar radiation and anti oxidation
Energy-saving or heat-protecting windows ZnO:Al coatings selectively lets the visible part of the spectrum in
Nuclear reactors Corrosion prevention Reduces the corrosion and minimizes the amount of dissolved materials
Desulfurization of chemical raw gas Synthetic ammonia,petroleum,natural gas,methane,etc. Removes hydrogen sulfide by the reaction:H2S + ZnO → H2O + ZnS
Medicine Treatment of a variety of skin conditions Active ingredient/antibacterial properties
Antiseptic ointments,creams and lotions Common ingredient/deodorizing and antibacterial properties
Zinc oxide tape Component/antibacterial properties
Ciprofloxacin Additive/enhance the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin
Food Breakfast cereals, prepackaged foods,etc. Additive/source of zinc
Animal feed
Others Cigarette filters Helps to removes significant amounts of HCN and H2S from tobacco smoke without affecting its flavor
Suntan lotion and UV-blocking sunglasses Key ingredient/provides strong protection against UVA and UVB ultraviolet radiation
Zinc oxide nanorod sensor Detects changes in electric current passing through zinc oxide nanowires
Li-ion battery Anode material/ high theoretical capacity;cheap and environmental friendly
Self-powered nanosystems Stretching and releasing zinc oxide nanowires can deliver alternating current
Ferromagnetic material ZnO can become ferromagnetic after being doped with 1–10% of magnetic ions
Laser diodes and light emitting diodes Wide direct band gap and larger exciton binding energy
Organic synthesis Catalyst
Calibration of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium Reference agent


Zinc oxide reacts with mineral acids to yield corresponding zinc salts when the solution is evaporated. Thus, with sulfuric acid it forms zinc sulfate (hydrated):
ZnO + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2O
Reactions with organic acids such as acetic or propionic acid yields zinc acetate, (CH3COO)2Zn, or zinc propionate, (CH3CH2COO)2Zn, upon concentration.
Fusion of zinc oxide with fatty acids at elevated temperatures produces fatty salts. Thus, fusion with oleic or linoleic acid forms zinc oleate, Zn(C17H33COO)2, or zinc linoleate, Zn(C17H31COO)2.
Reaction with tellurium powder in alkaline solution yields red crystalline zinc telluride, ZnTe.
Zinc oxide reacts with potassium dichromate in solution in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a greenish-yellow pigment, zinc yellow or citron yellow [11103-86-9], 4ZnO•4CrO3•K2O•3H2O.

Identification test

When the heat appears yellow, cooling disappeared。
The sample solution prepared with 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid was positive for the zinc test (IT-33).

Content analysis

Accurately weighed just burned sample residue about 1.5g, with ammonium chloride 2.5G, dissolved in 50.0Ml0.1mol/L sulfuric acid (a small fire heating). To be completely dissolved, add a few drops methyl orange test solution (TS-148), with 1mol/L sodium hydroxide solution titration of excess sulfuric acid. Ml 1mol/L sulfuric acid equivalent to zinc oxide (ZnO) 40.69mg.


toxicity 1
LD50240ragkg(Rats,Abdominal injection)。
toxicity 2
Poisoning will appear poor appetite, polydipsia, fatigue, chest tightness and tenderness, drowsiness, dry cough, and there will be elevated body temperature, pupil dilatation, conjunctiva and pharynx, facial congestion, diabetes, also sometimes hepatomegaly. In severe cases pulmonary interstitial edema, alveolar epithelial damage.
Poisoning can be inhaled alkaline substances, intravenous injection of glucose (40% solution 20ml) and 300mg ascorbic acid. According to symptoms taking tonic. The maximum allowable concentration in the air 0.5 mg/m3.
In the operation should wear protective masks, protective glasses, wear overalls. Hot water bath after work. Attention should be paid to prevent the formation of vapor and aerosols and discharge to the air in the workplace. Should pay attention to dust ventilation.

Production Methods

(1) At present, used methods are the indirect method for zinc ingots as raw materials (also known as the French law), zinc ore as raw material direct method (also known as the United States) and wet. Indirect method. Reaction equation:2ZnO+O2→2ZnO
Operation method: The zinc ingots produced by the electrolysis method are heated to 600-700 ° C and melted, placed in a high temperature crucible, melted and vaporized at a temperature of 1250-1300 ° C, introduced into hot air for oxidation, and the resulting zinc oxide is cooled, cyclone separation, the fine particles with a bag to collect, that is, zinc oxide products.
Direct method. Reaction equation:
Operation method: Roasted zinc ore powder (or zinc material) and anthracite (or coke quietly), limestone formulated into a ball in the ratio of 1: 0.5: 0.05. After reduction and smelting at 1300 ℃, the zinc oxide in the ore powder is reduced to zinc vapor, then oxidized by air, and the produced zinc oxide is collected to obtain the zinc oxide product.
Wet method. Zinc sulfate and sulfuric acid reaction to get zinc sulfate, and then reaction with sodium carbonate and ammonia respectively, the obtained zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide were used as raw materials to produce zinc oxide.The reaction equation is as follows:
Using zinc carbonate as raw material, after washing, drying, calcining and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
With zinc hydroxide as raw material, after washing, drying, calcination, precipitation, cooling and crushing to obtain products of Zinc Oxide.
Zn(OH)2→ZnO+H2O   (2) Basic zinc carbonate calcination method: production methods of active zinc oxide are more, Most of the low-grade zinc oxide or zinc ore as raw materials, and reaction with dilute sulfuric acid solution, made of zinc sulfate solution, the solution heated to 80~90 ℃, removing iron and manganese with joining Potassium Permanganate oxide, and then heated to 80℃, adding zinc, replacing the liquid copper, nickel, cadmium, after replacement, for second oxidation removal of impurities with Potassium Permanganate in 80 to 90℃, refined zinc sulfate solution, use soda ash and, until the pH value is 6.8, the formation of basic zinc carbonate, filtered, rinsed to remove the sulfate and excess alkali, and then dried and calcined at 500~550 ℃ to get active zinc oxide.

Chemical Properties

white powder




Preparation of zinc standard solutions.

General Description

Crude zinc oxide is a yellow-gray granular solid with no odor. Zinc oxide has a specific gravity of 4.4. Zinc oxide is insoluble in water. The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Prolonged inhalation of the dust may result in metal fume fever with symptoms of chills, fever, muscular pain, nausea and vomiting.

Air & Water Reactions

Slowly decomposed(hydrolyzed) in water. Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

ZINC OXIDE is insoluble in water. What little solubility Zinc oxide has yields aqueous solutions that are neutral in pH. Intimate mixtures of zinc oxide and chlorinated rubber with or without hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvent react violently, even explosively upon heating [Chem. Trade J., 1962, 151, 672]. Slow addition of zinc oxide to cover the surface of linseed oil varnish caused generation of heat and ignition, [Chem. Trade J., 1933, 92, 278].

Fire Hazard

Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot.

Zinc oxide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Zinc oxide Suppliers

Global( 388)Suppliers
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Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 9974 55
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd.
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Sigma-Aldrich 021-61415566 800-819-3336(Tel) 400-620-3333(Mobile)
021-61415567 China 21320 80
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
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J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
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Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
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