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Nitric acid

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CAS:7697-37-2
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CAS:7697-37-2
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Products Intro:Product Name:Nitric acid
CAS:7697-37-2
Purity:95% Package:500g;1kg Remarks:E14005
Nitric acid Basic information
Product Name:Nitric acid
Synonyms:Acide nitrique;acidenitrique;acidenitrique(french);Acido nitrico;acidonitrico;Azotowy kwas;azotowykwas;azotowykwas(polish)
CAS:7697-37-2
MF:HNO3
MW:63.01
EINECS:231-714-2
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Mol File:7697-37-2.mol
Nitric acid Structure
Nitric acid Chemical Properties
Melting point -42 °C
Boiling point 120.5 °C(lit.)
density 1.41 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density 1 (vs air)
vapor pressure 8 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
Fp 120.5°C
storage temp. 2-8°C
pka-1.3(at 25℃)
form Liquid, Double Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
color colorless to deep yellow
PH<1 (H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility >100 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Sensitive Hygroscopic
Merck 14,6577
CAS DataBase Reference7697-37-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceNitric acid(7697-37-2)
EPA Substance Registry SystemNitric acid(7697-37-2)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes C,O,Xi,T+
Risk Statements 8-35-34-20-41-37/38-36/38-26/27
Safety Statements 23-26-36-45-36/37/39-39-60-28
RIDADR UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany 1
RTECS QU5900000
8
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 8
PackingGroup II
Hazardous Substances Data7697-37-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Nitric acid Usage And Synthesis
Chemical PropertiesColourless clear liquid
Physical propertiesColorless liquid; highly corrosive; refractive index 1.397 at 16.5°C; density 1.503 g/L; freezes at –42°C; boils at 83°C; completely miscible with water; forms a constant boiling azeotrope with water at 68.8 wt% nitric acid; the azeotrope has density 1.41 g/mL and boils at 121°C.
HistoryNitric acid was known to alchemists in ancient times. Cavendish in 1784 synthesized the acid by applying an electric spark to humid air. Earlier in 1776, Lavoisier determined that the acid contained oxygen. In 1798, Milner prepared nitric acid from ammonia along with nitrogen oxides by oxidation of ammonia vapor over red-hot manganese dioxide. In 1816, Gay-Lussac and Berthollet established its composition.
Nitric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals in the world. Its largest use is in the fertilizer industry for producing various nitrate fertilizers. Such fertilizers include ammonium-, sodium-, potassium-, and calcium nitrates. Other major applications of nitric acid are in making nitrates and nitrooganics for use in explosives, gunpowder, and fireworks. Ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, and trinitrotoluenes are examples of such explosives, while barium and strontium nitrates are used in fireworks. NITRIC ACID 635Another major application is in producing cyclohexanone, a raw material for adipic acid and caprolactam to produce nylon.
Nitric acid is a common laboratory reagent. It also is one of the most used oxidizing agents, applied in several organic and inorganic syntheses. Some synthetic applications of nitric acid include the production of diazo dyes, varnishes, lacquers, plastics, polyurethanes, and detergents. Other applications are in metal etching, ore extractions, pickling of stainless steel, rocket propellant, for processing nuclear fuel, as a solvent in aqua regia, for sample digestion in metal analysis by AA or ICP, and in preparing analytical standards.
Concentrated nitric acid used in commerce is not 100% pure nitric acid. It is the constant boiling mixture containing 68% pure acid.
UsesNitric acid is an important starting material for the production of fertilizers and chemicals. Diluted nitric acid is used for dissolving and etching metals Product Data Sheet
UsesNitric acid is an important material for the production of explosives. Concentrated nitric acid, usually mixed with sulfuric acid (mixed acid), is used for nitrating organic compounds. Product Data Sheet
Production MethodsNitric acid may be produced by several methods. In the laboratory, it is prepared by distilling a solution of potassium nitrate in concentrated sulfuric acid containing equal amounts (by weight) of each.
KNO3 + H2SO4 → KHSO4 + HNO3
Nitric acid decomposes to nitrogen dioxide. Therefore, the temperature must be kept as low as possible. During this preparation, nitric acid condenses as a fuming liquid. The pure acid may be obtained when it is collected at –42°C, its freezing point. When nitric acid is collected by condensation at room temperature, it may decompose partially to nitrogen pentaoxide, N2O5, which fumes in moist air. Early commercial processes were based on reaction of Chile saltpeter (NaNO3) with sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid was obtained by distilling the reaction mixture.
Nitric acid also may be obtained by rapid passage of air through an electric 636 NITRIC ACIDarc. The method is based on Cavendish’s first preparation of nitric acid. In this method, nitrogen and oxygen first combine to form nitric oxide. The gaseous product mixture usually containing about 2% nitric oxide is combined with excess oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen pentoxide. Dissolution of these gases in water forms nitric acid. The process, however, is expensive and unsuitable for commercial application.
Currently, nitric acid is manufactured exclusively by catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Platinum or platinum-rhodium is an effective catalyst of this oxidation (Ostwald process). Three basic steps in such ammonia oxidation process are: (1) oxidation of ammonia to form nitric oxide:
4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O
The above reaction is rapid and shifts almost fully to the product side. (2) oxidation of nitric oxide to form nitrogen dioxide:
2NO + O2 → 2NO2
The above reaction also is rapid and goes almost to completion below 150°C. (3) dissolution of nitrogen dioxide in water:
3NO2 + H2O → 2HNO3 + NO
This reaction is moderately exothermic, releasing 32.4 kcal/mol.
Several mechanisms have been proposed for absorption of nitrogen dioxide in water. Nitrogen dioxide readily dimerizes to tetroxide, N2O4, at low temperatures and increasing pressure.
2NO2 ↔ N2O4 ?Hrxn = –13.7 kcal/mol
Absorption of tetroxide in water also could form nitric acid and nitric oxide:
3N2O4 + 2H2O → 4HNO3 + 2NO
Several modifications in plant design and process conditions for ammonia oxidation processes have taken place in recent years. These variations are more or less based on operating pressures and temperatures, reduction of NOx emission and other environmental regulations, and the desired plant production capacity.
Nitric acid obtained in standard ammonia oxidation is usually 50 to 70% by weight aqueous solution. Pure nitric acid of 98-99% may be obtained either by extractive distillation or by direct strong nitric (DSN) processes. In the distillation method, concentrated nitric acid of 50-70% is distilled with 93% sulfuric acid in a steam-heated tower. Sulfuric acid acts as a dehydrating agent. The distilled nitric acid vapor is condensed to pure nitric acid, while sulfuric acid absorbing water from 50-70% nitric acid loses its strength to about 70% and collects at the bottom. The 70% sulfuric acid is concentrated back to 93% NITRIC ACID 637for reuse by removal of water in a sulfuric acid concentrator.
In the DSN process, nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4 obtained from ammonia oxidation is absorbed by concentrated nitric acid in the presence of air or oxygen to yield pure nitric acid. Alternatively, N2O4 may be separated from the product gases of the ammonia oxidation process by refrigeration and then is treated with dilute nitric acid in air or oxygen.
General DescriptionNitric acid is a colorless to yellow or red liquid sometimes fuming reddish brown vapors with a suffocating odor. Nitric acid is soluble in water with release of heat. Nitric acid is corrosive to metals or tissue. Nitric acid will accelerate the burning of combustible materials and Nitric acid may even cause ignition upon contact with combustible material. Nitric acid is fully soluble in water and may react violently upon contact with water with the evolution of heat, fumes and spattering. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations may result in adverse health effects. Density 10.4 lb / gal.
Air & Water ReactionsFumes in air. Fully soluble in water with release of heat. Reacts violently with water with the production of heat, fumes, and spattering.
Reactivity ProfileNitric acid; ignites upon contact with alcohols, amines, ammonia, beryllium alkyls, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick 1979. p.174]. The reaction of finely divided antimony and nitric acid can be violent [Pascal 10:504. 1931-34]. Bromine pentafluoride reacts violently with strong nitric acid and strong sulfuric acid [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:172. 1956]. Experiments show that mixtures of over 50% nitric acid by weight in acetic anhydride may act as detonating explosives [BCISC 42:2. 1971]. An etching agent of equal portions of acetone, nitric acid, and 75% acetic acid exploded 4 hours after Nitric acid was prepared and placed in a closed bottle. This is similar to a formulation for the preparation of tetranitromethane a sensitive explosive [Chem. Eng. News 38: 56. 1960]. Phosphine is violently decomposed by concentrated nitric acid, and flame is produced. Warm fuming nitric acid, dropped in a container of phosphine gas produces an explosion [Edin. Roy. Soc. 13:88. 1835]. An explosion occurs when nitric acid is brought into contact with phosphorus trichloride [Comp. Rend. 28:86]. The reaction of sodium azide and strong nitric acid is energetic [Mellor 8, Supp 2:315. 1967]. Reacts violently with water with the production of heat, fumes, and spattering.
HazardBecause it is a strong oxidizing agent, nitric acid may undergo violent reactions with powerful reducing agents. Many nitration reactions of organics yield explosive products. Pure nitric acid is highly corrosive to skin causing severe injury. Concentrated acid (68.8 wt %) is moderately corrosive to skin. The acid may decompose under heating or photochemically, liberating toxic nitrogen dioxide gas.
Fire HazardNon-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
Tag:Nitric acid(7697-37-2) Related Product Information
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