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55268-74-1 Structure

55268-74-1 Structure
IdentificationBack Directory



Usnea diffract
Praziquintel (FDA)
Praziquantel (200 mg)
Praziquantel, Pyquiton
Praziquantel (Biltricide)
Praziquantel for system suitability
4H-Pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, 2-(cyclohexylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-(9CI)

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[MOL File]

[Molecular Weight]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory
[mp ]

136-138 C
[storage temp. ]

[Merck ]

[EPA Substance Registry System]

4H-Pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, 2-(cyclohexylcarbonyl)-1,2, 3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-(55268-74-1)
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

White Solid

Anthelmintic, effective against flatworms.

anthelmintic; EMBAY-8440
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

[Safety Statements ]

[WGK Germany ]


[HS Code ]

Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
【Raw materials】

Acetyl chloride-->Piperazine-->POTASSIUM CYANIDE-->Benzoyl chloride-->Chloroacetyl chloride-->Isoquinoline-->Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid chloride-->3,4-DIHYDROISOQUINOLINE-->Pyrazine-->oxazine-->Hydrogen
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Pharmacology and mechanism of action]

Praziquantel is a pyrazinoquinoline compound originally developed for the treatment of schistosomiasis but has been found to have a wide spectrum of anthelminthic activity. Praziquantel is a racemate but the R (+) enantiomer is solely responsible for its antiparasitic activity. It is active against trematodes (all Schistosoma species pathogenic to man, Paragonimus westermani, and Clonorchis sinensis) and cestodes (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Diphyllobothrium latum) 【1】. The mechanism of action of praziquantel is not clearly known. Schistosomes take up the drug rapidly. Drug uptake is immediately followed by increased muscular activity that proceeds to tetanic contraction and vacuolization of the parasite tegument 【2】. The muscular effects of the drug are presumed to be responsible for the shift of the parasites from the mesenteric veins to the liver in vivo. However, hepatic shift has been demonstrated with most known schistosomicides and may not provide any specific information of the drug’s mechanism of action. Recent experimental findings have suggested that the antischistosomal effects of the drug are related to its effect on the tegument rather than on the musculature 【3】. Another pharmacological effect of the drug includes an increase of membrane permeability to cations, particularly calcium 【4】. However, the role of this effect to the anthelminthic property of the drug is unknown.

Infections caused by Schistosoma species pathogenic to man (Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum and S. mekongi). The drug is most cost-effective in mixed infections. It is also effective for infections with flukes (Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis) and in cestodes (Hymenolepis nana, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia saginata, T. solium) including the larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticercosis). Praziquantel has some effect against fascioliasis, but triclabendazole, a new anthelminthic drug still under clinical evaluation is more effective.
[Side effects]

In large-scale and community-based studies in patients and healthy volunteers, the drug showed only mild to moderate and transient side effects 【5—11】. The frequency and intensity of side effects seemed to be dose related. In one study【10】, the frequency of the side effects were: dizziness (29%), headache (15%), lassitude (19%), pain in the limbs (22%), and abdominal distress (9%). Nausea, insomnia, fever, and non-itching macular eruptions occurred in single patients. 40% of the patients remained free from any side effects. Abdominal colic and bloody diarrhoea due to praziquantel have been reported by others 【12, 13】. Praziquantel has not shown to be mutagenic or carcinogenic 【14, 15, 16】.

Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and dexamethasone have been reported to decrease the plasma concentrations of praziquantel by 10% to 50% 【17, 18】. The clinical relevance of these interactions for the treatment of parasitic infections needs further investigation.

 Biltricide® (Bayer). Tablets 600 mg. Cysticide® (E.Merck). Tablets 500 mg. Cesol® (E.Merck). Tablets 150 mg.
[The treatment of schistosomiasis]

Schistosomiasis is parasitic disease with both human and animal being prone to get infected. Schistosome has a relative complicated life history. Adult parasites live in the mesenteric vein and portal vein blood of people, cattle, pigs and some other mammals, and therefore humans and these animals are called as the adult host or definitive host.
Praziquantel is a kind of common drugs for treatment of schistosomiasis with an extremely small animal toxicity. After its oral administration, it is rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract. The time of the plasma concentration for reaching peaks: 5 minutes for mice, l5~30 minutes for rat, 30 to 120 minutes for dogs, and 2 h for sheep. After its absorption this drug is widely distributed in all tissues and organs; it is even able to penetrate through the blood-brain barrier of rats and can also enter into the bile of dogs. It can induce of influx of the Ca 2+ located outside of the schistosome parasite muscle cell membrane, and thus causing muscle contractures and loss of ability of sucking parasite location. At the same time, it also causes deficiency in sugar metabolism and energy metabolism, disrupting the "With immunization" state and then working together with the host immune system for finally eliminating the parasites. Therefore, it has good killing efficacy in treating China branch schistosomiasis, tapeworm, lung fluke, cysticercosis and also immature parasites (cercariae and miracidia).
The common side effects of praziquantel are as follows:
1. during the first 1 hour of medication of the first time: dizziness, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, aching limbs can occur, usually at a lesser extent and short duration, and does not affect the treatment without specific treatment.
2. in a few cases, there may be symptoms such as heart palpitations, chest tightness, and T wave change and primary contraction in ECG; supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation can sometimes also happen.
3. in a few cases there may be a transient increase in transaminases and toxic hepatitis.
4. it sometimes can induce mental disorders and gastrointestinal bleeding.
5. hernia, allergic reactions (rash, asthma), etc. are also seen.
[Chemical Properties]

It is white or almost white crystalline powder; it is odorless with a slightly bitter taste. It also has hygroscopic effect. Solubility (g/100m1): 9.7 in ethanol, 56.7 in chloroform, and 0.04 in water. It is easily soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), but insoluble in ether. It has a melting point of 136~141 ℃. Acute toxicity LD50 in mice and rats (mg/kg): 2000~3000 oral administration,> 3,000 subcutaneously injection.

It is a kind of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic disease drug. It can be used for the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatid disease, fasciolopsiasis, hydatid disease, and worm infection.
It can also be used as anthelmintic and is effective in treating animal gastrointestinal nematodes. It can be mixed in the feed for application.
The product is a kind of anthelmintic drug effective in treating Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, fasciolopsis buski, tapeworms and cysticercosis. It has a especially strong killing effect on tapeworm and is currently of highest efficiency among anti-schistosomiasis drug.
It is a kind of anthelmintics drug mainly used for treating schistosomiasis. It can also used for treating Fahrenheit schistosomiasis, taeniasis, paragonimiasis, and cysticercosis
[Production method]

There are a variety of synthetic routes (isoquinoline route, piperazine route, and phenethylamine route). Isoquinoline has advantages such as wide sources of initial raw material and low cost. Isoquinoline can be converted to 1-benzoyl-2-cyano-1,2-dihydro-isoquinoline through Reissetr reaction. It is further converted to 1-benzoyl-aminomethyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline through pressurized hydrogenation. Then followed by cyclization with chloroacetyl chloride to give 2-benzoyl-1,3, 4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-2H-pyrazino[2,1-b]isoquinolin-4-ketone. Finally, apply phosphoric acid hydrolysis and perform condensation reaction with cyclohexanecarboxylic acid chloride to obtain the final product.
There are a variety of synthetic routes for industrial production including isoquinoline route, piperazine route, and phenethylamine route, among which the isoquinoline route is the best. In this route, first perform adduct reaction between isoquinoline and benzoyl chloride as well as potassium cyanide, further go through catalytic hydrogenation and rearrangement to generate 1-benzoyl-methyl-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, and then sequentially go through chlorine acetylation, cyclization, hydrolysis under increased pressure, and cyclohexanone acylation to generate the final product.
Take phenethylamine as the raw material, after acylation through chloroacetyl chloride, further introduce the amino group after adding terephthalamide potassium for amination reaction, then have cyclization reaction in the action of phosphorus oxychloride to give 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline derivative; further go through hydrogenation and hydrolysis to obtain 1-aminomethyl-tetrahydroquinoline; successively use cyclohexane carboxylic acid chloride and chloroacetyl chloride for acylation and finally go through dehydrochlorination and cyclization to obtain praziquantel.
You can alternatively use isoquinoline as raw material; it first go through Reissert reaction to introduce a cyano group in l position and have nitrogen benzoylated, followed by hydrogenation while benzoyl group is transferred to the amino group of the side chain, further introduce a chlorine acetyl group to the amino group on the ring, then successively go through cyclization, hydrolysis, cyclohexanone formylation to obtain praziquantel.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Toxic substances
[Toxicity grading]

[Acute toxicity]

Oral rat LD50; 2840 mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50: 2454 mg/kg.
[Flammability and hazardous characteristics]

Combustible; combustion produces toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides.
[Storage Characteristics]

ventilation, low-temperature, and drying.
[Extinguishing agent]

Dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, water spray.

1.Andrews P, Thomas H, Pohlke R, Seubert J. Praziquantel (1983). Med Res Rev, 3, 147–200. 2. Xiao SH, Friedman PA, Catto BA, Webster LT Jr (1984). Praziquantel induced vesicle formation in the tegument of male mansoni is calcium dependent. J Parasitol, 70, 177–179. 3. Xiao SH, Catto BA, Webster LT Jr, Melborn H, Becker B (1984). Effects of praziquantel on different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis, 151, 1130–1137. 4. Pax R, Bennett JL, Fetterer R (1978). A benzodiazepine derivative and praziquantel: effects on musculature of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 304, 309–315. 5. Davis A, Biles JE, Ulrich AM, Dixon H (1981). Tolerance and efficacy of praziquantel in phase IIA and IIB therapeutic trials in Zambian patients. Arzneimittelforschung, 31, 568–574. 6. Davis A, Biles JE, Ulrich AM (1979). Initial experiences in patients with Schistosoma mansoni previously treated with oxamniquine and/or hycanthone: Resistance of Schistosoma mansoni to schistosomicidal agents. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 76, 652–659. 7. Pugh RNH, Teesdale CH (1983). Single dose oral treatment in urinary schistosomiasis: a double blind trial. BMJ, 286, 429–432. 8. Ishizaki T, Kamo E, Boehme K (1979). Double-blind studies of tolerance to Praziquantel in Japanese patients with Schistosoma japonicum infections. Bull WHO, 57, 787–791. 9. Santos AT, Bias BL, Nosenas JS, Portillo GP, Ortega OM, Hayashi M, Boehme K (1979). Preliminary clinical trials with praziquantel in Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Philippines. Bull WHO, 57, 793–799. 10. Zhejiang Clinical Cooperative Research Group for praziquantel (1980). Clinical evaluation of praziquantel in treatment of schistosomiasis japonica. A report of 181 cases. Chin Med J, 93, 375–384. 11. Katz N, Rocha RS, Chaves A (1979). Preliminary trial with praziquantel in human infections due to Schistosoma mansoni. Bull WHO, 57, 781–785. 12. Watt G, Baldovino P, Castro J, Fernando M, Ranoa C (1986). Bloody diarrhea after praziquantel therapy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 80, 345–346. 13. Polderman AM, Gryseels B, Gerold JL, Mpamila K, Manshande JP (1984). Side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in Maniema, Zaire. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 78, 752–754. 14. Frohberg H, Schulze Schenking M (1981). Toxicological profile of praziquantel a new drug against cestode and Schistosoma infections as compared to some other schistosomicides. Arzneimittelforschung, 31, 555–565. 15. Pütter J, Held H (1979). Quantitative studies on the occurrence of praziquantel in milk and plasma of lactating women. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 4, 193–198. 16. Billings PC, Heidelberger C (1982). Effects of praziquantel a new antischistosomicide drug on the mutation and transformation of mamalian cells. Cancer Res, 42, 2692–2696. 17. Bittencourt PRM, Gracia CM, Martins R, Fernandes AG, Diekmann HW, Jung W (1992). Phenytoin and carbamazepine decrease oral bioavailability of praziquantel. Neurology, 42, 492–496. 18. Vazquez M, Jung H, Sotelo J (1987). Plasma levels of praziquantel decrease when dexamethasone is given simultaneously. Neurology, 37, 1561–1562.
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