|Company Name:||360 Reagent Gold|
|Tel:||025 66061636 66113011 66028182|
|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Company Name:||Alfa Aesar |
|Product Name:||Isoamyl nitrite|
|Synonyms:||NITROUS ACID ISOAMYL ESTER;3-Methyl-1-butylnitrite;3-Methylbutanol nitrite;3-methylbutanolnitrite;Amilnitrit;Amilnitrite;amyl;Amyl nitrit|
|Isoamyl nitrite Chemical Properties|
|bp ||99 °C(lit.)|
|density ||0.872 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)|
|refractive index ||n20/D 1.386(lit.)|
|Fp ||50 °F|
|storage temp. ||2-8°C|
|Water Solubility ||<0.01 g/100 mL at 18 ºC|
|Sensitive ||Air & Light Sensitive|
|Stability:||Stability Unstable. Air and light sensitive. Flammable. Forms explosive mixtures with air or oxygen. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, reducing agents.|
|CAS DataBase Reference||110-46-3(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Amyl Nitrite(110-46-3)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||Nitrous acid, 3-methylbutyl ester(110-46-3)|
|Isoamyl nitrite Usage And Synthesis|
|Antianginal drugs||Light yellow transparent liquid, ether-like smell with fruity. It volatiles at room temperature, and is easy to burn. It is insoluble in water, can be mixed with alcohol, ether, chloroform or benzene arbitrary at any ratio. In case of light and air it will break down.|
Isoamyl nitrite, also known as amyl nitrite, is the fastest onset, and the shortest duration of anti-anginal drugs, is a sub-short-acting nitrates vasodilator, its pharmacological effects is similar to nitroglycerin, it can directly relax vascular smooth muscle, especially for small vascular smooth muscle, make systemic vasodilation, reduce peripheral resistance, blood pressure, reduce venous return blood, reduce cardiac output, thereby reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, anti-angina and effectively stimulate sexual desire. Because of its rapid hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract, so this product is oral invalid, drugs used clinically are usually made on a volatile liquid pharmaceutical inhalants, rapidly absorbed in the lungs after inhalation, it can be effective less than half a minute , lasts for only 3 to 10 minutes, the anti-anginal effect nitroglycerin similar, but inhaled dose of this product is difficult to control, and the adverse reaction is large, which is its shortcomings. Because it often causes severe headache, severe hypotension and tachycardia, it is now rarely used in clinical treatment of angina and biliary colic, gradually being replaced by other nitrates.
[Adverse reactions and Precautions]
Common adverse reactions are headache, facial flushing, hypotension and reflex tachycardia ect. Isoamyl nitrite owns severe reaction than nitroglycerin.
Excessive use dosage can cause low blood pressure and heart rate, increase symptoms of angina, heart rate and blood pressure should be closely observed during intravenous drug using. Due to excessive methemoglobin poisoning, symptoms include cyanosis, breathing difficulty and other symptoms of hypoxia, intravenous injection of 1% methylene blue is used for first aid, along with oxygen , and blood transfusions.
Usinge for head trauma, brain hemorrhage, acute coronary thrombosis is banned.
Using in coronary occlusion and increased intracranial pressure is banned.
|Cyanide poisoning antidote||Pharmacological effects are the same with sodium nitrite, isoamyl nitrite is also an oxidizing agent, hemoglobin is oxidized to be high iron (Fe3 +) hemoglobin combines with cyanide ions to form cyanide methemoglobin, eliminates blood free cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase enzyme infringement, but also makes the cytochrome oxidase bound cyanide ion release, leading to the enzyme activity and tissue respiration function recovery, it should be used simultaneously with sodium thiosulfate to bind with cyanide methemoglobin to form non-toxic thiocyanate group (SCN-) and excreted, and thus play a role in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. This product is administrated by inhalation, rapidly absorbed in the lungs, displays the effects after inhalation of 10 to 30 seconds, the role lasts for 3 to 5 minutes. For emergency use, sodium nitrite is intravenous injected until the symptoms improve.|
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Tian Ye.
|Chemical Properties||Light yellow clear liquid having a boiling point of 99 °C, the relative density is 0.871 (20/4 ℃), the refractive index is 1.3871, the flash point is 10 ℃. It is soluble with alcohol, ether, it can not dissolve in water. With fruit flavor. With volatility, it will break down in the case of light and air .
|Application||It is used in synthesizing perfumes, drugs and diazo compounds. It can be used as an oxidizing agent, solvent. Isobutyl nitrite ester is a drug that is the the fastest short-acting nitrates vasodilator. It is also used as hydrocyanic acid and its salts poisoning antidote.Vasodilators, for the treatment of angina pectoris, also it is used for cyanide poisoning; it is used in synthesizing perfumes, drugs and diazo compounds. It can be used as an oxidizing agent, solvent.
|Production method||It is derived from isoamyl alcohol and sodium nitrite. According to the actual production situation, it may have a different method of operation. 1. The reaction takes place in the reaction tube, in synthetic aqueous solution of sodium nitrite, isoamyl alcohol, hydrochloric acid, respectively, are put into the high slot. First sodium nitrite solution and hydrochloric acid solution are dropped at the same rate into the synthesis pipe, when the chlorine gas bubbles in the pipe,isoamyl alcohol is slowly dropped from the top of the pipe, that is in the pipeline synthetic crude. Washed, dried, fractionated to get the products. 2. The reaction is carried out in a reaction tank of sodium nitrite, isoamyl alcohol and water are added to the reaction pot, stirring, cooling to 5 ℃, solution of hydrochloric acid is dropped. At 5 ℃ insulation for 1h, after standing hours to remove the water layer, acetate layer is washed with water, then washed with sodium carbonate solution, and then washed with water. After removing the layer of water, it is dehydrated with anhydrous sodium carbonate, filtered. The filtrate is distilled, collecting 97-99 ℃ distillate, to get isoamyl nitrite.
|Toxicity grading||Highly toxic
|Acute toxicity||Oral - rat LD50: 505 mg / kg; inhalation - mouse LC50: 1430 PPM / 30 min
|Explosive hazardous characteristics||Heating can be explosive
|Flammability hazard characteristics||In the case of fire, high temperature, oxidant, it is flammable; in the case of light, heat may generate toxic nitric oxide gas.
|Storage characteristics||Treasury should be ventilation, low-temperature and dry; It should be stored separately from oxidants and acids.
|Extinguishing agent||Dry powder, dry sand, carbon dioxide, foam, 1211 fire extinguishing agent.
|Chemical Properties||yellow liquid|
|General Description||Clear yellow liquid.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Highly flammable. Decomposes on exposure to air and light. Insoluble in water.|
|Reactivity Profile||Isoamyl nitrite is an oxidizing agent but can serve as a reducing agent. Forms explosive mixtures with air or oxygen. .|
|Fire Hazard||Isoamyl nitrite is flammable.|
|Isoamyl nitrite Preparation Products And Raw materials|