|Company Name:||J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. |
|Company Name:||Alfa Aesar |
|Sorbitol Chemical Properties|
|Melting point ||98-100 °C(lit.)|
|alpha ||4 º (per eur. pharm.)|
|density ||1.28 g/mL at 25 °C|
|vapor density ||<1 (vs air)|
|vapor pressure ||<0.1 mm Hg ( 25 °C)|
|refractive index ||n20/D 1.46|
|storage temp. ||Store at RT.|
|solubility ||H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless|
|Water Solubility ||SOLUBLE|
|Stability:||Stable. Avoid strong oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture.|
|CAS DataBase Reference||50-70-4(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST Chemistry Reference||Sorbitol(50-70-4)|
|EPA Substance Registry System||D-Glucitol(50-70-4)|
|Sorbitol Usage And Synthesis|
|Product Features||Sorbitol is a non-volatile polyhydric sugar alcohol. It is chemically stable and not easily to be oxidized by air. It is easily soluble in water, hot ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, butanol alcohol, cyclohexanol, phenol, acetone, acetic acid and dimethyl formamide. It is widely distributed in nature plant fruit. It is not easy to be fermented by various kinds of microorganism and have a excellent heat resistance without decomposing even at high temperature (200 °C). It is initially separated from the mountain strawberry by the Boussingault (French) et al. The pH value of the saturated aqueous solution is 6 to 7. It is isomer of mannitol, Taylor alcohol, and galactose alcohol. It has a refreshing sweet taste with sweetness being 65% of sucrose. It has excellent moisture absorption capability with a low calorific value and has very wide range of effects on the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical field. When applied in food, it can prevent the food drying, aging, and can extend the shelf life of products as well as effectively prevent the precipitation of sugars and salts contained in the foods and thus maintain the strength balance of sweetness, sour, bitter and enhance food flavor. It can be synthesize from the hydrogenation of glucose under heating and high pressure with the existence of nickel catalyst.
|Uses||1. Daily chemical industry |
Sorbitol can be used as an excipient, moisturizing agents, and antifreeze agents in toothpaste, with the added amount being up to 25 to 30%. This can help maintain the lubrication, color, and good taste for the paste. In cosmetics field, it is used as an anti-drying agent (substitute glycerol) which can enhance the stretch and lubricity of emulsifier, and thus is suitable for long-term storage; Sorbitan esters and sorbitan fatty acid ester as well as its ethylene oxide adducts having a advantage of a small skin irritation which is thus widely used in the cosmetics industry.
2. The food industry
Adding sorbitol into foods can prevent the drying of food and make food stay fresh and soft. Application in bread cake has a significant effect.
The sweetness of sorbitol is lower than that of sucrose, and can’t be exploited by any bacteria. It is an important raw material for production of sugar-free candy and a variety of anti-caries food. Since the metabolism of the product does not cause increase of blood sugar, it can also be applied as a sweetener agent and nutrient agent for the food of patients with diabetes.
Sorbitol does not contain an aldehyde group and is not easily oxidized. It will not have Maillard reaction with amino acids upon heating. It also has certain physiological activity. It can prevent the denaturation of the carotenoids and edible fats and protein; adding this product to the concentrated milk can extend the shelf life; it can also be used to improve the color, flavor and taste of small intestine and has significant stabilizing effect and long-term storage effect on fish pate. Similar effect can also be observed in the jam.
3. the pharmaceutical industry
Sorbitol can be used as raw material in vitamin C; also can be used as feed syrup, injection fluids, and raw material of medicine tablet; as a drug dispersion agent and fillers, cryoprotectants, anti-crystallizing agent, medicine stabilizers, wetting agents, capsules plasticized agents, sweetening agents, and ointment matrix.
4. the chemical industry
Sorbitol abietin is often used as the raw material for common architectural coatings, also used as plasticizers and lubricants for application in polyvinyl chloride resin and other polymers.
It can from complex with iron, copper, and aluminum ion in alkaline solution to be applied to the washing and bleaching in textile industry.
Using sorbitol and propylene oxide as a starting material can produce rigid polyurethane foam as well as have some flame retardant properties.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
|Content Analysis||Same as "02341, mannitol" method, but the standard was replaced with sorbitol instead of mannitol. |
Total solids content (%) = 100 Moisture (%).
Total hydrogenated saccharide (%) = [100-(Water + reduced sugar% + sulfated ash %)]/(100 water content %) × 100.
Sorbitol content (the same as "02344, sorbitol," ).
|Toxicity||ADI value has no special provision (FAO/WHO, 2001). |
GRAS (FDA, §184.1835, 2000).
LD50:23.3g/kg (mice, oral administration); LD50:15900mg/kg (rat, oral administration).
Long-term daily administration of 40g causes no abnormal issue for people. A dose of over 50g.
|Limited use||FAO/WHO: raisins, 5g/kg; Edible ices and ice drink: 50g/kg (alone or the amount of its combination with glycerol). |
FDA, §184.1835 (2000): 99% hard candy; gum 75%, candy 98%; jams, jellies, 30%; frozen dairy dessert 17%; bakery products 30%; other food 2%.
FEMA (mg/kg): 1300 Soft drinks; cold drink 70,000; candy 21000; bakery 50000; pudding category 8000; sugar-coat 500; top Decorating 280,000.
GB 2760-2000: with the "02319, maltitol."
|The maximal allowed amount as food additives and maximal allowable residue|
|Chemical Properties||It is white and odorless crystalline powder with sweet taste and being hygroscopic. It can be dissolved in water (235g/100g water, 25 °C), glycerin, and propylene glycol; and is slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and phenol and acetamide solution but almost insoluble in most other organic solvents.
|Uses||1. It can be used for humidity-controlling agent, preservative, antioxidants, cosmetics, cigarettes, toothpaste, vitamin C, and raw materials of adhesive agent as well as diuretic and cholagogue. |
2. Its pharmaceutical grade product can be used to prepare injection, infusion and oral granules, etc., Its food grade product can be used in chewing gum, sugar-free candy, etc.
3. It can be used as biochemical reagents, thickening agent and hardening agent, can also be used for synthetic resins and plastics.
4. It can also be used for biochemical studies, titration of boric acid-base, sorbose and vitamin C.
5. It is a special kind of moisturizer functional sweetener. It can’t be converted into glucose inside human body without being controlled by the insulin, and thus being suitable for patients of diabetes. This product also has effects of thickening and chelation. At present time in china, it is mainly used in toothpaste production and the pharmaceutical industry but not frequently applied in the food industry. According to the provision, it can be used in cake with a maximal applied amount of 5.0g/kg; for being applied in surimi and its related products, the maximal applied amount is 0.5g /kg. It can also be used as defoamers, for sugar manufacturing, brewing technology and soy industry with applying proper amount according to necessity of the industry. In foregain countries, it can be also used for keeping the moisture of raisins, for thickening and flavor preservation of wine and soft drinks as well as candy and gum.
6. Sweeteners; humectants (mainly used for patients of diabetes, liver disease and cholecystitis); chelating agents; texturizing agent (for example, it can keep the delicacy of cake and can prevent the aging of starch); raw material for synthetic of vitamin C; glycerin substitutes. Adding it to the drink can cover up the bitterness of sodium saccharin and also enhance the sweetness taste of sweet stuff. EEC can be used for chocolate, candy, ice cream, food coloring diluents agent; efficacy jam; prefabricated cake flour, and paste.
7. It is used as the intermediate of vitamin C.
8. It can be used as sweetening agents; moisturizing agents; chelating agents; texturizing agent; sugar substitutes (for candy, etc.). It can also be used as the raw material of making sorbose and vitamin C; can also be used the diluent of nutrients such as vitamin; as a kind of substitute of glycerol.
9. It is widely used in the food industry. In the pharmaceutical industry, it is used as the raw material of the synthesis of vitamin C. It can also be used as the plasticizer and antifreeze agent during the process of to producing alkyd resin. In the production of toothpaste, tobacco, tanning and ink, it can be used as the substitute of glycerol for being as the moisture control agent. Moreover, it can also be used as the raw material of producing resin and the emulsifier, thickener, dispersing agent and rust inhibitor of explosives.
|Production method||1. Pour the prepared 53% aqueous solution of glucose into the autoclave, adding the nickel catalyst of 0.1% the weight of glucose; after replacement of the air, add hydrogen at about 3.5MPa, 150 °C, and pH8.2-8.4; control the endpoint with residual sugar content being lower than 0.5%. After precipitation for 5 min, put the resulting solution of sorbitol through ion exchange resin to obtain the refined product. Material fixed consumption amount: hydrochloric acid 19kg/t, caustic 36kg/ t, solid base 6kg/t, aluminum-nickel alloy powder 3kg/t, orally administrated glucose 518kg/t, activated carbon 4kg/t. |
2. It is obtained from the hydrogenation of glucose with the nickel catalyst at high temperature and high pressure after which the product is further refined through the ion exchange resin, concentrated,crystallized, and, separated to obtain the final product.
3. Domestic production of sorbitol mostly applied continuously or intermittently hydrogenation of refined glucose obtained from starch saccharification:
C6H12O6 + H2 [Ni] → C6H14O6
Pour the prepared 53% aqueous solution of glucose into the autoclave, adding the nickel catalyst of 0.1% the weight of glucose; after replacement of the air, add hydrogen at about 3.5MPa, 150 °C, and pH8.2-8.4; control the endpoint with residual sugar content being lower than 0.5%. After precipitation for 5 min, put the resulting solution of sorbitol through ion exchange resin to obtain the refined product. The above-mentioned process is simple without the necessity of isolation before obtaining qualified products as well as without "three wastes" pollution. However, for the starch, the yield is only 50%, and thus has a higher cost. Introduction of new technology by direct hydrogenation on starch saccharification liquid can obtain a yield up to 85%.
|Chemical Properties||White crystalline powder|
|Usage||sweetening agent and humectant|
|Definition||ChEBI: The D-enantiomer of glucitol (also known as D-sorbitol).|
|General Description||Odorless colorless solid. Sinks and mixes with water.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||D-Sorbitol is an alcohol. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of alcohols with alkali metals, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. They react with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Oxidizing agents convert them to aldehydes or ketones. Alcohols exhibit both weak acid and weak base behavior. They may initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides.|
|Health Hazard||Hot liquid will burn skin.|
|Sorbitol Preparation Products And Raw materials|