|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Company Name:||Alfa Aesar |
|Calcium Propionate Chemical Properties|
|Calcium Propionate Usage And Synthesis|
|Food antifungal agent||Calcium Propionate as the newer food antifungal agent, is the calcium salt of propanoic acid which is a antifungal agent. It appears as white crystalline or powder, odorless or having slight specific odor of propionic acid, stable under light and heat , hygroscopic, soluble in water while aqueous solution is alkaline, slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol, not soluble in benzene and acetone. It is deliquescent in moist air and loses crystal water when heated to 120 ℃ .It changes phase at 200 ~ 210 ℃ and decomposes to calcium carbonate at 330 ~ 340 ℃ . Under acidic conditions, it generates free propanoic acid which is weaker than sorbic acid while stronger than acetic acid, and has an antibacterial effect on Aspergillus niger and gas bacillus rather than yeast . Calcium Propionate is a normal intermediate product of animal metabolism and is safe eaten by animals. It has a broad antibacterial activity to mold bacteria and yeast bacteria, inhibiting the propagation of microorganisms, preventing feed molding, which can be used as a fungicide on food and feed and a preservative for bread and pastries. As a feed additive ,it can effectively prevent feed molding and prolong shelf life of feed . If combined with other inorganic complexes, it can also improve the appetite of livestock, increase milk production in cows, and its dosage is less than 0.3% of the combined feed (use propionic acid to count) . China provides when it is used as a food additive, according to GB2760-86 execution, it can be added to bread, vinegar, soy sauce, soy products, and the maximum use is 2.5g / kg.
|Production Method||First, the raw material calcium carbonate is made into aqueous suspension, the water needs to be refined and purified to remove heavy metals magnesium and other impurities. The CaCO3 is put in aqueous suspension into the reaction kettle quantitatively and the inner temperature is kept of 60 ~ 80 ℃, adding propionic acid with stirring, and the reaction lasts for 2 to 3 hours, then a lot of CO2 gas escapes, which can be discharged from the condenser vent tube .Adjusting the heating temperature outside, adding acid and stirring rate can help the reaction to achieve the best conditions , the reaction should be controlled in the final pH of 7 to 8, this reaction is reversible, which means CO2 gas should be promptly discharged to control the end point of the reaction better . The neutralized aqueous solution is filtrated through vacuum , concentrated in an evaporator vessel, and then placed in a crystallizer tank at normal temperature and pressure to cool slowly into crystallization. The mother liquor can be returned to the evaporator vessel to apply 2 or 3 times and then can be discarded. Dry the separated solids into small particles and after crushing, metering and packaging , Calcium Propionate products are obtained. |
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Tian Ye.
|Content Analysis||Dry the sample at 120 ℃ for 2h, take 1g (weighing accuracy of 0.0002g), dissolve it in water and transfer it to a 100ml volumetric flask, dilute to the mark. Measure 25.00ml of it, add 75ml water , titrate to the end with 0.05mol / L disodium EDTA standard solution, add 10% sodium hydroxide solution 15m !, place 1min. Add 0.1g calcium indicator reagent carboxylate (0.5g of calcium plus potassium carboxylate reagent mixing 50g), continue titration to the disappearance of the red and the appearance of the blue . |
Calcium Propionate content (%) = V × c × 74.48 / m × 100
Where V - volume of disodium EDTA standard solution, ml;
c - the concentration of disodium EDTA standard solution, mol / L;
m-- sample quality , g.
Or every Ml0.05mol / L EDTA -sodium equivalent to 9.311mg of the product.
|Toxicity||ADI does not make restrictive regulations (FAO / WHO, 2001). |
LD50 5160mg / kg (rat, oral).
GRAS (FDA, §184.1221,2000).
|Application limitation||GB 2760-96 (g / kg): bread, vinegar, soy sauce, soy foods, pastries, 2.5; wet dough products (refer to section, wonton skin) ≤0.25 (use propionic acid to count). |
FAO / WHO (1984): Processed cheese 3000mg / kg (alone or in combination with propionic acid, sorbic acid and its salts ).
Japan (use propionic acid to count): 2.5g / kg ( the product 3.15g).It is mainly used for bread and pastry. 1.0g calcium salt (monohydrate) equals 0.790g propanoic acid ). The excess of amount will prevent the growth of yeast in the bread, which damages the flavor. It can be used to prevent growth of Aspergillus niger (Asp.Niger), aerobic spore-forming bacteria (B.Subtilis) .
USDA, 9CFR, §318.7 (2000): flour products, 0.32% (use wheat flour amount to count, alone or together with the amount of sodium propionate).
USDA§381.147 (1994): The new pie dough 3% (use wheat flour amount to count).
Calcium salt is generally used in bread while sodium salt is used in West Point .Alkalinity resulting from the use of sodium causes the delaying of the dough fermentation but use of calcium can strengthen the role of calcium. If calcium salt is used in West Point, then it can react to the sodium bicarbonate in the leavening agent, producing insoluble calcium carbonate, which reduces the amount of CO2 generated,so sodium salt is mainly used .
|Chemical Properties||White crystalline powder or granules. Good flowability. Odorless and minor irritation.
|Uses||Reagents for the analysis. |
Calcium Propionate is an acid-type food preservative, with its inhibitory effected by the environmental pH .When PH5.0 minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.01%, PH6.5 is 0.5%. In the acidic medium ,it has a strong inhibitory effect on the various types of fungi, aerobic bacillus or gram-negative bacilli . It has a specific effect on preventing the production of Aflatoxin streptozotocin, but has little effect on the yeast. In the food industry, it is mainly used in vinegar, soy sauce, bread, cakes and soy products,whose maximum usage (use propionic acid to count, the same below)is 2.5g / kg; while the largest usage in the wet dough products is 0.25g / kg . Also ,it can be used for feed antifungal agent.
It is used for breads, pastries and cheese preservatives and feed fungicide. Calcium Propionate as a food preservative, calcium propionate is mainly used for bread, because sodium propionate keeps pH of bread rising, delays the fermentation of the dough; sodium propionate is more widely used for cake, because the pastry gets bulky by using leavening agent, there is no problem about yeast development caused by tincrease in the pH . As a feed preservative, sodium propionate is better than calcium propionate. But Calcium Propionate is more stable than sodium propionate. In food industry , except uses for bread, pastries, cheese, Calcium Propionate can also be used for preventing soy sauce from getting moldy which inhibits the refermentation . In medicine, Calcium Propionate can be made into powders, solutions and ointments to treat skin disease caused by parasitic fungi. Ointment (liquid) contains 12.3% sodium propionate, while a powder contains15% Calcium Propionate.
|Production method||By reacting propanoic acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate : industry generally uses calcium hydroxide as raw materials ,makes calcium hydroxide into the suspension, adds propanoic acid, keeps the reaction temperature maintaining 70-100 ℃, after 2-3 hours’ reaction, controls the end point of the reaction at Ph7-8. The product is obtained after filtering and drying the reaction mass. |
Propionic acid neutralizes calcium hydroxide.
Make Calcium hydroxide powder into suspension in a pot , add propionic acid to a pH 7-8, and a neutralization temperature of 70 ~ 100 ℃, and neutralization time is 2 ~ 3h. Neutralization fluid is filtered to remove insoluble material. The supernatant is concentrated, cooled and crystallized,separated, dried to obtain products.
CH3CH2COOH [Ca (OH) 2] → (CH3CH2COO) 2Ca
|Toxicity grading||Middle toxic
|Acute toxicity||Oral - rat LD50: 3920 mg / kg; Oral - Mouse LD50: 2350 mg / kg
|Flammability and hazard characteristics||It produces acrid smoke after thermal decomposition.
|Chemical Properties||white powder|
|Storage Characteristics||Ventilated, low-temperature ,dry storeroom.
|Extinguishing agent||Water, carbon dioxide, dry powder, foam
|Calcium Propionate Preparation Products And Raw materials|