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1333-82-0 Structure

1333-82-0 Structure

Chromic acid



[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

Chromium trioxide is a dark-red crystalline substance. It is odorless

dark red crystals or powder
[mp ]

196 °C (dec.)(lit.)
[bp ]

330 °C
[density ]

[Fp ]

[form ]


Stable. Strong oxidizer. Reacts with most organic material in a violent and often explosive fashion. Moisture sensitive.
[Water Solubility ]

Highly soluble
[FreezingPoint ]

[Sensitive ]

[Merck ]

[CAS DataBase Reference]

1333-82-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Chromium trioxide(1333-82-0)
[EPA Substance Registry System]

1333-82-0(EPA Substance)
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R45:May cause cancer.
R9:Explosive when mixed with combustible material.
R24/25:Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed .
R26:Very Toxic by inhalation.
R35:Causes severe burns.
R42/43:May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact .
R48/23:Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation .
R50/53:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment .
R62:Possible risk of impaired fertility.
R8:Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
[Safety Statements ]

S53:Avoid exposure-obtain special instruction before use .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S60:This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S36/37/39:Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection .
S28:After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer) .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S22:Do not breathe dust .

UN 1463 5.1/PG 2
[WGK Germany ]


[HazardClass ]

[PackingGroup ]

[HS Code ]

[Hazardous Substances Data]

1333-82-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
【Raw materials】

Sulfuric acid-->Sodium carbonate-->Sodium dichromate dihydrate-->Hexafluorosilicic acid-->SODIUM DICHROMATE-->LEAD(II) SULFATE-->Basic chromic sulfate
【Preparation Products】

2-Amino-6-nitropyridine-->(R)-(+)-2-Tetrahydrofuroic acid-->7-Quinolinecarboxylic acid-->2,5-Dibromobenzaldehyde-->High temperature shift calalyst-->1-(3 5-DIMETHOXYPHENYL)HEPTAN-1-ONE 96-->Propiolic Acid-->6-NITROPYRIDINE-2-CARBOXAMIDE-->CITRONELLIC ACID-->Methyl 3-formylbenzoate-->Deprodone propionate-->2,7-Dibromo-9H-fluoren-9-one-->6-NITROPYRIDINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTER-->Menadione-->6-NITROPYRIDINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID-->AMMONIUM CHROMATE-->5-Nitropyridine-2-carboxylic acid-->DIPHENYLACETALDEHYDE-->4-CHLORO-BUTYRALDEHYDE-->6-NITROPYRIDINE-2-CARBONYL CHLORIDE-->3-METHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXAMIDE-->QUAZEPAM-->Ammonium dichromate-->CORTISONE-->METHYL 3-METHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXYLATE-->Sodium bisulfate monohydrate-->Phenanthrenequinone-->1-Indanone-->carbinol synthesis catalyst-->3-Methyl-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid-->CHROMIUM(III) NITRATE NONAHYDRATE-->LEAD SILICOCHROMATE-->ALLOXAN MONOHYDRATE-->adhesive J-22H-->Murexide-->Cyanoacetylene-->chromium dioxide-->Flutoprazepam-->Norandrostenedione-->Calcium chromate
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[General Description]

A dark purplish red solid. Density 2.67 g/cm3. Melting point 385°F (196°C). Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may explode. Highly toxic. A confirmed human carcinogen.
[Reactivity Profile]

CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE is a powerful oxidizing agent. Can react violently upon contact with reducing reagents, including organic matter, leading to ignition or explosion. Dangerously reactive with acetone, alcohols, alkali metals (sodium, potassium), ammonia, arsenic, dimethylformamide, hydrogen sulfide, phosphorus, peroxyformic acid, pyridine, selenium, sulfur, and many other chemicals [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 852]. Noncombustible but can accelerate the burning of combustible materials. Sufficient heat may be generated from the reaction with combustible materials to ignite the mass. Aqueous solutions corrode many metals rapidly. Often mixed with sulfuric acid to make "cleaning solution" for glass. Used cleaning solution in closed bottles may explode due to the build up of gaseous carbon dioxide arising from oxidation of organic impurities [Bryson, W. R., Chem. Brit., 1975, 11, p. 377].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Deliquescent. Water soluble, giving acidic solutions.
[Health Hazard]

Toxic by ingestion. Inhalation of dust is toxic. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
[Potential Exposure]

Chromium trioxide is used in plating and metal treatment, as a corrosion inhibitor; and as an oxidant; in aluminum anodizing, dye; ink, and paint manufacturing, tanning, engraving; and photography.
[Fire Hazard]

These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some may burn rapidly. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
[First aid]

Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.

UN1463 (anhydrous), Chromium trioxide, anhydrous, Chromium trioxide, anhydrous, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer, 6.1-Poisonous materials, 8-Corrosive material. UN1755 (solution), Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Chromium trioxide is a strong oxidizer. The solution in water is a strong acid. Reacts violently with bases and is corrosive. Contact with reducing agents; fuels, organic chemicals, flammable and combustible materials, causing fire and explosion hazard. This chemical decomposes above 250C to chromic oxide and oxygen with increased fire hazard. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture.
[Waste Disposal]

Reduce to Cr(III). If material cannot be recovered and recycled, dispose of sludge in a chemical waste landfill.
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Chromium trioxide(7738-94-5).msds
Questions and Answers (Q&A)Back Directory
[Physical properties]

Dark-red crystals, flakes or granular powder; bipyramidal prismatic system; density 2.70 g/cm3; melts at 197°C; decomposes on further heating; highly soluble in water, 61.7 g and 67 g/100 mL at 0°C and 100°C, respectively; soluble in sulfuric and nitric acids.

Chromium(VI) oxide is prepared by heating sodium dichromate dihydrate with a slight excess of sulfuric acid in a steel tank or cast iron container: Na2Cr2O7 + 2H2SO4 → 2CrO3 + 2NaHSO4 + H2O The temperature of the mixture is kept above the melting point of chromium(VI) oxide to evaporate water and separate the top layer of sodium bisulfate from the molten chromium(VI) oxide at the bottom. Temperature control and duration of heating is very crucial in the process. Temperatures over 197°C (melting point), or allowing the molten mass to stand for a longer time, may result in decomposition of the product.
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Chemical properties]

It appears as dark red rhombic crystals or purple-red flakes. Soluble in water, alcohol, sulfuric acid and ether, do not dissolve in acetone.
Chromium(VI) oxide

Chromium(VI) oxide is used for chromium plating; copper stripping; as an oxidizing agent for conversion of secondary alcohols into ketones (Jones oxidation); as a corrosion inhibitor; in purification of oil; and in ‘chromic mixtures’ for cleaning laboratory glassware. 1.  It is used for electroplating and the manufacturing of high-purity metal chromium, dyes, synthetic rubber and refined oil, and so on
2. Chromium(VI) oxide is the main raw material of electroplating chrome. During the electroplating chrome production, chromium content has a large fluctuation within the range of 50 to 500 g/L. It should be mainly controlled of the appropriate temperature and current density. It can be obtained in the smooth plating of the bright coating. Its solution can also be used for zinc coating passive film, to improve the protection performance.
3.  It is mainly used for electroplating industry as the raw materials of electroplating chromium used in making bicycles, sewing machines, watches, meters, flashlights and household hardware as well as for the production of high-purity metal chromium. It is the raw materials for the manufacture of chromium oxide green and zinc chrome yellow; is also the raw materials for the production of low-temperature shift catalyst, high-temperature shift catalyst and high-pressure methanol synthesis catalyst. It can be used as mordant in wool fabric dyeing; as oxidant in printing and dyeing industry; also used for wood preservative.
4.  The solution is used for chrome plating
5.  It is used as analytical reagent and strong oxidant, also used in the manufacture of chromate
6.  It is strong oxidizing agent; for determination of carbon and phosphorus; the purification of oil and ethylene; manufacturing of chromium salt.
7.  Oxidants, glass coloring, raw materials for the manufacturing of oxidation catalyst.

Chromium(VI) oxide decomposes to chromium(III) oxide liberating oxygen when heated at 250°C:
4Cr2O3 2CrO3 + 3O2
The red oxide is the acid anhydride of two acids, namely, chromic acid, H2CrO4 or CrO2(OH)2 and the dichromic acid H2Cr2O7. Both the chromic and dichromic acids exist only in the aqueous solution and have not been isolated from the solution. Dissolution of CrO3 in water produces H+ ion along with dichromate ion, Cr2O72– as follows:
2CrO3 + H2O → 2H+ + Cr2O72(red-orange dichromic acid)
The aqueous solution of CrO3 is, therefore, strongly acidic because of this proton release. The Cr2O72– ion in the aqueous solution is susceptable to further decomposition, forming chromate ion:
Cr2O72– → CrO42– + CrO3
In the above reaction the equilibrium, however, lies far to the left. Therefore the chromium(VI) oxide solution also contains trace amounts of chromate ion, CrO42–.
Addition of stoichiometric amounts of caustic soda or caustic potash yields orange dichromate salt which can be crystallized from the solution.
Cr2O72–+ 2Na+ → Na2Cr2O7
If excess base is added to this solution, it turns yellow, and yellow chromate salt may crystallize out. Thus, as mentioned above, in an aqueous solution of CrO3, there is an equilibrium between two Cr6+ species, namely, the chromate and dichromate ions:
2CrO42– + 2H+ → Cr2O72– + H2O Kc = 4.2x1014
The addition of base (OH–) shifts the equilibrium to the left while acidification of the solution shifts the equilibrium to the right in favor of Cr2O72–. In other color/pH relations, red CrO3 is acidic, green Cr2O3 is amphoteric and the black CrO is basic in nature.
In acid medium chromic acid oxidizes secondary alcohols to ketones:
R2CHOH + 2H2CrO4 + 6H+ 3R2C=O + 2Cr3+ + 8H2O
The reaction usually is carried out in acetone or acetic acid. Chromium is reduced from +6 to +3 oxidation state.
Reaction with hydrochloric acid yields chromyl chloride:
CrO3 + 2HCl → CrO2Cl2 + H2O
A similar reaction occurs with HF to yield chromyl fluoride CrO2F2. However, fluorination with F2 yields the oxohalide, CrOF4.
[Production method]

Sulfuric acid method The sodium dichromate solution (70 ° Bé) and 98% sulfuric acid were separately added into the reactor with stirring device, stirred and mixed, and heated and melted by direct fire to produce chromic anhydride and sodium bisulfate. Sulfuric acid by the theoretical amount of about 102% were added, the reaction end temperature should be controlled at 200~205 ℃. When all the materials are melted, stop heating and stirring, leaving the material stratified so the light sodium bicarbonate floated in the upper while the heavier molten chromic anhydride was discharged from the bottom valve of the reactor, further cooled, and solidified for tablets through the drum knotting machine, leading to chromic anhydride products. Its
Na2Cr2O7 + 2H2SO4 → 2CrO3 + 2NaHSO4 + H2O
The molten sodium bisulfate contains a small amount of chromic anhydride and can be solidified into solid to be recovered after cooling; the melted sodium bisulfate can be directly sent into the water (be careful to prevent spill) to dissolve into a solution of concentration of 40~42 ° Bé for the manufacture of basic chromium sulfate.
Its production methods include sulfuric acid, nitric acid, fluosilicic acid, electrolysis. Among them, commonly used is sulfuric acid method. As follows:
The sodium dichromate solution (70 ° Bé) and sulfuric acid (98%) were mixed in a reactor and heated and melted. After all the 190 °C solid matter is melted, the heating is stopped. Stirring of the material is stopped. The chromic anhydride deposited in the lower layer was placed into the rum knotting machine from the bottom of the reactor and coagulated. Pack it to get the final product.

Chromium compounds have local simulating effect on the skin and mucous membrane, being able to cause ulcers. Inhalation of this product can cause nasal septal aerosol cartilage perforation, so that respiratory organs are damaged, and even cause pulmonary sclerosis. The general toxicity appears as the damage in the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. It may also be occurred of conjunctivitis, even causing blind upon in contact with eyes.
Upon nasal mucosa injury, it can be first washed with soap, and then apply ointment to the nose after work and before going to bed. When there is ulceration, it should be stopped to be in contact with chromium for 2 months. When splashed on the skin, immediately rinse with water for 15 min. When there are eczema and dermatitis, it should be locally applied of lotion, dusting and non stimulating ointment. If accidentally fall into the eyes, immediately rinse with water for 15 min or more, and then drop cod liver oil, and then drop 30% of the sulfa acetyl solution. In severe cases, the patients should be immediately sent to hospital for treatment.
The maximum allowable concentration (according to CrO3 dollars) is 0.01mg/m3.
Production equipment should be completely closed and the workplace to be well-ventilated, so that the concentration of chromium in the air can be maintained at a very low level. Production workers should wear overalls, wear masks and use rubber aprons and latex gloves. If there are aerosols in the air, the worker should wear gas masks. At the end of the work, they must take shower with the skin damage place being coated with protective ointment. It should be conducted of a medical examination in advance and rechecked once every two years; add an extra examination every three months.
[Hazards & Safety Information]

Category: Oxidant
Toxicity classification : highly toxic
Acute toxicity : Oral-rat LD50: 80 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 127 mg/kg
Explosive and hazardous properties:  mixed heating, impact and friction with reducing agent, sulfur and phosphorus can cause explosion
Flammability hazard characteristics:  Combustible upon coming across combustible stuff
Storage and transportation characteristics:  Treasury: ventilated, low temperature and dry; store it separately from combustible, organic and reducing agent.
Fire extinguishing agent:  Mist
Occupational Standard:  TWA 0.05 mg (Cr)/m3; STEL 0.1 mg (Cr)/m3
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Chromic acid (1333-82-0) IR1
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Acros Organics]

Chromium(VI) oxide, 99.90%(1333-82-0)
[Alfa Aesar]

Chromium(VI) oxide, Puratronic, 99.99% (metals basis)(1333-82-0)
[Sigma Aldrich]

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